The intent of this paper is to discourse three organisations: The United Nations, the European Union, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) . The paper will discourse their history, their organisational construction, and will discourse both the intent and the legitimacy of each of these organisations while foregrounding each of their strengths and failings in both of these countries.

United Nations


The United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave the official name to the United Nations on January 1 1942 during World War II, when 26 states came together to contend Nazi Germany and the Axis powers. Before the UN, there was the League of Nations which was created in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles “ to advance international cooperation and to accomplish peace and security. ” However, after neglecting to forestall World War II, the League of Nations stopped its activities ( ) .

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On June 26, 1945 the United Nations Charter was created and signed in San Francisco by representatives of 50 states. At the clip, Poland which was non originally represented at the conference signed the charter subsequently and became one of the original 51 member provinces. On October 24, 1945, when the Charter was ratified by the United States, China, France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and a bulk of the other signatory members, the United Nations officially came into being ( ) .


General Assembly

Harmonizing to the UN ‘s web site, “ The General Assembly is the chief deliberative organ of the UN and is composed of representatives of all Member States. The work of the United Nations year-round derives mostly from the authorizations given by the General Assembly.A A revival of the Assembly is under manner to heighten its function, authorization, effectivity and efficiency ” ( )

Security Council

The Security Council has primary duty, under the UN Charter, for the care of international peace and security and the authorization to move on behalf of all members of the United Nations. It is comprised of both five permanent and ten nonpermanent members. The five lasting members are the United States, the UK, France, Russia, and China. Each state has its ain several veto power. The 10 nonpermanent members are elected by the Generally Assembly for staggered two twelvemonth footings. Each of the seats are divided by part with five traveling to Africa and Asia, two to Latin America and Western Europe, and one goes to Eastern Europe ( Karns & A ; Mingst, 110 ) .

Economic and Social Council

“ The Economic and Social Council ( ECOSOC ) , established by the UN Charter, is the chief organ to organize the economic, societal and related work of the United Nations and the specialised bureaus and institutions.A Voting in the Council is by simple bulk ; each member has one ballot ” ( ) .

International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice, located at the Hague in the Netherlands, is the chief judicial organ of the United Nations.A It portions duty with the other major variety meats of the UN for guaranting the rules of the charter are followed. It besides settles legal differences between provinces and gives consultative sentiments to the UN and its specialised agencies.A Its Statute is an built-in portion of the United Nations Charter ( ) .

Trust territory Council

The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 to supply international supervising for 11 trust districts, and guarantee that equal stairss were taken to fix the districts for statehood. The council ‘s activities included describing on the people ‘s position of the districts, doing one-year studies, and sing the districts. Presently, it exists because of the trouble in amending the original courser, but the council does non keep one-year Sessionss ( Karns & A ; Mingst, 126 ) .


The Secretariat is comprised of 8,900 staff members that are based around the universe. Its primary map is to transport out the day-to-day work of the Organization.A It services the other chief variety meats and carries out undertakings such as administrating peacekeeping operations, appraising economic and societal tendencies, fixing surveies on human rights, among others ( ) .


Harmonizing to Article 1 of the UN Charter there are four intents of the United Nations:

To keep international peace and security, and to that terminal: to take effectual corporate steps for the bar and remotion of menaces to the peace, and for the suppression of Acts of the Apostless of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to convey about by peaceable agencies, and in conformance with the rules of justness and international jurisprudence, accommodation or colony of international differences or state of affairss which might take to a breach of the peace ; To develop friendly dealingss among states based on regard for the rule of equal rights and self-government of peoples, and to take other appropriate steps to beef up cosmopolitan peace ;

To accomplish international co-operation in work outing international jobs of an economic, societal, cultural, or human-centered character, and in advancing and encouraging regard for human rights and for cardinal freedoms for all without differentiation as to race, sex, linguistic communication, or faith ; and

To be a Centre for harmonising the actions of states in the attainment of these common terminals ( Purposes ) .

Equally far as intent is concerned, there are both pros and cons to the UN charter and the UN ‘s overall intent. First and first when the UN was foremost established the intent behind it was to make a more stable universe, to keep peace and security, and in making so it helped decolonise the universe. Besides, since the charter was signed by representatives of authoritiess, it allowed the sovereignty of member provinces to stay integral. It besides allowed for self-government to the citizens of engagement states and it created a human rights government and paved the manner for international jurisprudence.

However, there are some issues as good. The first issue lies in a member province ‘s sovereignty and how to let them to keep full sovereignty because a state ‘ accession to the UN demonstrates a willingness to merchandise sovereignty for other advantages ( Karns 46-47 ) . Additionally, the UN sometimes runs into the issue of nonintervention in another state ‘s issues if the citizens of that state truly back up a system or jurisprudence that goes against the rules of democracy for cultural or faiths grounds. An illustration of this would be Sharia jurisprudence in states such as Saudi Arabia where whipping and cut offing limbs is an recognized penalty.

More issues originate when it comes to the history of the UN and how it was designed. The desire for world-wide peace was outlined in 1941 under the Atlantic Charter in that it promoted the hope to “ see established peace which will afford to all states the agencies of brooding in safety within their ain boundaries and will afford confidence that all the work forces in all the lands may populate out their lives in freedom from fright and want. ” Although the intent outlined high spots a really legitimate ground behind the UN, the issues arise when it comes to the equality among member provinces, which is an issue still confronting the UN today. Harmonizing to Juergen Moosleitner, “ Legal bookmans of the inter-war period had come to recognize that an averment of absolute equality among provinces was non merely incompatible with the world of power distribution among states but besides potentially obfuscatory ” ( 15 ) .


Recently the legitimacy of the UN has come under examination with issues such as the oil-for-food plan and the struggles in the Balkans. In 2003, the Iraqi authorities under Saddam Hussein was accused of pocketing $ 10 billion of $ 64.2 billion in oil gross revenues. The concern that arose was that senior functionaries at the UN were cognizant of what was traveling on and took advantage of the organisation with it being preoccupied with the Iraq war. There were accusals that UN members had profited illicitly and taken payoffs ( Zweifel, 59 ) .

Additionally, there are some that question the authorization behind the UN ‘s docket at any given clip. In August 2003, following the bombardment of the UN central office in Baghdad, there was the thought that some in the Muslim universe position the UN a marionette of US involvements instead than a impersonal party. Last, studies of maltreatments such as the colza accusals in 2005 in the Congo and other parts of the universe in add-on to the recent allegation that UN military personnels were behind the spread of cholera in Haiti, farther hurt the UN ‘s legitimacy in the outside universe ( Zweifel, 74 ) .

There are besides other recent political events that have challenged the legitimacy and caused some to name for major reform within the UN. First, in a station cold-war epoch, the proliferation of knave and failed provinces has brought into inquiry the “ construct of sovereignty as the evidences for autonomous non-interference upheld by the UN ( Muhlen-Schulte, 131 ) . ” Second, following the September 11 onslaughts and subsequent US invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, the relevance of the UN has been threatened. This is because the US straight tested both the institutional and legal flexibleness of the UN. Third, the UN failed to forestall both intrastate conflicts/genocides as in the instance of Rwanda and the Balkans, and besides interstate struggle such as the US invasion of Iraq. The war in Iraq drew peculiarly crisp unfavorable judgment since the UN failed to continue its premier authorization. ( Muhlen-Schulte, 131 ) .

Regardless, the UN has done some things to beef up its legitimacy throughout the universe. The UN is comprised of many bureaus that work to better the universe. Over the old ages, the UN has been behind legion peacekeeping operations throughout the universe, the World Bank provides loaning for developing states, the Universal Postal Union provides mail to and from severe locations safely and efficaciously, universe hungriness is addressed by the World Food Program and International Fund for Agricultural Development, the International Atomic Energy Agency references and regulates atomic energy and abroad its peaceable utilizations, and in conclusion the UN Environment Program, Development Fund for Women and UNICEF reference human-centered issues. Last, the UN won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001 which besides helps beef up the UN ‘s legitimacy in the universe ‘s eyes ( Zweifel, 61 ) .

European Union


On September 19, 1946, Winston Churchill called for a United States of Europe therefore seting the thought for the EU. Originally, the EU was established with the purpose of stoping the frequent and dearly-won wars between European states. Additionally on May 9, 1950, the Gallic Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed a European Coal and Steel Community ( ECSC ) which begins to unite European states economically and politically in order to procure permanent peace. The six laminitiss: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands sign the pact on April 18, 1951, officially set uping the ECSC. This sets the phase for the European Economic Community ( EEC ) , or ‘Common Market ‘ which was officially established on March 25, 1957. During the 1960s, European states stop bear downing each other custom responsibilities during trade and agree on joint control over nutrient production. On January 1, 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom fall in the European poorer countries. In 1981, Greece becomes the tenth member of the EU and Spain and Portugal follow five old ages subsequently. In 1987 the Single European Act is signed. This is a pact which provides the footing for a huge six-year plan aimed at screening out the jobs with the free-flow of trade across EU boundary lines and therefore creates the Single Market. On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall falls reuniting Germany. The 1990s Markss the passing of two pacts, the gaining of three more new members: Austria, Finland and Sweden, and the easiness of communicating with the rise of nomadic phones and the cyberspace. And in 2004, more than ten new states join the EU ( )


European Parliament

The 758 member European Parliament is the voice of the EU citizens and is elected every five old ages by electors in the member provinces. Their primary responsibility is to go through Torahs based on proposals presented by the European Commission. This duty in add-on to the EU ‘s one-year budget is shared with the Council of the European Union. Last, the European Parliament has the power to disregard the European Commission

European Council

The European Council is comprised of the caputs of province from authoritiess of the member provinces and the President of the European Commission. Its primary responsibility is to put the policy docket for the EU. The European Council is led by a president who is elected for 2 A? twelvemonth footings. The European Council meets several times a twelvemonth and its determinations are normally taken by consensus.

European Commission

The European Commission is the executive organic structure of the EU. It represents and upholds the involvements of Europe as a whole. It proposes new Torahs, represents the EU in international trade, and draws up the budget. The committee besides enforces EU Torahs and has the ability to originate legal action in the European Court of Justice against those that break it. The Commission consists of 27 members which come from each member province. The president of the Commission is chosen by EU authoritiess and elected by the European Parliament. The president and members of the Commission are elected for five twelvemonth footings.

The Court of Justice

The duty for construing and implementing EU jurisprudence falls on the European Court of Justice located in Luxembourg. It has the power to construe the EU pacts, regulation on the constitutionality of EU jurisprudence, and settle differences. The European Court of Justice is comprised of 27 Judgess elected by member provinces for six-year footings.


Harmonizing to Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union the EU has the undermentioned aims:

1 ) To advance economic and societal advancement and a high degree of employment and to accomplish balanced and sustainable development, in peculiar through the creative activity of an country without internal frontiers, through the strengthening of economic and societal coherence and through the constitution of economic and pecuniary brotherhood, finally including a individual currency in conformity with the commissariats of this Treaty,

2 ) To asseverate its individuality on the international scene, in peculiar through the execution of a common foreign and security policy including the progressive framing of a common defense mechanism policy, which might take to a common defense mechanism, in conformity with the commissariats of Article 17,

3 ) To beef up the protection of the rights and involvements of the subjects of its Member States through the debut of a citizenship of the Union,

4 ) To keep and develop the Union as an country of freedom, security and justness, in which the free motion of individuals is assured in concurrence with appropriate steps with regard to external boundary line controls, refuge, in-migration and the bar and combating of offense,

5 ) To keep in full the acquis communautaire and construct on it with a position to sing to what extent the policies and signifiers of cooperation introduced by this Treaty may necessitate to be revised with the purpose of guaranting the effectivity of the mechanisms and the establishments of the Community.

6 ) The aims of the Union shall be achieved as provided in this Treaty and in conformity with the conditions and the timetable set out therein while esteeming the rule of subordinateness as defined in Article 5 of the Treaty set uping the European Community. ( )

There are some pros and cons with the intent of the European Union. Equally far as strengths are concerned, it allows member states the freedom of motion and endeavor without worrying about steep duties, it provides a individual currency, provides for a greener environment and has allowed for more economic stableness and coherence.

Some possible drawbacks of the intent is that although it allows states to work together to set up peace and prosperity, it may do issues when it comes to military action, constitutional reforms, and other dialogues. Differing point of views and deficiency of consensus from member states could potentially procrastinate farther patterned advance. Besides, by non holding a incorporate military it relies on NATO for the common defence. However, it besides runs into the issue of “ impersonal ” member provinces such as Finland oppugning the compatibility of their neutrality with military intercession if and when the EU decides to construct a incorporate military. By non holding a incorporate military force, they do non hold the ability to “ asseverate its individuality on the international scene. ”


Harmonizing to recent Eurobarometer polls and low vote turnouts in recent elections, citizens of the EU may experience that legitimacy is missing. Additionally, there are legion marks of limited democracy: there are no European parties or political leaders, no media for unfastened arguments and there is no competition for European offices. Additionally, there are a battalion of societies and civilizations in which there are at least 20 official linguistic communications, and in conclusion the EU does non hold an official fundamental law ( Zweifel, 133 ) .

Equally far as the battalion of societies and civilizations are concerned and its relation to the EU ‘s legitimacy crisis, Mette Jolly believes that it can be attributed to the deficiency of demos-not a people, non a state. She states that the “ Deficit of democratic legitimacy is said to be caused partially by the civil order ‘s deficiency of a demos which makes it unsuitable for majoritarian decision-making ” ( 12 ) .

Caitriona Carter and Andrew Scott besides agree with this statement. They believe that a shared history and common civilization aid specify a modern democratic province. That “ there can be no administration unless there is a preexistent demos defined in ethno-cultural footings: the state is the pre-requisite of the province ” ( 436 ) .

There are other issues that are impacting the legitimacy and coherence of the EU every bit good. Carter and Scott note that there are three such issues. The first is the loss of a consolidative antagonist when the Soviet Union collapsed. The 2nd is the outgrowth of alternate and extremist political relations in the signifier of rightist parties in response to in-migration issues ; and 3rd is the deficiency of growing of stuff prosperity and rise in unemployment ( 434 ) .



The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) is an international confederation comprised of 28 states of Europe and North America created to guarantee the peace and security of the North Atlantic part. NATO was formed on April 4, 1949, following the sign language of the Washington Treaty. Initially NATO was little more than a political organisation and did non hold an established bid construction. However, following the start of the Korean War the member states realized the importance of supporting Europe from the looming Soviet menace and worked to set up a bid construction with General Dwight D. Eisenhower as the first commanding officer. In May 1955 West Germany joined NATO. In response the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact that same twelvemonth. In 1958, France began knocking NATO for it being dominated by the United States and in 1966 later withdrew from the military bid construction. However, France continued to adhere to the North Atlantic Treaty in instance of future aggression by the Soviet Union. Following the Cold War, NATO began to concentrate more on concerted security instead than disincentive. In 1995, NATO began presenting airstrikes against Bosnian Serb places and in 1999 it launched a monolithic air run against Serbia and Slobodan Milosevic in an effort to stem the mass race murder against Muslim Albanians. Following the September 11 onslaughts, NATO has shifted its focal point to atomic proliferation and universe terrorist act ( NATO ) .


NATO was founded to carry through its end of safeguarding the freedom and security of its members by manner of political and military agencies. NATO ‘s members consult together to turn to security issues of concern and work jointly to take whatever action is necessary to support against menaces. One rule that guides NATO is the policy that an onslaught against one member is considered an onslaught against all members. On September 12, 2001, this rule of corporate defence was acted on after the terrorist onslaughts against the United States, when NATO invoked Article 5 of the NATO pact, declaring the onslaughts to be an onslaught against all of the NATO member states.

NATO ‘s cardinal end is to safeguard the Allies ‘ freedom and security by political and military agencies. NATO remains the chief security instrument of the transatlantic community and look of its common democratic values.NATO expansion has furthered the U.S. end of a Europe whole, free, and at peace.

Article 5 of the Washington Treaty — that an onslaught against one Ally is an onslaught against all — is at the nucleus of the Alliance, a promise of corporate defence. Article 4 of the pact ensures audiences among Allies on security affairs of common involvement, which after 60 old ages have expanded from a narrowly defined Soviet menace to the critical mission in Afghanistan, every bit good as peacekeeping in Kosovo and new menaces to security such as cyber onslaughts, and planetary menaces such as terrorist act and buccaneering that affect the Alliance and its planetary web of spouses.

In add-on to its traditional function in the territorial defence of Allied states, NATO leads the UN-mandated International Security Assistance Force ( ISAF ) in Afghanistan and has ongoing missions in the Western Balkans, the Mediterranean, and Iraq ; it besides conducts extended preparation exercisings and offers security support to spouses around the Earth, including the European Union in peculiar but besides the United Nations and the African Union.



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