Bangladesh is home to legion vegetations and zoologies and possesses many bird’s-eye beauties but most of them are undiscovered. Having all the minimal demands, the touristry industry could non develop adequately in the state due to the involuntariness of the authoritiess. Presently, minimal infra-structural agreement is developing, function of authorities is now positive, private and public organisations have step frontward side by side to pull the local and foreign tourers, research workers, very important persons and foreign delegates. The purpose of the research is to place the challenges and future chances of the industry. This survey will ease the determination shapers to measure the strength of the job and to be after accurate steps for the development of touristry industry in Bangladesh which might lend a large portion in the GDP of Bangladesh.

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The research worker has chosen this research topic out of his personal involvement: Bangladesh is his fatherland and is blended in his blood and flesh. Apathy of the old authoritiess led the research worker to research the challenges and future possibilities of the touristry sector in Bangladesh. The research worker expects to stress the hereafter development of touristry here in comparing with other regional and planetary tourer finishs.

Research Question

Located on the north-eastern side of the South Asiatic subcontinent, Bangladesh – a level alluvial field, criss-crossed by the universe ‘s three mighty river systems, is bordered by India in the E, West and north ; Myanmar in the south-east and by the bay of Bengal in the South. The land mass of 144,000 sq.km is home to about 140 million people. Covered with virgin woods, the inclines and vales of the state are home to legion vegetations and zoologies. The universe ‘s largest Rhizophora mangle wood and the home ground of the Royal Bengal Tiger, the Sundarbans is located in the South. In the south-east, the state has a 120 kilometer long, possibly the universe ‘s longest beach of soft silvery sand in a Riviera-like scene with semilunar low hills overlooking the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is endowed with natural resources and the potency for a touristry industry. The chief focal point of this research aims to reply the inquiry:

What jobs does Bangladesh face and what might be the chances as a tourer finish?

In order to analyze the nomenclature, ‘problems ‘ and ‘prospects, ‘ the research worker is non merely required to research both positive and negative facets but besides to foreground the past scenario along with the future appraisal of touristry in Bangladesh. For replying the research inquiry expeditiously, the undermentioned purposes are set.

Purposes

To place the challenge touristry industry presently confronting.

To research the hereafter possible development.

To exemplify the function of the public and private sector in developing touristry in Bangladesh.

In order to successfully carry on the research, the above stated purposes require precise aims. That is why the research worker has applied the undermentioned aims.

Aims

To reexamine academic literature associating to touristry development.

To analyze secondary paperss associating to the challenges and development of touristry in Bangladesh.

Suggest recommendation for the hereafter development of touristry industry in Bangladesh based on the literature and stakeholders ‘ positions.

The research worker has adopted a qualitative methodological analysis for carry oning this research most efficaciously. This research includes the position of the representatives from authorities organic structures and private sector business-owners. Datas from such organisations and free-lance journalists and their sentiments on touristry planning, jobs and chances are analysed in carry oning the research paper which has helped the research worker to offer recommendations at the finish.

Tourism is non associated with nobility any more instead every individual can afford now. With the transition of clip, it has grown to such dimensions that it is considered as an of import industry. The publicity of touristry as an industry serves multi-pronged involvement which includes continuing cultural heritage, protecting humanistic disciplines and civilization, interaction of different faith, exchange of positions, and coevals of foreign exchange and so on.

For last twosome of old ages, Bangladesh has been highlighted as an attractive finish for tourers. Sundarbans and Cox ‘s Bazar have been included in the world-wide New7Wonders of Nature run among more than 440 candidate locations from 220 states. “ World taking publishing house of travel ushers and guidebooks, Lonely Planet, last twelvemonth recommended Bangladesh as one of the top 10 interesting travel finish in 2009 ” ( Views On Tourism, 2008 ) . Therefore, the purpose of the research worker is to research the challenges and chances associating to the development of touristry in Bangladesh. The countries of literature in this paper include touristry in the underdeveloped universe, touristry in South Asia and sustainable touristry planning and development. A context chapter on touristry industry in Bangladesh is besides included to supply more elaborate information.

The research worker has tried to picture the scenario of current challenges and future chances of touristry industry in Bangladesh through his research paper but it does non reflect the full image of the emerging industry. Therefore, future research workers can be conducted sing the research paper as a instance survey.

Literature Review

The Tourism Industry

“ Tourism comprises the activities of individuals going to and remaining in topographic points outside their usual environment for non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited. ” ( UNWTO )

Harmonizing to Mathieson and Wall, touristry is the impermanent motion of people from their natural topographic points of life or work to finishs, their activities, and the comfortss and services to run into their demands. Each and every finish has impact on the country or the state. A Finish opens the door to show cultural heritage, exchange positions, generate foreign exchange, develop the employment scenario, and strengthen the gross modesty of the authorities and so on. Negative impacts include loss of cultural individuality, environmental harm, and spread of infective disease.

Figure 1: Butler ‘s Tourist Lifecycle ( Source: Finish Recovery Services, 2007 )

Butler, in his article proposed a widely-accepted theoretical account of the lifecycle of a tourer finish. The basic thought his theoretical account is that a finish begins as a comparatively unknown and visitants ab initio come in little Numberss restricted by deficiency of entree, installations, and local cognition. As more people discover the finish, the word spreads about its attractive forces and the comfortss which consequences into rapid development and enlargement of concern. Future of the finish fluctuates really much depending on the find, more improved comfortss of another finish.

Demand of any finish is related to more and more investing because tourers wish to see new and exceeding installations and atmospheres. Popularity of a finish depends on a figure of factors and the touristry industry is really unsure ( McElroy & A ; Albuquerque, 2002 ) . Without frequent redevelopment, a finish can non pull the attending of the tourers. Political agitations, fiscal convulsion, natural catastrophes, epidemic diseases, terrorist menaces and deficiency of security can turn down the popularity of a finish.

Tourism in the Developing World and in South Asia

Tourists now find European and North American finishs less attractive and intend to go to LDCs ( Telfer and Sharpley, 2008 ) . One of the grounds is rapid outgrowth of touristry in LDCs and another is fiscal advantages than the traditional finishs from the first universe. Tourism operations by MNCs in LDCs create new chances and different sort of agreement which the tourers ever look for.

Most of the South Asiatic states are dining in their touristry sectors. Among all the South Asiatic states, India and the Maldives receive the most foreign currencies. Sri Lanka is non behind the race and the policy shapers of the state declared 2010 as the twelvemonth of touristry. They are advancing their 12 different constituents throughout the twelvemonth. The Maldives is one of the animal and honeymoon finishs of the universe. Each and every province of India is besides advancing their ain province in every manner possible.

The authorization of Bangladesh at last realised the importance of touristry development to add excess gross to the GDP of the state. Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism along with PPP has agreed to convey the touristry industry of the state frontward. GoB has already declared to detect 2011 as the twelvemonth of touristry and allocated Tk. 2.83 billion for the FY 2010-11 ( Ministry of Finance ) , the highest of all time allotment in touristry sector. Private sectors are more concerned in edifice substructures i.e. hotels, motels, resorts, amusement Parkss.

Sustainable Tourism

Four types of stakeholders including authorities governments, the local concern community, the local community and visitants remain involved in touristry at any finish ( Bushell, 2001 ) . For developing a successful tourer finish, the stakeholders are required to explicate an incorporate program. If all stakeholders do their portion consequently and remain responsible for their ain actions, the sector of touristry will certainly boom.

“ Sustainable touristry should do optimum usage of environmental resources that constitute a cardinal component in touristry development, keeping indispensable ecological procedures and assisting to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity. ” ( UNWTO )

For successful sustainability programme consciousness, understanding and committedness to sustainability ends from direction and staff are required ( Speck, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Butler ‘s ( 1980 cited in Weaver, 2006 ) Destination Life Cycle, unmonitored and unplanned touristry development ensuing into ultimate failing which may agitate the foundation of touristry.

Proper installations and adjustment is one of the first conditions for implementing sustainable touristry. It besides requires confidence of booming of a finish and uninterrupted investing to maintain the gait of development. It besides need be guarantee the ecological balance, preservation and biodiversity. Sustainable touristry should non alter or botch the cultural resources, national and societal values.

Context Chapter

Tourism in Bangladesh

Figure 2: Map of Bangladesh ( Source: Lonely Planet, 2010 )

Now-a-days, traditional tourer involvement on some selected states has changed. They now intend to research new countries avoiding the over-crowded finishs. By placing this altering behaviour and tendency in planetary tourer motion, many states have developed their ain touristry industry. Bangladesh is keeping high potency for touristry. This sector might ensue multiplier consequence on the state ‘s economic system by non merely gaining foreign currencies but besides making new occupation chances for the immense unemployed population. Gaining the fact, GoB has decide to detect 2011 as the twelvemonth of touristry to introduce the people with the state ‘s tourist resources.

Bangladesh

Geographic Coordinates

24 00 N, 90 00 Tocopherol

Area

56977 sq. stat mis or 147570 sq. kilometer.

Capital

Dacca

Currency

Taka ( TK )

Local Time

GMT + 6

Population

156,118,464 ( July 2010 est. )

Weather

Tropical ; mild winter ( October to March ) ; hot, humid summer ( March to June ) ; humid, warm rainy monsoon ( June to October )

Visitor Arrivals ( in 2005 )

207,662Table 1: Bangladesh Statisticss ( Bangladesh Pocket Year Book, 2009 ; The World Factbook )

Tourism sector in Bangladesh is chiefly supervised by public sector. Government regulates the touristry sector through Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation ( BPC ) , the National Tourism Organization ( NTO ) . With the double duty of development and publicity of touristry, BPC was established in the twelvemonth 1972 and commenced concern as a Corporation in January 1973. BPC, a semi-autonomous organisation is responsible for supplying touristry services to build and run hotels, eating houses, operate responsibility free stores, transit and auto lease, set up and administrate touristry developing establishment. NTO, on the other manus, is chiefly a touristry service supplier and booster of touristry merchandise. To further the rapid growing of the touristry industry, GoB declared the National Tourism Policy in 1992.

Figure 3: Foreign Exchange Net incomes from Tourism & A ; Other Travels ( 1996-2005 ) [ Beginning: Bangladesh Parjatan Corpotation ]

The touristry industry of Bangladesh has received around Tk. 550 million between 1972 and 2006 while PPP has invested Tk. 1.8 billion on 20 touristry undertakings FY 2010-11. However, the GoB has realized the importance of touristry sector and shifted from their old place since FY 2009-10. GoB has allocated Tk. 2.28 billion in the national budget of FY 2009-10 while allotment in 2010-11 sums Tk. 2.83 billion ( MoF, 2010 ) for the touristry sector. World category adjustment is one of the highest precedences to hike the touristry industry of any state. That is why, about 500 hotels, 40 resorts and 15 amusement Parkss ( New Age, 2005 ) have been built at popular tourer finishs, including Dhaka, Cox ‘s Bazar, Chittagong, Sylhet, Bogra and Khulna during the last two old ages.

Bangladesh possesses the Sundarbans – the Rhizophora mangle wood in the universe, Cox ‘s Bazaar – the longest natural beach in the whole planet, the alien tea gardens in Sylhet, the beautiful hills in Rangamati and Bandarban, the fantastic sights and sounds in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the superb natural scenery in Foy ‘s Lake, the centuries old Buddhist monasteries and so on. Such topographic points of involvement in have managed to pull tourers to Bangladesh from each corner of the universe which is reflected in the increasing figure of tourer reaching in the state. A sum of 165,887 tourers arrived from more than 76 states in 1996 which increased to 207,662 in 2005 ( Appendix 1 ) . Furthermore, foreign exchange net incomes from touristry has increased from Tk. 33.59 million in 1996 to Tk. 69.91 million in 2005 ( Appendix 2 ) .

Methodology

A theoretical attack provides a “ guiding model for analysing and construing the information ” ( Finn, 2000 ) . It helps a research worker to stay consistent while roll uping informations and cognition form them ( Jennings, 2001 ) . There are a figure of theoretical attacks for research but merely really few are appropriate ( Veal, 2006 ) .

Conducting the research, the research worker has chiefly used secondary informations and qualitative methodological analysiss. Qualitative methodological analysiss are associated with the interpretative attack of research ( Veal, 2006 ) . Jennings ( 2001 ) references researcher-participants subjective relationship every bit good as the participants sing the research worker as an “ insider ” . Unstructured research design, informations displayed in textual signifier, foregrounding cardinal subjects and a specific survey scene are other qualitative characteristics ( Veal, 2006 ) .

The advantage of utilizing secondary informations is the freedom from arbitration “ by the interaction between the research worker and researched ” ( Jennings, 2001 ) . Datas from MoF, BPC, MoCAT, SB, and NTO chiefly helped to hold a clear thought about the status of touristry in Bangladesh from authorities ‘s position. Future suggestions for sustainable touristry in Bangladesh by the governments of Jamuna Resort, Padma Resort, Foy ‘s Lake Resort and Motel Atlantis have helped the research worker in carry oning the research successfully.

The informations collected from different beginnings has been analysed to measure the future growing of the economic system of Bangladesh. One major job in roll uping informations on touristry in Bangladesh is that there is no updated database in any governments of the authorities nor the private sector has any recent statistics on the sector. Government organic structures are instead non-cooperative instead than the private tourer operators.

Jamuna Resort, Padma Resort, Foy ‘s Lake Resort and Motel Atlantis governments merely provided their suggestion for making a touristry friendly environment in the state. As most of the authorities organic structures in Bangladesh have linked to internet in 2010 and most of the functionaries do non hold electronic mail reference, they could non be reached. Datas from BPC and MoCAT have covered most of the informations collected on the present scenario of touristry in Bangladesh.

Most of the tourer installations are offered by the private sector but do non posses any informations on touristry in Bangladesh as they are merely concern about their concern. However, suggestions provided by the private sector tourer operators have besides been added in the research paper so that the policy shapers can see them while explicating future policies for sustainable touristry in Bangladesh.

Consequence and Analysis

For carry oning the research successfully, primary and secondary information has been compiled and sectioned into several subjects. The challenges and chances of touristry in Bangladesh have been identified through the analysis of informations. It non merely identifies the possibilities of touristry sector in Bangladesh but besides forecasts the touristry potency of the state. The results of the analysis are enlisted here:

Tourists sing Bangladesh

Datas from BPC and SB reveals the nationality and existent intent of the tourer sing Bangladesh. Tastes of the tourers vary from individual to individual, even part to part ; so, it is better to understand the tourer form of the state.

Types of Tourists

Analyzing the information it is found that tourers visit Bangladesh chiefly on three intents. However, higher per centum of 42 visits on concern intent while 23 percent visit for pleasance. Representative of BPC stated that the per centum of tourer sing for pleasance is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours as the touristry merchandises of the state are improvizing quickly.

Figure 4: Purpose of the tourers for sing ( Beginning: BPC )

Nationality of Tourists

Arrivals

Africa

1730

America

18673

E/A & A ; Pacific

35976

Europe

48961

M/East

2861

A/Asia

99459

Table 2: Foreign Visitor Arrivals by Region 2005 ( Beginning: BPC ) Data analysis of the twelvemonth 2005 shows that 48 per centum tourers sing the state are from the Asiatic states while visitants from Europe hold the 2nd place with 24 per centum. Percentage of tourer reaching from Asia Pacific, America, Africa and Middle East are 17, 9, 1 and 1 per centum severally. The figure of tourers from SAARC states total 99010 which means merely 449 tourers from the remainder of Asiatic states have visited the state in 2005.

Tourism Products in Bangladesh

Tourists of course compares the merchandises a finish is offering with another 1 for guaranting the proper use of both money and clip every bit good as peace of head, relaxation, perfect atmosphere, improved adjustment and so on. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the policymakers of a finish to take necessary action for supplying the touristry merchandises to the tourers harmonizing to the demand.

Adjustment

World category adjustment is one of the highest precedences to hike the touristry industry of any state. In the old old ages both the populace and private sector have realised the demand of adjustment of higher criterion in the state. That is why, about 500 hotels, 40 resorts and 15 amusement Parkss ( New Age, 2005 ) have been built at popular tourer finishs, including Dhaka, Cox ‘s Bazar, Chittagong, Sylhet, Bogra and Khulna during the last two old ages. Even the authorities tally BPC has increased their country of coverage to 16 parts with 5 hotels, 17 motels and one bungalow.

Tourism Merchandise

Bangladesh with three World Heritage Sites – Mahasthangarh, Mosque City of Bagerhat and the Sundarbans, has a batch to offer to the tourers. World ‘s longest 120 kilometer long flaxen beach of Cox ‘s Bazar along with Patenga, Parki, Teknaf, St. Martin Island and Kuakata beach will decidedly slake the thirst of beach lovers. The beauty of the largest Rhizophora mangle wood in the universe, the Sundarbans, can astonish anyone while going in steam boats and sing the diverseness and ecosystem of the wood.

The lake territory of Rangamati, the lake town of Kaptai, the hilltop town of Khagrachhari and the roof of Bangladesh: Bandarban will convey the tourers near to nature they may non hold gone earlier. Archaeological sites of Buddhists monasteries, Hindu temples and Muslim mosques and castles can educate the tourer seeking archaeological cognition of South Asia and Bangladesh. Besides these, there are many topographic points of involvement in the state which might pull the attractive forces of the tourers.

Impacts of Tourism

National and planetary impacts of touristry influence the overall state of affairs of a state refering its economic system, socio-economic status, ecology and environment. Tourism enriches economic system, exchanges societal and cultural values, and conserves nature ; nevertheless, it has some negative impacts every bit good.

Economic Impact

Tourists contribute to gross revenues, net incomes, occupations, revenue enhancement grosss, and income in an country or a state. Tourism activity usually focuses on alterations in gross revenues, income, and employment in a part. Therefore, the economic benefits of touristry are good documented. In instance of Bangladesh, part of touristry in the economic system of the state is bit by bit increasing. The part of the sector is expected to acquire higher in the extroverted old ages due to mammoth investing of public and private sector. The part of travel & A ; touristry to GDP is expected to lift from 3.9 % ( Tk. 265.9 billion ) in 2010 to 4.1 % ( Tk. 788.4 billion ) by 2020 ( WTTC, 2007 ) . It is besides anticipated to make an employment chance of 2,373,000 in 2010 which might increase to 3,114,000 by 2010. In the current twelvemonth, an estimated sum of Tk. 64.0 billion is expected to be invested in travel & A ; touristry sector.

It is non necessary that touristry has all positive impacts. Tourism is closely associated with uncontrolled, unsustainable and massed touristry growing. With a intent of doing money by selling experiences, touristry is chiefly dominated by private endeavors. Market led planning can neglect to accomplish the aims of sustainable touristry. Like all industries, impacts do occur, but the extent to which impacts are negative can be minimised.

Socio-Cultural Impact

An interface for cultural exchange, touristry facilitates the interaction between communities and visitants. As travels means to detect those things unknown or bury within ourselves, people want to interact with other civilizations, learn about traditions and even face themselves with new positions on life and society. Tourism can function as a supportive force for peace, surrogate pride in cultural traditions and assist avoid urban resettlement by making local occupations. The society can take the valuable facets of another society vis-a-vis civilization through touristry. The more one knows and learns about a finish, the more fulfilling the experience would be.

As touristry involves motion of people to different geographical locations, and constitution of societal dealingss between people who would otherwise non run into, cultural clangs can take topographic point as a consequence of differences in civilizations, ethnicity, faith, values, life styles, linguistic communications, and degrees of prosperity. The involvement shown by tourers besides contributes to the sense of dignity of the creative persons and helps to conserve a cultural tradition, cultural eroding due to the commoditization of cultural goods.

Environmental Impact

Tourism has good effects on the environment by lending to environmental protection and preservation. It raises the consciousness of environmental values and can function as a tool to finance protection of natural countries. Most of the national Parkss are now conserved by the public disposal due to the lifting demand of touristry. The GoB has decided to conserve all the woods, topographic points of natural beauties and construct a Marine park at Cox ‘s Bazar to pull the attractive force of the tourers from the each corner of the universe.

Development of touristry can bit by bit destruct the environmental resources on which it depends. Land and H2O witness the most negative impacts of touristry in the state. For the development of the sector, more and more lands are used to construct substructure to make installations for the tourers ensuing to the deficit of land and H2O every bit good. Sewage littering, deforestation, air and noise pollution are some of the many negative impacts of touristry on environment.

Decision

“ Finishs interested in pulling foreign visitants and in developing sustainable tourer industries depend to a great extent on traveler perceptual experiences of safety and peace ”

( Sonmez, 2002: 176 ) .

The purpose of the research is to place the challenges that the sector of touristry is confronting presently and to asses the hereafter as good. Tourism of Bangladesh has non flourished yet due to the involuntariness of the old authorities. MoCAT has the highest allotment of Tk. 2.83 billion since the independency of the state in 1971. PPP is besides working expeditiously for furthering the growing of touristry with the funding from MNCs.

Bangladesh as a tourer finish has many things to offer: beaches, hillside, woods, waterfall, historical and archaeological sites, amusement Parkss and many more. The state is now on the path to enrich the touristry sector like the other states for a better part on the GDP. The deficiency of first adjustment near all topographic points of involvements is now under building which may ensue into more tourer reaching in the state.

“ If touristry is to be successful in the hereafter, public and direction must endeavor for all four ends: enhanced visitant satisfactions, improved economic system and concern success, sustainable resource usage, and community and country integrating. ”

( Gunn with Var, 2002: 105 )

All the prognosis during the research indicate the rapid growing of touristry in Bangladesh. Now, the inquiry is whether the growing will be sustainable or non. It is the duty of the authorities every bit good as the private sector to emerge the touristry for sustainability so that it can conserve the environment, socio-cultural construction and contribute gross to the economic system to do Bangladesh a middle-income state by 2021 ( twelvemonth of Ag jubilee of independency ) .

Suggestions for the Future Development of Tourism

The four private touristry operator of Bangladesh have provided the undermentioned recommendations for the hereafter development of touristry in the state.

Improved conveyance system

Infrastructural development of touristry industry

Uninterrupted power supply

Development of human resources in the sector of touristry

Preservation of topographic points of natural beauty

Improved selling scheme of the authorities

Proper planning of the authorities for guaranting sustainable touristry

Mentions

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics ( 2010 ) Statistical Pocket Book – 2009 [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbs.gov.bd/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/SubjectMatterDataIndex/pk_book_09.pdf [ November 23, 2010 ]

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation ( 2010 ) Foreign Exchange Earnings fron Tourism & A ; Other Travels ( 1996-2005 ) [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd/2006_resource_center_foreign_sh3.php [ November 21, 2010 ]

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation ( 2010 ) Foreign Visitor Arrivals by Region 2005 [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd/2006_resource_center_foreign_sh6.php # 2 [ November 21, 2010 ]

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation ( 2010 ) Visitor Arrivals by Nationality ( 1996-2005 ) [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd/2006_resource_center_foreign_sh8_vistorArriaval.php # 3 [ November 21, 2010 ]

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation ( 2010 ) Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism & A ; Other Travels ( 1996-2005 ) [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd/2006_resource_center_foreign_sh3.php [ November 21, 2010 ]

Bushell, R. ( 2001 ) ‘Practice, Provision and Impacts ‘ , In Douglas, N. ; Douglas, N. ; Derrett, R. ( Eds ) ( 2001 ) Particular Interest Tourism, Queensland: John Wiley and Sons Australia

Cardinal Intelligence Agency, Bangladesh [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html [ November 20, 2010 ]

Finn, M. ; Elliott-White, M. and Walton, M. ( 2000 ) Tourism and Leisure Research

Methods: informations aggregation, analysis and reading, Essex: Pearson Education

Limited

Gunn, C.A. with Var, T. ( 2002 ) Tourism Planning: rudimentss, constructs and instances, 4th

Edition, London: Routledge

Jennings, G. ( 2001 ) Tourism Research, Queensland: John Wiley & A ; Sons Australia Ltd

Lonely Planet ( 2010 ) Map of Bangladesh [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/asia/bangladesh/ [ November 20, 2010 ]

Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. ( 2006 ) Tourism: Change, Impacts and Opportunities, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd

McElroy, J.L. and de Albuquerque, K. ( 2002 ) ‘Problems for pull offing sustainable touristry in little islands ‘ , In Apostolopoulos, Y. and Gayle, D.J. ( Eds ) ( 2002 ) Island Tourism and Sustainable Development: Caribbean, Pacific and Mediterranean experiences, Connecticut: Praeger

Ministry of Finance ( 2010 ) Development Outgo by Ministry [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mof.gov.bd/en/budget/10_11/brief/en/st10.pdf? phpMyAdmin=GqNisTr562C5oxdV, EruqlWwoM5 [ November 21, 2010 ]

New Age ( 2005 ) Private sector leads state ‘s touristry roars [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newagebd.com/2010/jun/14/busi.html [ November 23, 2010 ]

Sonmez, S. ( 2002 ) ‘Sustaining Tourism in Islands Under Sociopolitical Adversity ‘ , In

Apostolopoulos, Y. and Gayle, D.J. ( Eds ) ( 2002 ) Island Tourism and Sustainable

Development: Caribbean, Pacific and Mediterranean experiences, Connecticut:

Praeger

Speck, E. ( 2002 ) ‘The Fairmount Chateau Whistler Resort: moving towards sustainability ‘ , In Harris, R. ; Griffin, T. and Williams, P. ( Eds ) ( 2002 ) Sustainable Tourism: a planetary position, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd

UNWTO, World Tourism Organization Definition of Tourism [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.linkbc.ca/torc/downs1/WTOdefinitiontourism.pdf? PHPSESSID=ugcfjttizdv [ November 20, 2010 ]

UNWTO, World Tourism Organization Sustainable Development of Tourism [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unwto.org/sdt/mission/en/mission.php [ November 20, 2010 ]

Veal, A. ( 2006 ) Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: a practical usher, 3rd

Edition, Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Positions On Tourism ( 2008 ) How to develop the Bangladeshi touristry sector [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.viewsontourism.info/2010/how-to-develop-the-bangladeshi-tourism-sector/ [ November 21, 2010 ]

Weaver, D. ( 2006 ) Sustainable Tourism, Oxford: Elsevier

WTTC, World Travel & A ; Tourism Council ( 2007 ) Travel & A ; Tourism Economic Impact: Bangladesh 2010 [ Online ] Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wttc.org/bin/pdf/original_pdf_file/bangladesh.pdf [ November 20, 2010 ]

Appendixs

Appendix 1

Email to Private Operators

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am carry oning a research survey as portion of a Bachelor ‘s grade in International Tourism and Hospitality Management at EThames Graduate College in London, England. My research examines the jobs and chances of touristry in Bangladesh and I would wish to hold your positions on this subject.

I have chosen the subject because of my personal involvement as Bangladesh is my fatherland. I have witnessed the current growing of touristry in the recent old ages and would wish to measure the hereafter development of the sector.

The purpose of the research is to place the jobs that the touristry sector is presently confronting and to calculate the future growing of the touristry industry in Bangladesh. In order to carry on this research successfully, I would wish cognize your position on such subject.

I look frontward to hearing from you shortly.

Yours dependably

Md Mahbub Ullah Khan

EThames Graduate College

Telephone: 0044 7404509358

International Tourism and Hospitality Management

Bachelors Degree Student

Idaho: ETOLA 13415

Appendix 2

Visitor Arrivals by Nationality ( 1996-2005 )

A

Nationality

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Afghanistan

61

107

61

28

10

7

20

105

221

104

Argentina

28

38

62

48

69

12

47

30

47

61

Australia

2324

2652

2684

2091

2377

2722

3409

3787

6815

3686

Oesterreichs

257

238

177

242

138

255

87

115

354

881

Bahrein

89

95

61

1083

66

31

40

38

24

55

Belgique

785

779

679

565

652

723

795

1089

1203

1080

Bhutan

568

959

441

730

1010

1263

1241

1228

847

1187

Brazil

33

66

89

91

44

89

40

89

97

115

Canada

2696

3053

3815

2461

2723

5484

3603

5847

8964

4519

China

4016

4869

4379

5208

5901

6867

6681

7021

9238

6982

C’lovakia

84

66

52

87

12

18

23

6

38

40

Cyprus

8

15

26

6

14

8

7

44

35

14

Danmark

1088

1118

1194

1134

1162

1449

1248

1408

1930

1137

United arab republic

496

316

388

449

334

383

208

170

294

663

Yaltopya

82

67

170

100

79

44

55

103

86

59

Suomi

246

253

452

492

312

304

292

378

376

355

France

2299

2519

2263

2457

2336

2289

2589

2924

3157

2736

Germany

2708

3111

2986

2947

3080

2635

3297

4184

4812

3128

Greece

155

144

72

141

146

99

81

147

211

164

Hong Kong

332

409

541

472

739

551

332

310

270

103

Hungary

38

25

11

41

33

26

5

7

16

9

Iceland

7

6

12

40

32

6

91

1

3

0

India

53007

61606

57937

62935

74268

78090

80415

84704

80469

86232

Dutch east indies

602

811

798

1067

1250

1379

1455

1507

2155

2107

Persia

354

470

651

666

687

577

411

311

337

345

Irak

49

51

46

60

50

67

24

18

60

12

Irish republic

284

334

258

234

257

268

312

676

904

703

Italy

1522

1860

1992

1789

2118

1780

2112

2420

2629

1800

Japan

5716

6482

7808

7055

8006

7090

7325

6523

7857

6269

Jordan

142

89

191

106

136

185

236

383

373

206

Kenya

50

83

71

111

132

294

97

176

139

106

Korea

6017

6923

6154

6596

6746

6896

6511

7465

6575

5332

Kuwait

273

218

242

306

226

216

249

265

268

194

Lebanon

47

62

85

82

64

101

54

65

118

153

Libya

39

66

95

42

50

25

25

29

34

29

Malaya

3927

2680

2857

2890

3827

3204

3706

3689

4750

1045

Maldives

97

123

63

53

189

129

150

182

98

220

Mexico

24

27

40

82

195

119

121

88

106

94

Maroc

157

92

148

128

218

164

158

117

292

116

Union of burma

545

322

372

332

308

353

358

437

649

541

Nepal

3628

5296

4799

4733

4481

4280

4159

3904

3144

3378

Nederlands

3511

3784

2589

2767

2951

2508

2524

2735

2939

2431

New Zealand

492

588

681

664

666

440

773

1094

1606

1480

Nigeria

123

149

48

44

84

216

163

307

182

214

Norway

583

927

887

766

714

650

821

1002

1282

1025

Oman

168

40

187

147

211

222

101

63

78

153

Pakistan

7070

11481

12087

7894

10637

7010

8703

9238

11997

5671

Philippines

1066

1614

1520

1712

1909

1692

1550

1650

1648

1627

Poland

363

113

97

82

34

23

12

23

10

184

Portuguese republic

79

87

124

94

109

90

71

45

108

167

Katar

116

34

75

97

163

203

179

34

54

41

Roumania

54

609

198

64

7

27

0

5

4

6

Saudi Arabia

1259

1269

2128

2509

2049

1642

1468

1167

1134

731

Singapore

2257

2829

2830

2762

2271

2623

2920

2786

3073

1562

Somalia

82

38

38

19

39

4

53

90

47

36

South Africa

283

259

421

429

459

432

416

608

592

691

Spain

271

390

357

409

479

408

695

829

793

1091

Sri Lanka

1522

1686

1653

1839

2427

3026

2524

2831

2826

2322

Soudan

87

65

179

172

306

38

42

40

91

17

Sverige

1584

1511

1298

1075

1455

1350

1536

2062

2360

2364

Switzerland

701

749

687

694

573

685

664

873

957

1264

Syria

86

61

90

66

83

111

119

96

66

134

Taiwan

829

1222

1427

1603

1649

1028

1621

1988

2655

2127

T Thailand

1522

1645

3215

2159

2492

2881

3997

4188

3376

2955

Turkey

174

349

184

326

254

443

375

510

559

674

UAE

265

96

441

226

268

508

343

120

94

33

United kingdom

33463

28115

19605

22510

29106

34087

28905

42138

52410

24955

USA

11033

12070

11358

9557

11924

13394

13622

24458

27895

13422

USSR Former

678

748

647

574

24

26

64

59

118

263

Vietnam

63

124

68

67

86

90

163

173

304

88

Yemen

169

63

99

78

68

53

51

48

188

138

Serbia and montenegro

44

57

13

38

14

0

5

1

14

4

Rhodesia

26

52

69

67

34

53

35

77

92

31

Subtotal

164903

181324

170522

171690

198022

206445

206584

243328

269547

203861

Others

984

1096

1439

1091

1189

754

662

1181

1723

3801

Entire

165887

182420

171961

172781

199211

207199

207246

244509

271270

207662

Beginning: Bangladesh Parjatan Corpotation

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