Determine which level of measurement— nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio—is used in the following examples. The Association of Accountants is conducting a survey to determine the ranking of the top 100 accounting firms in the world. Ordinal How many years did it take you to earn your college degree? Ratio On a questionnaire which asks for gender, males are coded as 1 and females are coded as 2. Interval Respondents are asked to rate a list of high-tech companies as excellent, good, fair, or poor in terms of their service delivery.

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Ordinal Cereal brands are arranged in an ordered sequence in which an equal interval exists between each point. Interval LeBron James wears the number 23 on his jersey. Nominal The length of time it takes the winner of a marathon to cross the finish line. Ratio Students are asked to rank computer manufacturers. Interval The brand of charge card used by a customer. Nominal The pin number used to access your checking account. Nominal Which sampling method—simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster, convenience, judgment, quota, or snowball—is most appropriate for the following examples? The unemployment rate is calculated each month by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey consists of 50,000 households in about 2,000 counties and cities in all 50 states. Simple Random A researcher for Kraft Foods selects five states randomly, and then selects 10 supermarkets chains within each state to call for a phone survey as test markets for a new cookie. Quota A new product researcher would like to investigate the use of virtual teams. After conducting an interview with a manager, she asks for the names of other managers that use virtual teams.

Convenience A news reporter asks people on the street their opinion about the president’s new bill. Snowball Jamie select Denver, Colorado; Chicago, Illinois; and San Diego, California as test markets for a new potato chip line base on her experience with these markets. Judgment A researcher instructs field interviewers to interview customers of different cell phone companies in a nearby shopping mall so that they each interview 10 AT&amp;T, 8 T Mobile, 6 Verizon, and 4 owners of other cell phone providers.

Convenience The Consumer Price Index represents a sampling of 90,000 items from 364 categories, chosen from 20,000 retail stores in 85 geographically distributed areas that are chosen to be as similar as possible. Cluster A finance professor wants to know how many MBA students would be willing to take a course in international finance this summer. She surveys students in the class she is currently teaching. Convenience Which hypothesis-testing procedure would you use in the following situations?

The mean time an American family lives in a particular single-family dwelling is 11. 8 years. A sample of 100 families in the Sycamore, OK area shows the mean time living in a single family residence is 12. 7 years. Can we conclude that the time people live in Sycamore is significantly more than the national average? One Sample Z-Test A researcher would like to know if there is a significant difference in clothing purchases between full-time working women, part-time working women, and women who are homemakers.

ANOVA Eighty percent of those who play the state lottery never win more than \$100 in one play. A sample of 500 players was drawn and the mean winning was \$125. One Sample Z-Test A drug manufacturing company conducted a survey of customers. The research question was as follows: Is there a significant relationship between packaging preference (size of the bottle purchased) and economic status? There were four packaging sizes: small, medium, large, and jumbo. Economic status was categorized as follows: lower, middle, and upper.

Regression Hypothesis Test A company has 24 salespeople. The test must evaluate whether their product knowledge has improved or remained unchanged after a training program. T-test of dependent samples A computer company has a brand loyalty rating of 6. 8 on a 7 point scale. Is this company’s rating significantly different from the industry average of 6. 4? Two-tailed One Sample T-Test The manager of an office supply store wanted to determine which color folders she should discontinue based on low sales. The colors stocked were black, blue, red, green, and purple. ANOVA