Scoping is a procedure of placing the of import issues that are likely to happen during pre-construction until decommissioning of the whole undertaking ( UNEP, 2002 ) . That explains why scoping becomes a critical procedure in EIA. Good Scoping requires proficient expertness, competence and resource as it involves many substantial attempts early in the EIA procedure. Good Scoping is average to accomplish effectual and efficient EIA and must see and equilibrate the aims of EIA. A good EIA should place required extenuations and urge effectual followup to verify impact anticipations and effectivity of extenuation. In add-on, it besides should non blow resources, sing information that does non back up an apprehension of the possible environmental effects of the undertaking ( Barnes, Hardwick and Chan, 2009 ) .
In the scoping procedure carried out for Lahad Datu Power Plant, the EIA adviser ( and project advocate ) showed a general consciousness of possible impacts that might be caused by the power works. Existing informations and information on physical, biological and human environment were collected as baseline informations, from which comparing were made. The possible impacts were clearly stated in different subdivisions demoing how the works would impact the surrounding. However, the study was excessively biased to the advocate sites since there were no item surveies for risky impacts that are globally detrimental, such as the composite and interlink impacts from release of C dioxide ( CO2 ) which is the cardinal issue for coal-burning power works. Furthermore, critical impacts were non studied in deepness. The surveies merely simply touched the surface of it without any options and extenuating measurings provided. Therefore, a more elaborate survey is required to better the appraisal.
The term of mention ( TOR ) is one chief of import portion in the EIA study. However, in this instance, the TOR was non attached in the study, doing a great job in reexamining the EIA study. In add-on, absence of TOR produced an unsystematic and unstructured EIA, which leaded to many impacts analysis and farther surveies being omitted. If the EIA adviser could supply the term of mention, it would be good non merely to the DOE reappraisal panel to reexamine the proposed undertaking but besides for all concerned stakeholders ( e.g. persons, groups, communities, authorities bureaus, NGOs ) to acquire to cognize the works better and better EIA study could be achieved.
For about all possible impacts, there were extenuating steps for it, although they hardly provided options. Some of the mitigating steps were executable, sensible and effectual. Yet, farther surveies of impact analysis after the mitigating steps taken should be carried on. The undertaking advocates besides need to demo their committedness in recognizing the steps non merely by saying it in the study to be granted permission to transport on with the undertaking.
The scoping procedure carried out during pre-construction period, as published in chapter 8, indicated that there were two possible impacts: land usage and socio-economy. There were no option provided for both of the possible impacts. However there were some extenuation steps specified to minimise the impacts. The possible impacts during building of breakwater, intake & amp ; outfall pipes were all listed with its several mitigating steps in Chapter 9. It was predicted that the building might impact the H2O quality and air quality. Above all, there would be noise and quiver job, land conveyance job, Marine traffic and pilotage safety, marine ecology job and once more socio-economy job. Finally, the extenuation steps provided seem to be sensible and executable, although there was no option for it.
There were more possible impacts when it comes to the existent building period as could be studied from chapter 10. The most important one was the geology and dirt job ( alteration of land usage ) since there would be a deforestation of thenar for the power works site which in bend might alter the dirt construction. This alteration might besides arouse earth-quake and land slide due to the driving force of civil and structural plants. As the building was carried on, H2O quality might be disrupted, waste direction ( including sewerage and drainage system ) job might happen, along with noise and quiver during operation of building equipment every bit good as transit of stuff.
On top of that, there might be besides be air pollution ( addition of dust degree ) , marine traffic and safety job ( due to high degree of activity at coast ) , land traffic job, marine ecology perturbation, distraction of tellurian vegetations and zoologies caused by land clearance and socioeconomic impact ( both positive and negative impacts ) during the building period. All the above-named amendss were inevitable. Yet they could be minimized through sensible mitigating measurings provided in the study. However, the building period might non turn up as the most detrimental period. The operation and decommissioning period would really turn as the most detrimental period.
Before the works was operated, there would be a testing and commissioning period, where the works was run under likewise with the existent operating system. Chapter 11 contained the survey in this country which would give an appraisal of how would it be during the existent operation. Activities that will be carried out during operation are listed and its effects were studied in item in Chapter 12. The chief concern would be the H2O quality, air quality and waste direction. During the operation at that place would besides be jobs of noise and quiver, land and marine transit ( traffic ) , whilst the harm might besides impact marine ecology along with tellurian vegetations and zoologies, and non to set aside socio-economy factor.
The H2O quality and waste direction were confronting job of discharge of H2O from chilling tower – whose temperature is higher than ambient temperature, Cl scattering which would be minimized by utilizing ECP ( Electro Chlorination Plant ) , industrial effluent which was harmful ( should follow the bound – harmonizing to BOD and COD ) , solid waste and sewerage system. In instance of high temperature of discharge H2O, the works would be equipped with chilling system to cut down the H2O outflowing temperature. In the other manus, the waste would be farther treated before it ‘s really released to the surrounding in order to guarantee minimal impacts to the environments. The survey was supported with H2O pollution theoretical account which might be accurate provided the input informations and scenarios were appropriate.
Air quality jobs were studied utilizing an air pollution theoretical account – AERMOD, nevertheless there were jobs face such as non sufficient informations, in add-on, another drawback of the theoretical account provided was they did non see COx as one of the gas liberated. The theoretical account gave perfect anticipation of SOx and NOx emanation for maximal concentration and worst scenario provided the input informations was right.
As a affair of fouling gases that decidedly will be faced by any coal-burning power works, the undertaking design has anticipated emanation that may be liberated as shown in the undertaking options, under emanation control option subdivision ( page 4-8 ) . The proposed works design has included electrostatic precipitator ( ESP ) with effectual cleansing capableness to extenuate particulate scattering. The works besides include effectual steps for SOx and NOx decrease, it includes seawater scrubber FGD system to cut down SOx emanation and low NOx burners to restrict NO and NO2. In add-on, environmental monitoring system as written in the undertaking description subdivision ( page 3-16 ) is included as portion of the works which eases aggregation of sample to follow the ordinance by DOE ‘s monitoring system.
Contradictory to the progress engineering for decrease of SOx and NOx concentration in the fluke gas, the works was non equipped with any solution to counter high emanation of CO2. Furthermore, the EIA adviser did non analyze the COx emanation at all. This is extremely criticized by public and NGOs since there is a turning consciousness about planetary heating whereby CO2 from industry and non-renewable energy are the chief histrion.
Noise and quiver job would be face since there would be an addition of activity degree. The noise degree was studied in the works site and 0.5 kilometers buffer zone. The works would hold important noise impact to the occupants. The simulations were run to analyze the noise degree and the consequences are tabulated. It is expected that the works should keep 70dBA during yearss and 60dBA during darks. The undertaking advocate warrant that the noise degree can be maintain below 65 assumed names during twenty-four hours clip and 60 assumed name during dark clip. The quiver impact during operation is expected to be minimum since all rotating and vibrating equipment will be decently balanced.
There would be extra land traffic for employees going to and from the power works. However, there would non be any important impact on the route capacity. In the other manus, marine transit would hold more jobs since the undertaking would necessitate supply of coal signifier Indonesia that would be transported by ships. However, the undertaking advocates assured that all of these jobs could be resolved and still be maintained below the bound of regulations and ordinances applied.
Marine ecology and tellurian vegetations and zoologies would be extremely disturbed due to environment alteration. The suggested mitigating measuring guarantee that the impact would be least detrimental to the biodiversity. Furthermore, socio-economy impacts could be divided into positive and negative impacts. The positive sides were cut down frequence of power failure, addition work field and support other concern chances. Contrary, the negative sides would be deflation of land and lodging cost, and cut down in aesthetic value.
In drumhead, the scoping procedure for Lahad Datu 300 MW coal power works was merely okay. Further surveies need to be carried on to cover impact analysis in item. In add-on, the impact analysis after the mitigating steps might besides be considered to supply an analysis on how effectual would the extenuation measures be.