Introduction

Life is largely viewed as a uninterrupted experience. Consequently, the most important facet of the ocean trip is sing it to the fullest. Happiness originates from the attempt to populate pleasingly every bit good as successfully despite the uneventful worlds of life. Nevertheless, each mind considers that his or her ain position on what pertains worthwhile life is the most appropriate ( Philosophy survey usher, 171 ) . Under normal province of personal businesss, life is considered more cherished than felicity or involvements of that province. This is due to the fact that without life, all the other constructs will go unrealistic. Therefore, an person ‘s life is taken as more valuable than any other existing constituent. Nevertheless, a argument on the most important attack on life has remained inconclusive over much clip ( David, 1996 ) .

The construct of freedom and rights in ancient Grecian Doctrine

Socrates and Confucius are two major philosophers who tried to develop the relationship between the person freedom, rights and the province control ( Philosophy study usher ) . Harmonizing to Beck “ both Confucius and Socrates lived in civilizations where familial privilege was the chief factor in societal position. Neither of them was highly high-born, but they surely were non provincials either ” ( Beck, 2010 ) .Socrates contributed much on political treatment, he did non prosecute in political calling. He was so much concerned with how province Torahs were implemented in metropolis life manner, which determined a healthy relationship between the citizens and the province. However, this relationship should non be forced or coerced on them instead it should come of course.

Both Socrates and Confucius instructions ‘ were interested in acquiring involved with the right things and warranting what they considered as right ( Philosophy study guide,171 ) .This is why they both “ stressed the value and importance of ideals and portrayed the ideal province in the thick of assorted predominating authoritiess which were far from perfect. They criticized their unfair patterns and diagnosed their jobs. Socrates seems to hold gone into more item in defining the different types of authorities ” ( Beck 2010 ) . But Confucius went farther by learning about the importance of ego control and temperature. It taught about the ideals of societal controls and proper behaviour.

Beck maintains that “ for Socrates and the Greeks personal behaviour was focused more on the person as his ain duty of self-discipline and did non widen so strongly into the societal surroundings. The regulations of properness were designed to convey harmoniousness in relationships, while moderation is concerned with the harmoniousness within the person ” ( Beck 2010 ) .This shows how single freedom and rights played an of import function in the head of the Greeks. Of class, the State is of import but excessively is single autonomy. However, both work forces emphasized the demand for promotion of cognition. This cognition is to be taught in schools and public topographic points.

Confucian doctrine it today, being practiced in Japan, Korea and China. It puts much accent on acquisition and educational values but copying the maestro instructor ‘s words and workss. Education is hence, being used to rectify some indecent behaviour from the ethical positions ( Philosophy study usher ) . The ideals of Confucius doctrine has been translated into human behaviour and values in the Far eastern societies. Taking the lessons from the Socratic and Confucius political orientation, this doctrine emphasizes the demand to pattern virtuousness and temperature at all times, therefore avoiding clash and roseola actions ( Beck, 2010 ) .

Christian religion and single rights

Christianity was born in Palestine at the clip of Roman colonial regulation. The relationship between Christianity and the State was slightly non healthy, as these two entities frequently collided both in rule and pattern. Bing a Roman Citizen at the clip would integrate many duties and functions which one needed to follow. However, the Romans were considered to be atheists for their insisting on emperor worship. Roman Citizens were commanded by the jurisprudence to publically follow and idolize the cultic figures that represented the Roman Gods. This worship was characterized through private and public worship and giving of forfeits in particular topographic points and temples

However, for many old ages intellectuals and philosophers began to oppugn this cultic worship. Roman Citizens were required to execute some rites, supplications and forfeit to company their worship. Through this worship all citizens were obliged to confirm their commitment to the emperor. Christians refused to follow the demands of the province to follow the worship of demi Gods of Roman faiths. As a consequence, this refusal led to the persecution of Christians who insisted in idolizing their lone God and Lord Jesus Christ. Christians decided to populate in different set of life manner which is different from the spiritual establishments of the Roman Empire and its societal environment.

Happiness stems from the religious life perceptual experience. Life is viewed as the higher authorization ‘s modesty. Therefore, world is meant to populate in conformity to the most high ‘s dictates ( Hanson, 2001 ) . Many old ages, Christian theologists and theologists have tried to cope with the construct of the State and the Church. There are those who believe that the Church and State are mere sides of the same coin and hence, Church leaders should be involved inn the personal businesss of the State. This position was mostly developed by theologists such as Martin Luther, Zwingli and John Calvin ( Stumbaugh & A ; Balch, 1996 ) .

It is through this theological idea that led to State Churches such as the Church of England and Lutheran Churches that are normally found in the Norse states. On the other manus, there are those theological positions which holds that Church is supreme over the State because it subscribes to the higher to a great extent powers. It is this Godhead authorization which makes many churches to reason that they subjected to divine power and non province control. Those theologists who subscribes to this thought argue that the State is in subordinate place to Church. Through out the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church position developed the impression that Church and State must be separate or stay separate entities. This idea besides advocates that State and Church that must non merely stay separate but is besides independent of one another ( Bramsted & A ; Melhuish, 1978 ) .

Most of theologists hold the position that Church and State different entities and have different beginnings. The Church owes its beginning and commitment to God and hence Christian followings need to show their commitment from God. Whereas the State, is seen as the Godhead establishment that has been put in topographic point by God for human Society to exert power and authorization of human existences. However, the Church has no control over work forces, but can merely appeal to their heads, Black Marias and scrupless. As a consequence, those who have accepted to be under the regulation of the Church must adhere to Cannon Torahs, regulations and ordinances ( Stumbaugh & A ; Balch, 1996 ) . In this instance, the church would exert authorization over them, command their behaviour forms, ideas and lives. The Church besides has the power to rectify, warn or even discipline those who contrary to the regulations of their religion.

The construct of freedom and rights in modern European doctrine

Modernity is considered to be the period between 1750 to late sixtiess. The development of thoughts in the western universe is closely connected with the philosophical ideas of their twenty-four hours. This period was associated with enlightenment thought frequently associated with scientific advancement, technological promotion and industrial revolution. This new thought permeated societal thought, values and dealingss. One those of those philosophers who contributed greatly to the development of enlightenment thought in relation to single freedom and rights were Jean Jacques Rousseau. Jean Jacques Rousseau, who lived between the old ages 1772 to 1778, is one of those philosophers who committed his life to follows the ideal of autonomy during his political calling. He followed the political line of republican persuasions and sympathized with the Republican ideals. He argued that the coming of western civilisation corrupted the goodness of human nature ( Friend, 2004 ) .

He emphasized that advancement in the humanistic disciplines and scientific disciplines contributed to moral devolution and the decay of modern societies. He argued that human existences existed because they live societal groups that subsequently produced inequality. And hence, one time people begins to populate in fixed dealingss like societal groups, the quest for freedom Begins to emerge because they want to liberate themselves from societal bondages and oppressive societal contracts. Therefore, this is the beginning of societal inequalities and subjugations. Refering Civil Society, Rousseau argues that it was founded by the individual or people who emerged by enveloping people in groups. Then it claimed ownership over the piece of land. Therefore, civil society has been used by persons to warrant and keep dealingss in belongings, which is based on inequality and associated moral decays ( Friend, 2004 ) .

However, although people have the will to take what is right for them, it is of import for everybody to put aside their ain personal and ethno-cultural involvements for the common good of others. Although, the construct of common end is of import, most bookmans believe that it leads to a signifier of dictatorial leading or autocratic leading. It besides leads to dictatorship of the bulk. The other European who developed this construct of the rights of adult male is Thomas Paine. He advocated for the rights of adult male theory was about the defence of the Principles of Gallic Revolution.

The other philosopher who contributed to the development of single freedom was Thomas Pain. Harmonizing to Paine, human existences are born with equal, human rights even though they do non populate isolation with others in the society. Every human being has the right to populate in freedom and bask the benefits of cooperation with others in the society. However, this is non frequently realized, in our societies because these rules are frequently violated because human existences are non perfect. They have imperfect and of course disadvantaged nature that ever wants to make evil.

Paine argued hence, that the natural rights of all people can merely be secured when people learn to lodge those rights which they can non continue as single human existences. However, the province has the overall of the person ‘s life particularly when it comes to turn toing the issues of force against humanity. The province besides has the overall rights over the protection against the injury of others. To him, it is merely the province that has the authorization to guarantee the stableness of our societies. This means that a legitimate authorities must be based on the construct of people regulation for the interest of the people ( Friend, 2004 ) . This type of authorities is what is frequently refereed to as democracy. It is merely the democratic authorities that can be considered as a legitimate signifier of authorities which represents the rights of the people. Democratic authoritiess are meant to support and protect the rights of single human existences and procure the security of all citizens ( Bramsted & A ; Melhuish, 1978 ) .

The construct of freedom and rights in the station modern universe positions

Much of the western civilization resulted from the matrix of the enlightenment period. It promoted the attitude of tolerance towards others and comparative position towards belief of any clip. The Enlightenment philosophy promoted so philosophy of individuality, purporting that persons are free, liberated and must move in liberty. The basic rules democracy is based on the impression of authorities consent, in other words, it is about people centered authorities that is elected by people for the people. The power given to people derives from the electorates. The construct of single rights to freedom has attracted tonss unfavorable judgment from the rational communities and philosophers. The Marxist philosopher argues that the rights of single go contrary to societal advancement because they are non in line with cultural or historical relativity ( Bramsted & A ; Melhuish, 1978 ) .

Postmodernism rejected the enlightenment positions that characterized much of so 18th to 19th century. Post modernism promoted the impression of pluralism, individuality and relativism. It rejected the impression of one bluish print or overall dominant subject that dictates the thought of adult male. Alternatively, it calls for the plural signifier of human dealingss. It opposes the impression of meta-narratives and calls for one many narrations in spread outing human narrative. Contrary to the Enlightenment theory, station modernism attacks this construct of development or advancement or the so called impression of forward lucifer of history. Therefore, the rules of justness, freedom and rights in the postmodern universe position are really much fragmented. It is besides socially constructed depending on the societal, economic, cultural and political contexts. The World western largely exercise liberalism which is based on freedom and rights of single human existences. This is why post modernism is frequently in loggerhead with modern enlightenment theory ( Bramsted & A ; Melhuish, 1978 ) .

However, the Liberal individuality which subscribes to Liberal democracy promotes the ideals of civil and political autonomies. Civil autonomy is large motion in the USA that pressures for the rights of Citizens. The theory of rights advocators for the rights of others and every bit good as their ain. Such rights include life and autonomy of others. This position has developed into human rights motion that taken Centre phase in the universe of political relations recommending for cosmopolitan human rights. Liberalism emphasizes the value of cosmopolitan freedom and widely distributed citizenship. This position argues that persons are allowed to expose typical committedness to their personal lives but non to implement them others. Civil autonomies besides argue that the authorities has no right to infiltrate into their personal lives. This means that we all have the rights to populate a peaceable and free life without intervention from the province ( Bramsted & A ; Melhuish, 1978 ) .

Decision

This paper has attempted to reply the inquiry whether it most of import to value one ‘s ain life, felicity and involvement or to obey the higher authorization of the province. It is question which address the inquiry of single freedom and rights. Individual freedom and rights are two constructs that are intertwined together. One can non make without the other. The construct of freedom is frequently associated with being released from the external controls whereby one thinks that they are non held accountable or responsible to the others. These two positions have been really combative for many old ages as bookmans contend with them. Get downing with the Grecian philosophers such as Socrates and Confucius, single freedom and rights were discussed in more inside informations. These philosophers taught that although we are free agents were are still subjected to human control and administration. This means that we are still obliged to follow the regulations and ordinances of the province.

However, the issue of obeying the province and its edicts is what caused much clash between the church and the province. For many old ages, the first century was persecuted by the Roman authoritiess for now disobeying the emperor ‘s orders on cultic worship. This factor was taken board by theologists for many old ages latter as to whether the church is free from the powers of the province. This is besides implied as to whether so Christians are free from following the regulations and ordinances ordered by the province.

During the enlightenment period assorted ideas began to emerge refering the issue of single freedom and right from modern Europe philosophers. These discourse produced farther arguments on liberalism, democracy and human rights. Following the terminal of modernness the postmodern paradigm began to emerge to give different positions to those 1s held by modernness minds. The station modern head position argues that there is one met narrations, that we all have our narratives of what is right and incorrect, we should follow what is appropriate for us. I would non subscribe to any of these positions but a mixture of both. I would wish to reason that single freedom is at that place, but we have to be accountable to what we do to others. Our construct of freedom, rights and felicity must be inline with the Torahs of our societies.

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