STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE IN REVIEW

Mean ( X ) is a step of cardinal inclination and is the amount of the natural tonss divided by the figure of tonss being summed. Standard divergence ( SD ) is calculated to mensurate scattering or the spread of tonss from the mean ( Burns & A ; Grove. 2007 ) . The larger the value of the standard divergence for survey variables. the greater the scattering or variableness of the tonss for the variable in a distribution. ( See Exercise 16 for a elaborate treatment of mean and standard deviation. ) Since the theoretical normal curve is symmetrical and unimodal. the mean. average. and manner are equal in the normal curve ( see Figure 18-1 ) . In the normal curve. 95 % of the tonss will be within 1. 96 standard divergences of the mean. and 99 % of tonss are within 2. 58 standard divergences of the mean. Figure 18-1 demonstrates the normal curve. with a. X = 0. The expression used to cipher the 95 % regulation to find where 95 % of the tonss for the normal curve prevarication is: X±1. 96 ( SD )

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The expression used to cipher the 99 % regulation to find where 99 % of the tonss for the normal curve prevarication is:
X ± 2. 58 ( SD )
FIGURE 18-1 • The Normal Curve
Mean
Median
Manner

Standard divergence -3
Zscore
-2. 58

-+2. 58

131

133

Mean. Standard Deviation. and 95 % and 99 % of the Normal Curve

Exercise 18

Participants reported a net addition in weight from 3 months prior ( M= 2. 4 Ib. SD – 12. 9 Ib ) and 12 months prior ( M = 10. 9 Ib. SD = 19. 1 Ib ) and that their weight was greater than their ideal weight ( M = 9. 2 Ib. SD = 22. 9 Ib ) . SDs for the informations indicated a broad scope on weight at both 3 and 12 months before engagement in the survey.

Body image tonss ( 0-100 graduated table ) were significantly ( F ( 1 37 ) = 5. 41. p = . 03 ) higher for adult females ( 73. 1 ± 17. 0 ) than work forces ( 60. 2 ± 17. 0 ) . Although HIV-positive participants had somewhat higher organic structure image tonss ( M = 68. 0. SD = 17. 0 ) compared with participants with AIDS ( M = 60. 5. SD = 18. 8 ) . there was no important difference ( F ( 1. 7. = 1. 56. p — . 22 ) in organic structure image scores between [ those with HIV and AIDS ] . There was a weak. but important. inverse association between organic structure image mark and weight alterations from 3 months prior ( R = – . 30. p = . 04 ) . Body image and weight tonss are summarized in Table 1? ( Corless et al. 2004. p. 294 ) .

Table 1

Body Image and Weight Measures for Men and Women
Gender
Male

Female

Mean

Body image
Weight alteration last 12 months
Weight alteration last 3 months
Weight relation to ideal
Body weight ratio

South dakota

Mean

South dakota

60. 22
10. 26

16. 98
22. 40
15. 87
22. 93
33. 97

73. 07
11. 94
1. 47

13. 63

14. 44
67. 56

22. 57
34. 44

3. 05
5. 48
53. 66

16. 93
7. 32

Corless. I. B. . Nicholas. P. K. . McGibbon. C. A. . & A ; Wilson. C. . ( 2004 ) . Weight alteration. organic structure image. and quality of life in HIV disease: A pilot survey. Applied Nursing Research. 77 ( 4 ) . p. 294.

“A sum-up of quality-of-life tonss for work forces and adult females is shown in Table 2. The graduated tables of the MOS-HIV Quality of Life instrument include General Health Perceptions. Physical Functioning. Role Functioning. Social Functioning. Cognitive Functioning. Pain. Mental Health. Vitality. Health Distress. Quality of Life. and Heath Transition. There were no important differences between quality of life tonss between work forces and adult females. Work force did hold lower tonss on some MOS-HIV graduated tables ( Cognitive Functioning. Pain. Quality of Life. and Health Transition ) and adult females were lower on others ( Vitality and Health Distress ) . In add-on. there were a figure of differences in the relationships between quality of life tonss. organic structure image. and organic structure weight… . The positive correlativities indicated that improved quality of life was associated with improved organic structure image” ( Corless et al. . 2004. pp. 294-5 ) .

132

Exercise 18

Mean. Standard Deviation. and 95 % and 99 % of the Normal Curve

The informations described below are the verbal SAT tonss for high school seniors for one twelvemonth with X = 490 and SD =100 ( see Figure 18-2 ) . The expression used to happen where 95 % of the tonss lie is X ± 1. 96 ( SD ) . In this illustration. 490 + 1. 96 ( 100 ) = 686. and 490 – 1. 96 ( 100 ) = 294. Therefore 95 % of tonss lie between 294 and 686. expressed as ( 294. 686 ) . Since 95 % of the tonss are between 294 and 686. this leaves 5 % of the tonss outside this interval. Since a normal curve is symmetric. one-half of the tonss. or 2. 5 % . are at each terminal of this distribution.

To happen where 99 % of tonss lie. Z ± 2. 58 ( SD ) . where 490 + 2. 58 ( 100 ) = 748 and 490 – 2. 58 ( 100 ) = 232. Therefore. 99 % of the SAT scores lie between 232 and 748. which is expressed as ( 232. 748 ) . Since the distribution of these tonss is normal. 99 % of the tonss are between 232 and 748 and 0. 5 % of the tonss are at each terminal of this distribution.

FIGURE 18-2 ‘ft Distribution of SAT Scores

SD=100

ten = 490
Mean

Research Article
Beginning: Corless. I. B. . Nicholas. P. K. . McGibbon. C. A. . & A ; Wilson. C. ( 2004 ) . Weight alteration. organic structure image. and quality of life in HIV disease: A pilot survey. Applied Nursing Research 77 ( 4 ) . 292-6.

Introduction
The intent of this pilot survey [ conducted by Corless and co-workers ( 2004 ) ] was to look into the relationships of weight alteration. organic structure image. length of clip with HIV/AIDS diagnosing. and quality of life in persons with HIV disease ( Corless et al. . 2004. p. 292 ) . The sample consisted of 40 topics: 23 work forces and 17 adult females. The HIV-positive grownups in a primary attention clinic were asked to take part. so this survey has a sample of convenience. The participants reported an addition in weight. greater than their ideal weight. The organic structure image tonss were found to be significantly higher for adult females. with the HIV-positive participants holding somewhat higher organic structure image tonss. A study and Medical Outcomes Study-HIV ( MOS-HIV ) instruments were used as measurement methods for this survey. The consequences indicated that when a person’s weight is higher and closer to his or her ideal. HIV-positive persons exhibit better quality of life. Thus. “education of clinicians and persons populating with HIV/AIDS should concentrate on the appraisal. direction. and rating of weight alteration during the class of HIV disease” ( Corless et al. . 2004. p. 292 ) .

Relevant Study Results
“The sample consisted of 23 work forces with a average age of 42. 2 old ages ( SD = 8. 2 ) . length of clip since diagnosing with HIV was 9. 2 old ages ( SD = 5. 3 ) ; and 17 adult females with a average age of 36. 8 old ages ( SD = 5. 2 ) . and length of clip since diagnosing with HIV was 7. 2 old ages ( SD = 4. 8 ) . For work forces. 23 were HIV-positive and 9 had a diagnosing of AIDS ; and for adult females. 17 were HIV positive. and 5 had a diagnosing of AIDS. There was no important difference in demographic features of the sample by age. gender. HIV disease position. and clip life with HIV.

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Exercise 18

1. Assuming that the distribution is normal for weight relation to the ideal and 99 % of the male participants scored between ( -53. 68. 64. 64 ) . where did 95 % of the values for weight relation to the ideal prevarication? Round your reply to two denary topographic points.

2. Which of the following values from Table 1 Tells us about variableness of the tonss in a distribution?

a. 60. 22
B. 11. 94
c. 22. 57
d. 53. 66

3. Assuming that the distribution for General Health Perceptions is normal. 95 % of the females’ scores around the mean were between what values? Round your reply to two denary topographic points.

4. Assuming that the distribution of tonss for Pain is normal. 95 % of the men’s scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answernto two denary topographic points.

5. Be the organic structure image scores significantly different for adult females versus work forces? Supply a principle for your

138

Exercise 18

Mean. Standard Deviation. and 95 % and 99 % of the Normal Curve

6. Assuming that the distribution of Mental Health tonss for work forces is normal. where are 99 % of the men’s mental wellness tonss around the mean in this distribution? Round your reply to two denary topographic points.

7. Assuming that the distribution of tonss for Physical Functioning in adult females is normal. where are of the women’s scores around the mean in this distribution? Round your reply to two denary topographic points.

8. Assuming that the distribution of tonss is normal. 99 % of HIV-positive organic structure image scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your reply to two denary topographic points.

9. Assuming that the distribution of tonss for Role Functioning is normal. 99 % of the men’s scores around the mean were between what values? Round your reply to two denary topographic points.

10. What are some of the restrictions of this survey that decrease the potency for generalising the findings to the mark population?