Historical Background

Bahrain is the lone Muslim state that has a relaxed civilization because it does non use rigorous observation of Islamic jurisprudence on aliens. alternatively. the people and the authorities is western-friendly that is why it is known as “an oasis of liberalism. ” It signifies a good stable state in the Middle East.

Bahrain means “two seas” in Arabic. which may stem from the chief islands natural spring H2O. which seems to as if by magic flux out of such unkind environment. Harmonizing to the people of Bahrain. Two Seas signifies the two beginnings of H2O: the sweet H2O in springs and salty H2O in seas. The Iranian Gulf separates it from the mainland.

Made of several Islands. Bahrain is a first tourer and nightlife finish four Saudis. who frequently make the journey across the span to Manama for a drink of drinks under Bahrain’s cool Oasis like environment. An archipelago of about 36 islands. the state was foremost called by the Sumerians “Dilmun” which signifies ‘the land of the merchandisers and trade. ’ Manama. Bahrain’s major island serves as the nation’s capital and the host of the states international airdrome. it is besides hosts to legion great eating houses. soothing. sea zephyr. discos. and bars.

The Rise of Dilmun Civilization

The island was named Bahrain during the early old ages of the Islamic epoch denoting the full part stretching from Basra to Oman in the South. Its historical records reveals that Bahrain became portion of the Babylonian imperium about 600 B. C. in which. this record referred to Bahrain as “Life of Eternity. ” This autochthonal people were foremost called Bahamah. which were chiefly posterities of Arab Abdul-Quais of Rabe’a” ( History of Bahrain ) . Many historiographers believed that 6000BC when Bahrain was broken off from the mainland and that people started to populate the peninsula during the prehistoric period.

During the pre-Islamic period. Bahrain was considered to hold been torn from the Arabian Peninsula around 6000 BC. Its history was foremost introduced around 3000 BC with the constitution of the Dilmun civilisation during the Bronze Age. which lasted for more than 2000 old ages. Harmonizing to an cyberspace article entitledBahrein: The pre-Islamic Period.Dilmon was developed as a Centre of concern and commercialism every bit early as 3rdmillenary B. C. owing to its location along the trade path that connects Mesopotamia with the Indus vale ( India and Pakistan. today ) .

Dilmun was one of the earliest civilisations. which was mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh as a Eden ; Bahrain was recorded as the “Life of Eternity” and/or “Pearl of the Iranian Gulf” ( @ Ilo Expat ) . It was so an indispensable trade centre runing as a transshipment topographic point from Arabia to India. In his article entitledThe Kingdom of BahrainJiff McBride noted that it was believed that Dilmun extended far beyond the boundaries of what is Bahrain today.

The Decline of Dilmun

McBride besides noted that anterior to the coming of Islam. Bahrain was identified by its Grecian name of Tylos. the term that pertained to the Persian Gulf seashore of Arabian mainland ; and was thought to be celebrated for its pearl during the first century AD. However. in 2000 B. C. . the civilisation of Dilmun had declined because the trade that sustained Bahrain had stopped. Since Dilmun ceased from the scene. invasions coming from everyplace began to rule the state.

Assyrian Claimed the Island

From 750 B. C. . an Assyrian male monarch claimed its ownership of Bahrain after its gradual diminution because its trade with India discontinued. This event has led to Babylonian invasion of the land. in which there was no complete history of historical mentions for this section until the reaching of Alexander the Great in 4Thursdaycentury B. C.

Iranian Conquered Bahrain ( 4Thursdayto 7Thursdaycentury )

It is noted that the reaching of Alexander the Great had brought Bahrain into being. Alexander’s invasion of Bahrain had brought many alterations to its people. From three hundred B. C. to three hundred old ages A. D. . the article noted that Bahrain was comfortable but was under the influence and was often ruled by the Persian. However. the article cited that from the 3rd and 4th century AD the people of Bahrain adopted a new religion. the Christian religion. The article pointed out that many people adopted the Nestorian religious order of Christianity and it became good established on the Arabian part of the Gulf by the early 5Thursdaycentury.

Furthermore as stated in the article. church record reveals that Bahrain was the place of two Nestorian dioceses bing on the Arabian side of the Gulf prior to the coming of Islam that was believed to hold survived until 835 AD. Harmonizing to McBride. with the reaching of Mohammed in the Gulf in 640 A. D. . he sent a missive to the swayer of Bahrain promoting him to accept Islam. which he did. non long afterwards. Therefore. Christians and Muslims coexist peacefully in Bahrain since so even today. Harmonizing to an cyberspace article entitledBahrain.the people of Bahrain were proud of the fact that they were among the first districts that outside mainland Arabia to accept Islam peacefully.

The Coming of Christianity

Christian religion came to Bahrain during the 3rd and 4th century A. D. Harmonizing to a papers ( Nestorian. org ) . many dwellers of Bahrain adopted the Christian religion and that during the 5th century ; a Nestorian religious order of Christianity was good established in the Gulf prior to the coming of Islam. Harmonizing to the history of Bahrain. Christianity left its hints in Muharraq. and in some small towns named after a bishop or with a Christian name. Ayesha Saldanha even pointed out that prior to the reaching of Islam. Bahrain was the ‘centre of Christianity’ possibly in the Gulf part. She noted that Bahrain was the place of two Nestorian Dioceses during the clip of the reaching of Islam.

The Coming of Islam and the Islamic Belief

Bahrain was among the first to encompass Islam peacefully through the invitation of Prophet Mohammed himself to the Bahrain swayer to accept Islam. Bahrain officially embraced in the eight twelvemonth of Islamic calendar ( hejra ) came under the Islamic control in 1783 after the Khalifa household droved out the opinion Persians out of the state.

Harmonizing to the history of Bahrain. Bahrain became the chief Centre of understanding for centuries get downing from the early yearss of Islam in the 6th century. During this clip. Islam is a spiritual belief that God revealed to the Prophet Mohammed the regulations regulating the society and the behavior of its members. It teaches that single should populate in a mode approved by the revealed jurisprudence and functioning the community to make a perfect human society ( Bahrain ) .

Bahrain embraces a faith that recognizes no spiritual difference between the province and faith. The development and spread of Islam in Bahrain leads the state to go Islamic province encompassing the whole instructions of Islam as contained in the five pillars of Islam. which determines the necessary Acts of the Apostless that reinforced the religion. The five pillars of Islam are theShahadaor the recitation “there is no God but God ( Allah ) . and Muhammad is his prophet”Salator the day-to-day supplication.Zakator the call to alms giving.Sawmor the call to fasting. andHajjthe call to pilgrim’s journey.

The Qarmatian Republic

During the 9Thursdayto 11Thursdaycentury. McBride noted that Bahrain became portion of the two viing Iranian imperiums and the people became a dependably Shiite Muslim Community one time more due to the Iranian influences. but it appears that during this clip besides. Bahrain was good governed and booming and became a vivacious port on the trade path between Middle East and India. Bahrain became portion of both the Umayyad and the Abbasid imperiums and had gain economic progresss under good administration by these Muslim opinion households.

The Bedouin Sunni Dynasty ( 1487-1602 )

However. during the in-between ages. Bahrain experienced frequent leading alteration as it was caught in different spat between the tribal sheik in the Gulf who had been contending invariably with another. Finally in 1487. Bahrain was invaded and finally conquered by Oman. which built a garrison in which its ruins can still be seen today. From the 1500s until they were driven out by the Bahrainis.

The Invasion of Portuguese in Bahrain ( 1521 – 1602 )

Lusitanian conquered Bahrain in early sixteenth century by Commander Antonio Correia by decapitating the male monarch of Bahrain. The invasion is done to use the island as a pearling port and military defence force. The Portuguese were in the gulf as they used the garrison to protect their trade paths among Africa. India. and Europe. consisting more than a century of populating the state.

They strengthened the garrison by raising new rock towers. this forts is now widely known as the Portuguese garrison. However. due to ruthless error of seting to decease the brother of one of the island’s wealthiest bargainers. the Portuguese and other Europeans were driven out of the island because of the rebellion of the people with the military aid of the Persians. The Lusitanian colonized the state for 80 old ages utilizing a barbarous force that compelled the people to take weaponries against them.

Possibly due to the fright of Lusitanian reprisal. Bahrain begged for protection from the Persians. this so set them once more under Persian control. From the early 1870s. the Al-Khalifa. Bahrain’s governing household from Kuwait. drove out the Persians and occupied the chief islands and had became the swayer of Bahrain until today.

Persia Rules Bahrain ( 1602 – 1783 )

Bahrain foremost came under the Iranian regulation in in the 3rd century A. D. with the coming of the Sassanians. a Iranian Dynasty. which held the country until the coming of Islam four centuries subsequently. Under the Sassanians. Iranian influence on the Gulf was strengthened extinguishing the menace posed by Oman. Harmonizing to an cyberspace article entitledIranian Gulf States- Historical Settingthe Sassanians were powerful and they had established agricultural settlements and were strong plenty to prosecute other mobile folks in the inside.

This agricultural and military promotion has brought the Gulf people broad exposure to Iranian civilization. peculiarly in the Iranian beliefs in Zoroastrianism. The wining centuries saw different powers that controlled Bahrain and the whole Gulf country. For more than a century. the Portuguese viciously controlled Bahrain but they were driven out of the part with aid of the Persians. From the 16th century Bahrain drifted between two powers that laid control of the archipelago. the Portuguese. and the Iranian civilisation. With the ejection of the Portuguese Bahrain one time once more was under the control and influence of the Persians.

Some Archaeological Facts about Bahrain

Many archaeological findings have been uncovered about Bahrain. which are dated four or five thousand old ages B. C. ; merely in 1960s were these excavated civilisation have been found out ( Explorer ) .

The most popular digging in Bahrain is the Burial Mounds that was dated during the period of Dilmun. Tylos. and Helenistic about 1000s old ages B. C. This grave was the largest and concrete illustration of the building methods and the arrangement of dead organic structures in the Gravess including some articles that were buried along the corpse were shown in the National Museum.

Another attractive force is the Saar Settlement dated from 2000B. C. This site presents the remains of many little houses structurally aligned on roads that lead to the chief temple. The site has some stuffs such as pots. and Dilmun seal that were used during that period.

The Barbar Temple is dated around 2200 B. C. which shows the ancient beliefs of the people and their patterns. Developments can be notified since it has “legendary abysm of subterraneous Waterss of Enki. the God of spring Waterss. ”

The People of Bahrain and Khalifa Family

The people of Bahrain were called Baharnah who were believed to be posterities of the tribe Abdul-Qais of Arab beginning ( History of Bahrain ) . They were originally idol believers but in the 7Thursdaycentury they were overturned at the oncoming of the Muslim in the country. The name Awal was called to Bahrain to acknowledge that Bahrain was heathen god believers in the Islamic epoch.

For more than a century. Bahrain was under the regulation of the Persian who had brought considerable economic betterment and cultural influence with its people. However. the Iranian regulation was put to stop in 1782 by the Khalifa household after they captured Bahrain from the Persians. The Al Khalifa household foremost settled on the island of Bahrain in 1782. Harmonizing to Yitzhak Nakash. the Al Khalifa conquering of Bahrain came after a dearth had forced the household to go cardinal Arabia to travel about eastward. They were wanderers or roamers. Prior to their reaching in Bahrain. the Al Khalifa was stationed in Kuwait.

During this clip. Bahrain was under the regulation of the Iranians since 1602 after the ejection of the Portuguese. although the existent administration was done by the Arab folk under the provincial governors in southern Iran. During the Al Khalifa conquest. Bahrain was governed by the Arab Madhkur household in the name of the Shah. The success gained by the Al Khalifa in the monopoly over the pearl trade. and their crossing to Bahrain trade provoked the opinion Sheikh Nasr Madhkur to war against the Al Khalifa which led to the decease of an Al Khalifa member. Finally in 1783. Sheikh Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al Khalifa attacked and defeated the Madhkur ground forces and finally conquered Bahrain. Nakash pointed out that since so. the Al Khalifa ruled Bahrain from their central offices in Zubara.

Until the early 1800s the regulation of the Al Khalifa was ne’er secured. In 1800. the grand Turk of Oman invaded the islands and from 1802 up to 1811the Al Khalifa was under the Al Sa’ud. It was merely in 1861 that the Al Khalifa’s regulation was fortified after the British authorities guaranteed the security of their districts. Bahrain and the British authorities signed a pact in 1861. 1880. and 1892 vouching British associated state of Bahrain that lasted until 1971 when Bahrain eventually gained their independency.

Get downing the early 18th century. nevertheless. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab. has been naming Muslims to encompass Islam based on the Sunni instructions. and he made an confederation with the swayer of Dir’iyya. an oasis market in Najd which finally lead to the formation of the first Saudi province in 1745to 1818. From this confederation. the Al khalifa Sunni Muslim minority became the dominant Muslim party in Bahrain over the Shi’is who was so the bulk.

The Al Khalifa conquering of Bahrain had been written in the annals of the history of Bahrain as the most of import as the Al Khalifa regulation had non merely convey the people of Bahrain tremendous economic wealth. the Al Khalifa besides brought them stable peace. international exposure and a strong spiritual and cultural orientation. Today. Bahrain proudly stands as a loyalist of advancement. democracy. and religionism. The opinion As Khalifa household has justified their conquering of Bahrain and competently led the state towards advancement and towards a respectable position in the international community of states in the 20 first century.


Bahrain’s history has provided many of import sections of the world’s history. which leads the heads of those who come across this history to appreciate the country’s history. Although most of these past sections of Bahrain’s battle was painful as the state was frequently under the foreign control. yet. the state continued to see economic prosperity and the people flourished. which proved that Bahrain was so “land of the merchant”

Bahrain’s history besides offer a glance of cognition into the universe history peculiarly the how the great leaders of the universe regarded the Arabian peninsula in their quest to rule the known universe. Bahrain’s history surely occupied of import pages of the world’s history.

Work Cited


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Naksh. Y. ( 2006 )Reaching for Power: The Shi’a in the Modern Arab World

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Iranian Gulf States – Historical scene

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Saldanha. A.Bahraini History 101

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