Moslems love to indicate out to the Christians and the Jews that their Bibles have been changed and can mention assorted groundss to turn out this.[ 1 ]However, when asked about their ain Bible, Muslims frequently claim with great pride that the Quran has been unaltered for 1400 old ages but many take this as blind religion without being able to supply grounds to confirm the claim in a scholarly mode. Therefore the intent of this essay is to show the saving of the Quran from the clip of disclosure to its digest and that the current Koran in our ownership today is to the full integral without a individual alteration, add-on or minus.
In order to accomplish this purpose we need to look at the early history of the Quran. There are three cardinal periods to research. The clip of the Prophet ( SAW )[ 2 ], the clip of Abu Bakr ( RA )[ 3 ]& A ; the clip of Othman ( RA ) . I will necessitate to set about a double attack and analyze both methods used to protect the Quran from corruptness ; memorisation and written signifier.
The Quran did non get at one time in its entireness but was bit by bit revealed piece by piece over a period of 23 old ages. The First Revelation took topographic point on Lailat Al Qadr[ 4 ]in the Holy Islamic month of Ramadan in the twelvemonth 610 CE when the Prophet ( SAW ) was 40 old ages of age in the cave Hira near Makkah.[ 5 ]The Hadeeth[ 6 ]narrated by Aisha ( RA ) states the Angel Jibreel[ 7 ]( AS )[ 8 ]commanded the Prophet to read, his answer was he could non.[ 9 ]This occurred thrice. This establishes a really of import fact that the Prophet ( SAW ) was illiterate. Angel Jibreel ( AS ) so recites:
Read! In the name of your Lord Who created. Who created Man from a coagulum of jelled blood. Read! And your Lord is Most Big. Who taught the usage of the pen. Taught Man that which he knew non.[ 10 ]
It is nem con agreed upon that the above Verses constitute the original Revelation.[ 11 ]The Prophet ( SAW ) so understood the Angel wanted him to declaim as the Arabic word Iqra besides means to declaim every bit good as read. Thus the Prophet ( SAW ) received Revelation verbally instead than in written signifier. This is besides an of import index as to the Prophet ‘s illiteracy.[ 12 ]Had he been able to read he would hold received written Revelation alternatively he memorized each Revelation. The Quran itself testifies to this:
A Say: Oh world! Lo! I am the Messenger of ALLAH to you all – to Whom belongs the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth. There is no GOD except Him. He quickens and He gives decease. So believe in ALLAH and His Messenger, the nonreader Prophet who believes in ALLAH and in His Wordss, and follow him that haply you may be led a right.[ 13 ]
He would so unwrap the freshly revealed Poetries to his followings who would in bend memorise them.[ 14 ]In Arabia at the clip, really few could read or compose, hence Arab history was passed down through unwritten tradition and Arabs had highly good memories therefore doing it easier to digest the Quran.[ 15 ]
The Quran was besides written down even from the really early yearss of Makkah when the Muslims were under terrible persecution. This can be seen in the Hadeeth about the transition of Omar ( RA ) . The cardinal thing to observe here is the parchment which was hidden by his sister which he demanded to see incorporating the gap Verses of Surah Ta Ha.[ 16 ]
In Madinah, the Prophet ( SAW ) appointed Scribes specifically for the intent of composing down the Disclosure.[ 17 ]Again more grounds of the Prophet ( SAW ) ‘s illiteracy, had he been able to compose he would hold written the Revelation himself and there would be no demand for Scribes. The most outstanding among the Scribe was Zaid Bin Thabit ( RA ) who had a really of import function to play in the Quran ‘s digest as shall be described subsequently. Upon having disclosure, the Prophet ( SAW ) would instantly cite the Scribes and dictate to them and they would declaim back to him in order to duplicate look into everything was so right.[ 18 ]The Prophet ( SAW ) had up to 60 Scribes with at least 4 at a clip so if one passed off, there was continuity and another would take the topographic point of the deceased.
In add-on Angel Jibreel ( AS ) would declaim the Quran with the Prophet ( SAW ) one time a twelvemonth, this would take any errors which crept in and besides this procedure was really of import in structuring the agreement of the Quran as the Ayahs[ 19 ]were non revealed chronologically nor in the right order the appear within the Surahs. In the twelvemonth of his decease, Jibreel ( AS ) sat with the Prophet ( SAW ) and went through the full Quran twice.[ 20 ]
Unlike the First Revelation, the Last Revelation is non as clear cut and a difference of sentiment has emerged. I believe the Final Revelation took topographic point at the Farewell Pilgrimage when the undermentioned Verse was revealed:
A This twenty-four hours have I perfected your faith for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you as faith AL-ISLAM.[ 21 ]
Yassir Qadhi disagrees and believes that 2:281was the concluding Verse revealed merely 9 yearss before the Prophet ( SAW ) ‘s decease.[ 22 ]However I differ on the footing that 5:3 clearly states the faith has been perfected and one time something has been perfected it does non necessitate any add-ons so for Revelation to go on after this would annul the above Verse. Besides this, 2:281 does non bare any cast of conclusiveness about it, it is merely a reminder of The Last Day.
So what precisely did the Prophet ( SAW ) leave behind? It is true to province the full Quran was non compiled in one book but however the full Quran was written but non yet gathered together between two screens. An first-class list of grounds is given by Von Denffer as to why it was non compiled during the life of the Prophet ( SAW )[ 23 ]. Among these are whilst the Prophet ( SAW ) was alive no difference took topographic point sing the Quran, the possibility of new Revelation remained unfastened accordingly flexibleness needed to be maintained as stated earlier the Wahy[ 24 ]did non fall in the order it was to be arranged until the Prophet ( SAW ) passed off as a consequence Wahy so ceased everlastingly. Furthermore many Sahabah[ 25 ]had memorized the full Quran. This was the primary method of conveying the Quran as stated earlier the bulk of Arabs were illiterate. A list of names of senior Sahabah who were Hafizes[ 26 ]is given by Al Azami.[ 27 ]Memorizing the Quran is a tradition started by the Prophet ( SAW ) and the Sahabah and passed down from coevals to coevals and is still practiced today, there are presently 1000000s of Hafizes all around the universe. If every written transcript of the Quran cryptically vanished nightlong, these Hafizes from different parts of the universe could acquire together and reproduce the Quran word for word.
Even instantly after the Prophet ( SAW ) ‘s decease there was no urgency in garnering the Quran due to the fact it was good known. The Quran was successfully disseminated into society and played an active portion in day-to-day life. The Sahabah who specialized in Quran taught others and everyone was eager to larn. Merely after the Battle Of Yamamah, where many Hafizes were killed, did Omar ( RA ) promote Abu Bakr ( RA ) to roll up it in instance it was lost.[ 28 ]This does non propose that Quran was non written instead that the written transcript is worthless without the proprietor available to attest that it was so written in the presence of the Prophet ( SAW ) and that the Prophet ( SAW ) verified it.
For this momentous undertaking, Zaid ( RA ) was summoned. The qualities of Zaid ( RA ) were exceeding. He was a Hafiz every bit good as one of the official Scribe of the Prophet ( SAW ) .[ 29 ]Zaid ( RA ) went about his undertaking in a really disciplined and organized mode. As a Hafiz, he could hold produced a written transcript himself but this would non do. Very strict methods were used.[ 30 ]For each Verse to be accepted it had to be written and backed up by two informants normally himself and Omar ( RA ) . Some Poetries had to be rewritten owing to the fact they were non originally written on composing stuffs such as the bole of a day of the month thenar or camel castanetss.
The function of Omar ( RA ) was instrumental in screening the Quran. He was one of the Scribe of the Prophet ( SAW ) every bit good as a Hafiz. It was his thought to garner the Quran and he persuaded Abu Bakr ( RA ) to take part after he was ab initio loath. He lent his full aid to Zaid ( RA ) in the undertaking of garnering the Quran. Additionally he was the defender and defender of the manuscript for 10 old ages. It was during his reign when he opened many schools and sent Quran expert Sahabah to learn Quran as the fledgling Islamic Empire grew and the Numberss of non-Arabs began to excel the Arabs. He foresaw the quandary which occurred in Osman ( RA ) ‘s clip and was fixing to rectify the state of affairs when he was fatally stabbed.[ 31 ]
Omar ( RA ) did non name a replacement, as a consequence the manuscript was handed down to his girl and widow of the Prophet ( SAW ) , Hafsa ( RA ) .[ 32 ]This signifies there was no usage for this manuscript, as most Muslims knew the Quran or had entree to their ain transcripts therefore no 1 asked to see this transcript.
During the clip of Othman ( RA ) , there was a difference in narration between Muslims from Sham[ 33 ]and Iraq.[ 34 ]In order to work out these jobs, Othman ( RA ) borrowed the official transcript from Hafsa ( RA ) and made extra transcripts. Yet once more, Zaid ( RA ) was summoned for the undertaking every bit good as Abdullah Bin Zubair ( RA ) , Said Bin Al As ( RA ) & A ; Abdur Rahman Bin Hari Bin Hisham ( RA ) .[ 35 ]Once the transcripts were prepared, the original was returned to Hafsa ( RA ) .
Othman ( RA ) so distributed these transcripts to the major metropoliss within the Islamic Empire. He sent adept Qaris[ 36 ]with each transcript to learn the people how to declaim.[ 37 ]This solves the job that the early text lacked points to distinguish between letters which would otherwise look indistinguishable. Additionally, it is deserving observing that at this point in clip, memorisation was by far the most popular method and written transcript was merely a reading assistance so when looking at Othman ( RA ) ‘s book, the reciter would instantly recognize the word as he had already memorized it but it merely served as a welcome refresher.
The chapters of the Quran were arranged in present twenty-four hours order. Sceptic orientalists would propose that the Companions fixed the agreement. This is wrong. The chapters are non arranged in any peculiar organized order, such is the nature of adult male, the chapters are neither alphabetical, chronological, thematic or in order of length. Since the Quran is non in any humanly known order, it must be harmonizing to Divine Inspiration. The order of the Quran would doubtless conform with the Quran recorded on the Preserved Tablet in the Heavens.
A Nay, but it is a glorious Quran.A On a Preserved Tablet.[ 38 ]
Othman ( RA ) so put frontward all other transcripts, whether complete or fragmental, other than the official versions be destroyed to avoid the differences which occurred amongst the Jews and the Christians. This was to the full accepted by all Companions with non a individual individual voicing displeasure at this thought.[ 39 ]This goes to exemplify the perfect saving of the Quran as if there was even the most minor of alterations, at least one individual would hold made a statement sing it in the annals of history.
Subsequently the authorship of the Quran became widespread and 1000s of transcripts were made. Even at the controversial Battle Of Siffin,[ 40 ]none accused the other of changing the text despite the fact that it would hold vilified the resistance and generated sweeping support for themselves. This demonstrates the Quran has been safeguarded from any corruptness whatsoever.[ 41 ]Soon after, vowel markers and points were added to the text as reading AIDSs to non Arab readers although this is beyond the range of this essay.[ 42 ]The present twenty-four hours Quran is absolutely indistinguishable to Othman ( RA ) ‘s Quran. I would wish to reason this short treatise with the undermentioned Poetry: