Fundamentalism and Casteism are considered as two different phenomenons. Whereby both these nomenclatures have been approached likely as different issues lying in the present Indian scenario. Conflict, every bit good, seems to be considered as the result of these issues. However, there is an effort made in this paper to happen out foremost, what fundamentalism means, secondly how fundamentalism becomes the base for Casteism ; thirdly how Casteism paved the manner for different struggles ; and eventually, this paper deals with the Pastoral Response from the Pastoral Care and Counselling position to the caste struggle state of affairs, which emerged from fundamentalism. Though Fundamentalism itself has the broad scope of definition and yet non confined to a peculiar definition, in order to restrict the range of this paper, the definition of the term Fundamentalism is narrowed down to the foundational apprehension of the Caste System. However, this paper tries to interact with these ‘isms ‘ from their basic apprehension and what upshot they have brought to the society.
1. Fundamentalism – What does it intend?
Fundamentalism is “ the pattern of following really purely the basic regulations and instructions of any faith ” defines Oxford Advance scholars Dictionary ‘s 7th edition. Steven Jones, a research bookman from Virginia University describes that the term ‘fundamentalism ‘ was initiated in the series of brochures authored and published by taking Evangelical clerics in US between 1910 and 1915. However, the term was given full strength in 1920 after “ Curtis Lee Laws appropriated the term `fundamentalist ‘ as a appellation for those who were ready ‘to do conflict royal for the Fundamentals. ‘ ” M.M.Thomas remarks, “ These brochures opposed the application of modern critical historical attack to the bible and the traditional tenet of Christianity, because in their sentiment, it would destruct their supranatural and supernatural elements which belong to their really kernel. ”
Though the definition of this term has broad scope of significance, yet a fundamentalist is reckoned as the rigorous follower of a peculiar faith ‘s instructions and its beliefs. James Barr states “ Fundamentalism is based on a peculiar sort of spiritual tradition, and uses the signifier, instead than world, of scriptural authorization to supply a shield for this tradition. ” Even, Bruce Lawrence in his book Defenders of God defines ‘fundamentalism ‘ as: “ The avowal of spiritual authorization as holistic and absolute, acknowledging of neither unfavorable judgment nor decrease ; it is expressed through the corporate demand that specific creedal and ethical dictates derived from the Bibles be publically recognized and lawfully enforced. ” David Frawley positions that, “ Fundamentalists by and large hold to their faith ‘s older societal imposts and garbage to incorporate into the broader watercourse of modern society which recognizes freedom of spiritual belief. ” In understanding to this statement, Dr.Ramendra identifies, “ fundamentalism means belief inA the actual truth of spiritual Bibles and cardinal spiritual beliefs of any faith. ” For Altmeyer and Hunsinger fundamentalism is “ the belief that there is one set of spiritual instructions that clearly contains the cardinal, basic, intrinsic, indispensable, inerrable truth about humanity and divinity ; that this indispensable truth is basically opposed by forces of immorality which must be smartly fought ; that this truth must be followed today harmonizing to the cardinal, unchangeable patterns of the yesteryear ; and that those who believe and follow these cardinal instructions have a particular relationship with the divinity. ” As a whole, though the term ‘fundamentalism ‘ is widely used with different intensions, still it can non be denied that the term fundamentally used with spiritual impression and it stands for it till today whether base for inerrancy of truth or “ combativeness in its mentality ” . M.M.Thomas, Citing V.M.Tarkhundes ‘s statement, says “ Fundamentalism consists of noncritical attachment to ancient beliefs and patterns. ”
On the other manus, Fundamentalism is likely viewed as the counter establishment to Liberalism, Modernism and Secularism. “ The fundamentalist motion attempts to continue what it considers the basic thoughts of Christianity against unfavorable judgment by broad theologists. ” Fundamentalism designates “ what is more by and large called a conservative type of Christian idea, as opposed to the broad or modernist inclinations. ” M.M.Thomas states “ It may besides originate from the insecurity of religion when its spiritual looks are faced with the necessity to alter. “ and “ Fundamentalism emerged out of reaction to closed secularism ” Erskine Clarke utters that “ Fundamentalists resist secularization and the cultural elements of modernness… ” Accordibng to Marsden, “ an American fundamentalist is an evangelical who is hawkish in resistance to broad divinity in the churches or to alterations in cultural values or mores, such as those associated with “ secular humanitarianism. ” ” In his note, he says, “ in recent old ages been applied by analogy to any militantly traditional faith, such as Islamic fundamentalism. ” M.M.Thomas opines, “ It is justifiable to characterize as fundamentalist similar motions in any faith which buttress traditional beliefs and societal order from reform or alteration… ”
Over all, Fundamentalism can be defined as purely following of spiritual beliefs and traditions every bit good as it is a antagonistic attitude against modernness which hails secularism and liberalism. With this definition, allow us travel on to analyze the caste system in India.
2. Caste: Does it emerge from Fundamentalism?
On its mentality, everyone would state that Caste system is likely non an result of Fundamentalism because both of them are different issues. Whereby, in this paper an statement is proposed that Casteism in India is one of the fruits of Fundamentalism. Though Caste System itself has the attitude of fundamentalism, the primary focal point of this paper is how Casteism can be the victim of fundamentalism. There were many who fought like B.R.Ambedkar, Periyar, Jothiba Phule and Panditha Ramambai for the obliteration of this canker system, hence it still regulations the Indian society because of its deep roots in the Indian Soil. In order to confirm the statement, it is good to see the definition and beginning of the Caste system in India.
The word caste, which is of “ Spanish and Lusitanian beginning, ” is “ derived from Latin Castus which means pure. ” However, the Portuguese word casta means “ engender, race or sort. ” It seems that the word “ was used by the Portuguese to denote Indian societal categorization ” says Bal Krishna Sharma. Seligman describes caste as “ an endogamic and familial subdivision of an cultural unit busying a place of superior or inferior rank or societal regard in comparing with other such subdivision. ” Nesfield and Sir H.Risley besides support this position. Ketkar defines caste as “ ( 1 ) rank is confined to those who are born of members and includes all individuals so born ; ( 2 ) the members are forbidden by an grim societal jurisprudence to get married outside the group. ” Therefore, “ caste is a graded system in which each section has its individuality with a common name, beginning and purely specified inter-group dealingss. Each group is endogamic, traditionally following an business and basking a peculiar postion in the societal hierarchy, built around the resistance of pureness and pollution. The groups are localised, but keep societal distance between them. ”
However, Casteism arises out of Hindu doctrine and becomes the beacon of the alone individuality of the Hindu Society. Oxford Dictionary defines as “ any of the four chief division of the Hindu society, originally than made harmonizing to map in the society. ” T.K.Oomen provinces, “ What is alone to India is the all permeant Caste hierarchy, legitimised through the Hindu philosophy of Karma and reincarnation. ” P.K.Kar elucidates that the beginning of Caste system is in “ the Hindu doctrine of four Varnas. ” Ambrose Pinto cites Ambedkar ‘s position that “ the countenance behind the caste system is the spiritual countenance, for, the caste as the new signifier of Varna system derives its countenance from the Vedas which form the sacred books of the Hindu faith and which are infallible. I say unluckily because anything, which has a spiritual countenance, becomes by virtuousness of it sacred and ageless. To the Hindu, caste is sacred and caste is ageless. ” Max Weber Cited by Toppo provinces, “ Caste, that is, the ritual and rights and responsibilities it gives and imposes, and the place of the Brahmans, is the cardinal establishment of Hinduism. Before everything else, without caste there is no Hindu. ” Therefore, the caste system in India belongs to Hindu Philosophy which emerges from Vedas and Upanishads. Whereas this system is cemented by the codification of Manu, called “ Manava Dharma Shastra or Manusmirti. Dr.Ramendra says, “ Harmonizing to Manusmriti, anybody who argues critically and logically aboutA dharmashastras ought to be ostracized. ”
With the above information, allow us now look at the similarities between Fundamentalism and Casteism. Basically, both these doctrines consider the spiritual beliefs, instructions, and tradition as their base. Another facet is their strong resistance to modernism. While modernism supports liberalism and secularism, the caste system in India can witness its strong roots in the Indian Soil. For which, the recent issues like ‘Honour Killing ‘ , the atrociousnesss against Dalits and the demand for caste base nose count all show the really fact that though India achieves many things with modernness, yet is under the strong bondage of Casteism. Dr.K.S.Jacob provinces, “ While the layman, socialistic and democratic rules enshrined in the fundamental law demand equality of results, the built-in caste-related inequality continues to rule world in Indian society. ” M.M.Thomas claims, ” Purity and dross thoughts were the spiritual foundation of caste and it is the return to it by the in-between category for religious and economic stableness that makes their displacement from secularism to hindutva. ”
It is painful to observe the caste embracing is non merely of Hinduism, but besides it has its strong footage in Isalam and Christianity excessively in the recent yesteryear. One may likely inquiry, why such immorality system in these faiths? The reply drawn by Koilaparampil when speaking about Caste among Christians, he states “ the rank of the Christian in the local community continues to depend on the Caste from which he was converted and this persists to the 3rd and forth coevals. ” As M.M.Thomas states “ Fundamentalism consists of noncritical attachment to ancient beliefs and patterns ” may likely back up this impression when we compare Caste among Christian and Fundamentalism. As “ Caste is considered of import for designation, ” may besides back up the above position.
Finally both these issues may Probably take towards struggle or force. The recent slaying in Khairlanji, a small town in Maharashtra depicts the image of the caste system ‘s regulation yet in Indian dirt. Therefore, Casteism can likely see as the fruit of fundamentalism and this leads to the present twenty-four hours Caste struggles.
“ Etymologically the term ‘conflict ‘ is derived from ‘con-fligere ‘ ( Latin ) denoting to strike together. It implies battle, clang, crisp or mild dissension or even hostility. ” Rachel Bagh cites William W.Wilmot and Joyce L.Hocker ‘s definition “ struggle is an uttered battle between at least two mutualist parties who perceive incompatible ends, scarce, resources, and intervention from others in accomplishing their ends. ” Alan C.FIlley defines struggle as a procedure which takes topographic point between two or more parties. By parties he refers to persons, groups, or organisations. Whereby, he explains, “ Within our assorted societal relationships are some which involve existent or perceived differences between two or more parties. Where the involvements of the parties are reciprocally sole – that is, where the addition of one party ‘s end is at the cost of the other ‘s, or where the parties have different values- so the ensuing societal interaction between the parties contains fertile land for struggle. ” Harmonizing to Lewis A.Coser, struggle is “ a battle over values or claims of position, power and scarce resources, in which the purposes of the conflicting parties are non merely to derive the coveted values but besides to neutralize, injure or extinguish their challengers. Such struggles may take topographic point between persons and between collectivities. Intra group every bit good as inter group struggles are perennial characteristic of societal life. ” B.J.Prashantham states “ Incompatible ends and agencies of accomplishing them can take struggles in inter-personal dealingss as would, differences in perceptual experience, communicating manners, personality differences, personal involvements and political orientation. ” Therefore, Maria Arul Raja remarks, “ Whenever human bureau is alive and active, they appear instead clearly, in a positive or negative mode. ” Conflict, therefore. Can be defined as the battle between two individuals or parties taking at some end to accomplish.
Conflict is categorised under four divisions ; they are intra-personal, inter-personal, intra-group and inter-group.
It is struggle within a individual. Murry states that harmonizing to psychologists “ there is a crowd in each of us. ” For which he elucidates, “ there is a struggle between the disbursement ego and salvaging ego of a individual when he received money. ” For him, “ Sigmund Freud ‘s theory of a individual as a complex of three forces ( the Id, the Ego, the Super-Ego ) each with different wants and criterions ” and “ Eric Berne ‘s theory of a individual as a complex of three different ego-states ( Parent ego, Adult self-importance, and Child self-importance ) with three different attitudes to life and the environment, ” are the best informants for explicating intra personal struggle.
This is a struggle between two persons. “ Each individual has different demands, values system, a universe position and wants. When people with these differing temperaments meet, they clash. The difference may farther widen by difference in sex, race, category and credo and societal struggle becomes inevitable. ”
Intra-Group and Inter-Group
Inter-group and even intra-group struggle can originate due to differences in ends, values, truenesss and heritage. “ Race, part, credo, nationalities, and political orientations are among the factors doing inter-group struggles. Members of different groups develop inter-group truenesss and perceive the other groups with neutrality, bias, and hostility. ”
Therefore, struggle arises in any one signifier of the above. It is of import to observe that a individual ‘s behavior may impact his personality every bit good as others. Alfred Adler states that “ a adult male is motivated chiefly by societal impulses. ” Behaviourist therapy considers “ outward behavior are the consequence of faulty, maladaptive acquisition from the environment. ” So, struggle in the inter personal or inter group degree may jump out because of the intra personal struggle. Besides, for the interpersonal struggles, P.K.Kar narrates, lower castes in India who “ are disabled from the societal, economic, educational and spiritual point of view, most frequently become cognizant of their place and resent subjugation and favoritism by higher castes. This alteration in the mentality of the lower castes culminates in inter caste struggles. ” The Khairlanji Murder is the best illustration of this cause. Another present world issue in the Indian scenario is Honour violent deaths. This issue is “ the reaction to inter-caste matrimonies is much stronger and violent when the miss marries a dalit or into a lower caste than her ain, ” Says Times of India.
Knowing the fact that the Caste is one of the beginnings of struggle, now we move on to the following subdivision where we can pull some utile responses to decide the struggle from the Pastoral Care and Counselling position.
4. A Pastoral Response to Caste Conflict
Pastoral Care and Counselling in the words of William A.Clebsch and Charles R.Jackle is defined as “ a assisting act, done by representative Christian individuals, directed towards the healing, prolonging, guiding, and reconciling of troubled individuals whose problems arise in the context of ultimate significances and concerns. ” Therefore, a Pastor or a Christain counselor is the 1 who helps people in times of their problem. For which, C.W.Bristar expresses, “ the Church ‘s ministry is personal and societal, runing from single redemption and counsel to common support and societal public assistance. ” Rachel Bagh refers that “ we are called to the ministry of reconciliation/peacemaking ( 2Cor. 5:17-20 ) . ” So, the function of the Counsellor in the struggle declaration is important and necessary in order to assist individuals to emancipate from the bondage of Conflict. Probably, there may be diverse sentiments and suggestion for the struggle declaration, hence hereby some pastoral responses are placed wittingly the restriction of this paper.
Preparation of the Counsellor
In order to hold a fruitful rapprochement ministry, the readying of the Counsellor is important. For which Augsburger suggests that “ the go-betweens seek increasingly sharpen their basic accomplishments of empathy, active hearing, sensitiveness to demands of parties, sense of timing, verbal and non-verbal communicating accomplishments, capacity to keep neutrality while staying in contact, and ability to understand the phases of dialogue and struggle declaration. ” Along with this, Rachel Bagh suggests that the go-between should be “ trusty and confidential. ” Besides, the counselor demand to feel the presence of Holy Spirit and can likely use spiritual resorts ( like Prayer, Scripture and etc. ) and Religious symbols ( Theological symbols like Grace, forgiveness, Atonement and so on ) in the guidance procedure. Therefore, the readying of the counselor is necessary before the guidance procedure starts in caste struggle declaration.
Preparation of the Counselee
Fixing for Acceptance
Acceptence is the basic facet in struggle declaration. Conflict arise when one individual thinks that he is superior. Both Fundamentalism and caste sytem have the attitude of Superiority. Whereby others those who do n’t follow the norms of the fundamentalists are considered as the enemies of fundamentalism. This attitude creates struggle. The inferior attitude of oneself leads to lower status composite, aggression, fright, anxiousness and so on. This postulates the intrapersonal struggle. Whereby, superior attitude leads to interpersonal or inter-group struggle excessively. The counselor needs to promote the client to see other homo as human and should assist him/her to esteem each other. As Carl Roger ‘s proposes, ‘Unconditional Positive Regard ‘ demand to be of import in deciding the job. The best illustration of this credence would be Jesus. As Murry states, “ Christians are the members of the new humanity in Christ whose ideas and actions are directed by the rules of Christ. ” Therefore, the counselor helps the client to fix himself to accept each other.
Promoting for ‘love your Neighbour ‘
Another of import facet in struggle declaration is promoting the client to love other even enemies. Rational affectional Therapy of Albert Ellis high spots irrational beliefs and perceptual experience leads to deformation of personality. Both caste system and Fundamentalism imposes hatred instead love with the irrational spiritual beliefs. For illustration, Ambrose Pinto in his article ‘Caste struggle in Karnataka, ‘ indirectly quotes the major crisis of the struggle in Idapanur is hatred between different castes. However, God expects us to Love others ( John 15:12 ) . Murry states that “ the field truth about God and the Christians is that God wants the Christians in every state of affairs to love the other worlds ( even enemies ) , to forgive the others more than one time, to seek besides the involvements of the others, to make the others as he/she would wish to make to him/her. ”
Making a Sense of Reconciliation
The conservative construct is that ne’er accommodate with anybody. Fundamentalism is on that line the same manner, though many betterments in the society arise, still we hear about caste favoritism and caste colored atrociousnesss. This shows the strength of non-reconciliation. Whereas, struggle declaration bents on credence, Love one another and forgivenss. The spirit of forgiveness leads towards rapprochement. Murry, states that “ The Christ-event in history is symbolized by the form of the cross Christ died on – the perpendicular line typifying God-human rapprochement accomplished, and the horizontal beam typifying the jussive mood of human-human rapprochement if worlds should avail the efficaciousness of Christ ‘s salvation. The cross of Christ reminds us of God ‘s love, humbleness, forgiveness, and vicarious decease for those who broke His bosom should e the mention point for the Christians in covering with any sort of struggle ; personal, communal or planetary. Ps. 85:10, 2 Cor. 13:11, Rom. 5:1, Eph. 2:14 ) . ” Eric Berne ‘s Transactional Analysis explains the three self-importance provinces ( Parent ego, grownup self-importance, and child self-importance ) . Harmonizing to Murry, “ The over dependance on either one self-importance provinces will ensue in struggle. So, all these three to some proportions are required in a individual. ” The counselee has to be reminded of forgiving each other and accept each other without remarks.
Making the sense of ‘Wholeness ‘
Conflict amendss the personality. As Fritz Perls positions, “ many personalities as missing integrity, as being fragmented and people are frequently cognizant of lone parts of themselves instead than of the whole ego. ” farther he states that the Gestalt healers assist to detect clients self and mobilise it for greater effectivity. Fundamentalism and Caste System segregate the human socity and besides looks other with negative cannotation. Whereas the premier concern of Christian apprehension is to convey back the fragmentd humanity to see wholeness growing. Liberation is one of the facet in delivering integrity, says Clinebell. However, fundamentalism and Casteism opposes the release facet. But in deciding the struggle, the counselor demand to convey the counslee into the sense of release to achieve ‘Wholeness. ‘
Constructing the community of Shalom
Finally, the pastoral response to Caste struggle as struggle declaration is constructing the community of peace and harmoniousness. The major hinderance of Fundamentalism and Casteism is their attack with humanity and society. These both compartmentalise the society and interrupt the human relationship. The graded system of the society on the footing of Law codification of Manu, had non merely divided the Indian Society but besides created hostility. Whwn God creted, he wanted that the creative activity to populate harmoniously. Whereas the present state of affairs goes upside down. However, the struggle declaration needs to construct the community non to destruct.
Fundamentalism is of following purely the instructions and tradition of a faith. Whereby, the being of Caste system demonstrates that the root of the Casteism comes from the Indian spiritual traditions and Hindu doctrine. No 1 can deny, both these issues are interrelated by their idealogy excessively after it has been discussed loosely in this paper. However, these immoralities patterns non merely helped the seeds of struggle to turn but besides claimed many lives in order to fulfill its thirst. Hence, the function of a Christian curate or Counsellor is important at this occasion. If a Chritian misiter give wholly for the interest of constructing the shalom community, hope the land of God will be rooted on this Earth. For reasoning this paper, it will likely be deserving citing Dyanchnad Carr ‘s statements. “ in the Communications Security Establishment of local and micro degree conflicts the injury memories do play an of import function both in maintaining alive the dormant of vent of bitterness and choler every bit good as in fanning them into fires of inferno. We need to make all we can spread the state of affairs and convey about a reconciled peace. ”