Rio de Janeiro: Political Structure and Parties
Rio de Janeiro was the capitol of Brazil from 1763 to 1960. During this period, Brazil existed as a Lusitanian settlement ( 1763 to 1822 ) and Rio de Janeiro political relations were dictated by a colonial “ governor ” , this was followed by an independent Brazil ruled by a fundamental law monarchy ( 1822 to 1888 ) , and as a Brazilian Republic from 1888 to 1960. In 1960 the Brazilian capitol was moved to the freshly built and more centralised metropolis of Brasilia. During the last military regulation of Brazil ( 1964 to 1985 ) , Rio de Janeiro became a city/state ( State of Guanabara ) of Brazil. But, in 1975, Rio de Janeiro lost its federative position and became the capitol of the province of Rio de Janeiro.
In 1985, the military backed authorities found itself in the thick of serious recession, rampant rising prices, and public discontent. Confronting possible rebellion, the military backed authorities allowed peaceable, free democratic elections and a coalitionof center-rightist assumed power with left-of-center parties as the resistance. Soon after, the democracy, free of military influence, was re-established in 1988 and Brazil declared itself a Federal Republic with a new fundamental law. The new federation consisted of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Prefectures ( Municipalities ) . The executive and legislative subdivisions were organized independently within these entities, but the bench was organized merely at the federal and province degrees. Rio de Janeiro is a Prefecture within the province of Rio de Janeiro.
There, at present, are now four major political parties that dominate Brazilian and Rio de Janeiro political relations: the Workers ‘ Party ( PT ) , which is a center-left, social-democratic party and recognized as one of the largest and most of import leftist leading motions of Latin America ; the Brazilian Social Democracy Party ( PSDB ) , a centrist/center-left political party ; the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party ( PMDB ) , a middle of the roader party including a scope of progressives ; and the Democrats ( once PFL ) .
Until elections in 2010, the President of Brazil is Luiz Inacio Lula district attorney Silva of the PT. The President appoints the Curates of State, who assist in regulating. Legislative houses in each political entity are the chief beginning of Torahs in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation ‘s bicameral legislative assembly, dwelling of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary governments exercise jurisdictional responsibilities about entirely.
The Prefecture of Rio de Janeiro ( Mayor and Municipal Chamber ) has duty for urban planning, proviso, and care of urban substructure, instruction, public wellness and health care, municipal markets, the environment and municipal waste direction. It operates through independent organisations in the countries of public conveyance ( coachs ) , some urban planning, public lodging, and friendly societies for local public retainers.
The Prefect ( Mayor ) has municipal executive municipal executive power and is responsible for the political leading of the Prefecture while replying to the Municipal Chamber. The city manager appoints Secretaries and Advisors to his cabinet to supervise the executive maps of his office. The city manager is straight elected by a two-round bulk system for a four twelvemonth term.
The Rio de Janeiro Municipal Chamber, comprised of 46 counsellors ( overeaters ) , is the ultimate municipal organ. It exercises legislative maps in local issues, the constitution of revenue enhancements, monetary value finding, budgets, urban planning, land usage, etc. It has authorization for commanding the political and administrative activity of the Prefecture. The members are elected from a system of relative territories for four-year footings
Noteworthy, by its absence among the duties enumerated, is jurisprudence enforcement. There are metropolitan constabulary and “ tourer ” constabularies who manage traffic, the beaches, street sellers, and the similar ; nevertheless, all violent offense, drug trafficking, public violence control, presentations, etc. all autumn under the umbrellas of the province and federal ( military ) constabulary.
At present, presuming office in 2008, the prefect of Rio de Janeiro