Maryland: Catholic Haven * Maryland is 2nd plantation colony and 4th English colony * Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore * Created for profit and to create refuge for Catholics * Protestant England still persecuting Roman Catholics * Lived as modest farmers along the Chesapeake * Soon surrounded by resentful backcountry planters who were protestant. * Despite tension Maryland Prospered * Raised Tobacco * Offered free worship Protestants were outnumbering Catholics and were treating to persecute them * Act of Toleration passed giving tolerance to all Christians but allowed persecution of Jews * Act of Toleration did not tolerate anyone who did not believe in Christ. * Helped keep Catholic Minority free * Land was great so people wanted it The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America

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* West Indies were also being colonized * Sugar formed West Indies Economy Sugar was like Tobacco but tobacco was poor man crop, sugar was rich crop * Sugar needed to be made in process * Slaves were brought in and outnumbered white settlers * Slave codes were used to help keep them from revolting * Denies rights and gives masters control * Smaller farmers being nudged out of West Indies went to the Carolinas and brought slaves and they adopted the slave code in Carolina also * This laid down the roots for the South and slaves * Caribbean islands need for etc. Colonizing the Carolinas Civil War in England momentarily stopped colonization while Oliver Cromwell ruled * When Charles II came to power colonization restored with Carolina being named after him * Carolina was officially formed in 1670 by 8 nobles * Carolina prospered by developing close economic ties with flourishing sugar islands of the West Indies * Wanted to set up trade with West Indies * Carolina adopted the slave code and also enslaved and traded Indians from the area * Indians tried to flee but many were killed, also were dying off quickly * The main Export became Rice Was exotic in England * Originally grown in Africa so colonists pay extra for slaves who have grown it * Charles-town became busiest seaport in the south

* Dispute adversity by 1700 Carolina was too strong to wipe out * * The Emergence of North Carolina * North Carolina became a area for the people repelled by Virginia * People were squatters without legal right * Simply had small farms and raised tobacco and other crops * They were poor but sturdy * Restive to authority and referred to as riffraff * North Carolina was split with south in 1712 Most democratic along with Rhode Island colony * Least aristocratic of original 13 colonies * Continued like Southern people to fight with Indians Late-Coming Georgia- the Buffer Colony * Georgia founded in 1733 was the last of 13 colonies, James Oglethrope * It was to serve as buffer to protect Carolinas from Spaniards from the south in Florida and against the French from in Louisiana * Launched by high-minded Philanthropists * Produced silk and wine * Carved out a haven for souls imprisoned for debt * Better than jail * Wanted to keep slavery out of Georgia All Christians except Catholics had toleration * Georgia grew very slowly and was least populated colony * The Plantation Colonies * Plantation colonies were Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia * They were all exporting commercial agricultural products * Most mainly tobacco and rice * Slaves found in all after Georgia reform in 1750 * People ranged from rich to poor * Plantations and farms were far apart making it hard for creation of towns * All had some religious toleration * All had confrontations with Native Americans

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