In this chapter we learn of the work of many humanitarians, who tried hard to get the abolition of the slave trade (slavery) some lead to conditions being improved until finally freedom was given to the black man and his family. It was true the society in Britain was changing in many ways, a new era was there, the use of machines powered by steam production of man made products easier, men and women from all over the country flocked to town to look work, with their low wages they had to buy food Framers there improved their methods of agriculture so to be able to supply more food.
In the earlier times the West Indian planters provided Britain with goods but as the industry grew they could no longer satisfy Britain, whose empire was now spread eastward to Asia: India, Burma and Malaya first did by the Americans and Canada, being not as efficient in the W. I boosted this. Espically with what I call the little sugar revolution there.
During all this slaves became less useful to Britain and made the work of abolitionists easier but there were other issues; with the suffering, lack of education, crime, sickness and hard laboring of women and children in mines a new middle class of managers and business man grew up and cared little about workers once money was made. Persons called reformers just like abolitionists were fighting against problems like this and tried to help.
It was at a meeting of parliament it was brought up questions like “who are our fellow men? And “are factory workers our equal “also at the times a slave Josiah Wedgwood who made china cameos would put on them the question’ Am I not a man and a brother? ’. All this caused heated arguments amongst planters, reformers, humanitarians and industrialists. Many events took place like public meetings of which politicians could not ignore but the planters by these works felt threatened by growing situation because they wanted to keep slaves for as long as possible (and they did for 26 years).
The religious even stated it was wrong because all men were children of god, some humanitarians like Wesley and Cowper who wrote a poem, had open preaching on he subject of slavery as well as the important works of sharp and Wilberforce. As time went on new leaders were made James Stephen, a member of colonial office who used his position to boost Emancipation. Thomas Fowell Buxton the forefront of the movement as William was to old and weak. He argued that Christian principles must override any economic and political considerations on the subject of slavery.
Later in the year 1823 the anti-slavery society was founded more than 200 branches were set up. It did a lot, magazines, lectures on the subject of slavery even gave orders to other active groups. After the passing of the abolition of slavery law in 1807, later it was insisted that planters register their slaves so to prevent the smuggling of any slave it was to be noted age, colour, African or Creole changed only if by the death or birth of a slave. But being that the slaves mistook the register as their freedom which they though their masters wanted to with hold from them.
Still the register did not work out so they tried amelioration (the improving of slave condition) the government agreed planters saw this as a threat to their ‘property rights’. This made it harder to carry out the plan London, Guyana, Trinidad and St. Lucia were the first colonies amelioration was imposed where ever else it was introduced to the other colonies it made no sense for either nothing or so little was done to carry it out by 1826 only Tobago, St.Vincent and St Kitts had done really something to improve conditions. With the arrival of the evangelists, who went into slave villages and among vendors they soon attracted large numbers of slaves described the bible many later attended services and slaves expressed ideas on the gospel.
Most masters thought this dangerous to have slaves think that one day they will have better life (freedom). oon brutal attacks took place on missionaries by the planter class those slaves who worked in the household would over hear conversations; attacks on persons in the missionary, rumors spread then slaves heard one that said Britain wanted to give them freedom but the masters were trying to stop it. Revolts spread like wild fire all blamed on the missionary. The worst of which was in Guyana, Jamaica and Barbados. The reform bill was passed so everyman was allowed to vote. The Emancipation bill came before Parliament.
On July 1833 the bill for the abolition of slavery passed its second reading in the House of Commons and on the 29 August it received the Royal Assent. It toke effect on 1st August 1834. under act 20,000,000 pounds was to be paid to former slave owners as compensation for the loss of their slaves. The act stated some things that would be done before real freedom only Antigua really granted freedom in1834. 31st July 1834 668000 slaves freed but the drunkenness and disorder the planters had xpected did not follow many went to church in thanksgiving and weekend had parades and street dancing even though not full free they knew it was dawning.
Freedom was in the air the seeds sown by the British in 1833 but for Cuban slaves it was 1886 and Brazilian in 1888. In France notion in 1794 the government passed laws abolishing slavery and the slave trade but only Haiti remained independent in 1802 when Napoleon Bonaparte recaptured the others who gained rightfully in 1848 just as Britain a main man became involved in trying to free slaves Victor Schoelcher, who they often call ‘The Wilberforce of France’.
The Dutchmen and Danes are traders more than masters but still the largest Dutch possession was Surinam in which they had their most valuable plantations and the greatest number of slaves it gained a fearful reputation and with the help of many soon after the trade abolished the amelioration finally in 1863 freedom to all Dutch colonies. The civil war between the Americas northern and southern manly because one side wanted the abolition of slavery (north) and the other wanted it to remain.
The fighting raged from1861-1865. At first Lincoln, the president (from 1860 till assassination in1865) appealed for unity but on 12 april1861 south started the war. Slaves there on both sides were said to be freed on 1st January 1863. the war ended Virginia on 9th April 1865 total of 620,000 lives lost. Cuba was granted freedom but was not as voiced as others any talk of abolition could have gotten one exiled but later on machines began to come into play but still planters tried to hang on. vn the forming of anti-slavery society in 1865 made no sense but only in 1870 did the new government say that babies born after that year were said to be freed.
But in1868 Cubans began a ten year war which failed . Puerto Rico had the best luck their masters actually asked for abolition because they soon found times were changing and it was more expensive to keep slaves than pay wages to free people. Soon all off the slaves in the Caribbean and where ever else were granted freedom. And we still are free to this present day.