1 ) . Discuss how each of the undermentioned aid to relieve bullwhip consequence? a ) . E-commerce and Internet: E-commerce and Internet have come a long manner since their origin. Customers have the option of. doing the orders online at any point in clip. There are specific store timings to impact the gross revenues of the merchandise but this does non use after the origin of E-Commerce. Added to this ; most of the cyberspace applications today are so effectual that they can really be integrated with the bing databases to supply gross revenues and client demand information at different phases of the supply concatenation. This promotion in engineering decidedly helps in relieving the bullwhip consequence since the upstream phases of the supply concatenation can be after and hold an thought of the alterations in client demand for a merchandise. All the phases in the supply concatenation can do effectual and efficient determinations. to affect in similar stock list constabularies and planning activities so that the whole supply concatenation can be optimized ( Global Optimization ) instead than any sequence ( i. e. Sequential Optimization ) .

Therefore E-Commerce and Internet decidedly adds value in increasing the critical information to command stock list. production. lead-times etc. B ) . Express Delivery: Express bringing options fundamentally help in cut downing the lead-times associated in each of the phases of the supply concatenation. As a affair of fact lead-time is one of the major causes to add to the variableness in the supply concatenation. as a consequence heightening the bullwhip consequence across the upstream phases. Due to the handiness of information and the express bringing options that are being offered today ; for illustration. by FedEx. UPS etc. the providers are able to transport the constituents at a faster rate to the makers and likewise the warehouses to the retail merchants. Thus Express Delivery options are able to decide the bullwhip consequence to a great extent. which is supplying an chance for the participants in the supply concatenation to be after good and efficaciously. Besides. as discussed in this chapter the makers and distribution centres will hold an option unfastened to wait till the demand for different merchandises reach the full truck load bound so as to salvage in the transit costs.

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As a consequence of all these advantages the Express Delivery of Goods decidedly helps in relieving the bullwhip consequence. degree Celsius ) . Collaborative Prognosiss: As discussed earlier. the collaborative prognosiss helps in attainment of planetary optimisation of the supply concatenation. This is assured merely when all the participants or phases in the supply concatenation adhere to the fact that they are unfastened to the information sharing. Whenever the construct of information sharing exists so the handiness of the client demand. Gross saless and the stock on manus information at each phase of the supply concatenation is made clear and the different participants such as the providers. makers. warehouses and the retail merchants can affect or utilize the same stock list policy to command their stock list. This helps in sharing the hazard across the supply concatenation and will assist in proper planning. care of stock list. decrease in lead-times and transit and variableness and thereby cut downing the bullwhip consequence. vitamin D ) . Everyday Low Pricing: Everyday low pricing is first-class construct that will do the clients buy merchandises on a regular footing.

As observed in the instance of Wal-Mart. this construct helps in pull offing the merchandises in such a manner that the monetary value of the merchandise offered to the clients can be reduced for the periods henceforth. This is achieved by join forcesing with the maker to command the stock list of the retail merchant. In order to accomplish this. there is a demand of information sharing from the retail merchant to the maker. so that the maker estimates the demand in the retail shop and makes understandings to refill the goods himself. This is successfully implemented in Wal-Mart and as discussed above is one of the best ways to cut down the bullwhip consequence across the supply concatenation. vitamin E ) . Vendor – Managed Inventory: Vendor – Managed Inventory is the same state of affairs where the maker gets to cognize the consumer demand from the retail merchant and manages and replenishes the stock list at the retail merchant. In order to affect in the Vendor Managed Inventory the retail merchant should be able to portion the demand and gross revenues information with the maker or the distributer.

The advantage of this construct is that this can be applied across all the upstream phases of the supply concatenation and can cut down the supply concatenation costs to a greater extent by cut downing the hazards involved across all the phases and bettering the direction of stock list. Therefore. due to the above explained advantages the Vendor – Managed Inventory helps in relieving the bullwhip consequence. degree Fahrenheit ) . Supply Contracts: Supply contracts go a long manner in accomplishing Global optimisation of the supply concatenation. It helps the supply concatenation participants in the long tally in sharing their net incomes. costs and cut downing the hazards on common understandings and by making win-win state of affairss. The provider contracts are chiefly made to portion the client information across all the phases of supply concatenation. These are by and large made for a common benefit among the supply concatenation participants. For illustration the retail merchant will portion the information of the client demand and gross revenues information with the distribution centre.

The distribution centre will affect in supplying some inducements to the retail merchant in the signifier of doing money if the gross revenues exceed a certain value or aid in the retail merchants promotional and advertisement activities. Over the old ages the fabrication and service industries have realized the importance of supply contracts in cut downing the hazards. uncertainnesss and the corresponding variablenesss that exist in supply concatenation. Hence we can province that Supply Contracts came a long manner in accomplishing Global Optimization of the Supply Chain and thereby relieving the bullwhip consequence. 3 ) . What are the advantages of retail merchants sharing stock list? For case. you suppose to travel the auto trader. to happen a bluish theoretical account and he doesn’t have that theoretical account in stock. Typically he will obtain the theoretical account from another local trader. What are the disadvantages to the retail merchant? A ) . The advantages to the Retailer are:

a ) . He wins the assurance of the client. And thereby additions his gross revenues and service degrees. B ) . He will portion the net income from the another local retail merchant from whom he is obtaining the auto. degree Celsius ) . Creates a Win – Win state of affairs for him. the consumer and the local trader. vitamin D ) . Reduces the lead clip and thereby involves in on-time bringing. vitamin E ) . Reduces the bullwhip consequence.

The Disadvantages of the Retailer are:
a ) . He loses the entire sale value of the auto since he is join forcesing with the another local trader.
B ) . Hazard of losing the client. Since even though he assures the auto to the client. the client has ever has the option of traveling to his rival to travel and purchase the auto.
degree Celsius ) . Increased lead clip.
vitamin D ) . Reduced Grosss.
vitamin E ) . Reduced Service Levels.
degree Fahrenheit ) . Should be in definite supply contract with the local trader.

4 ) . Discuss five ways that lead times in the supply concatenation can be reduced? A ) . The ways in which the lead times in the supply concatenation can be reduced are by:
1 ) . Information Sharing: Information sharing can cut down the order processing times to a Greater extent and thereby cut downing the lead-times.
2 ) . By accurately gauging safety stock and base-stock degrees to assist non to acquire out of stock. That is affecting in more accurate prediction of demand in the upstream phases of the supply concatenation.
3 ) . By the use of EDI ( Electronic Data Interchange ) to cut down the information lead clip and hence affecting proper planning of stock lists.
4 ) . Reducing Ordering Lead Times By cross moorage.
5 ) . Involving in more accurate prognosiss ; due to decreased prognosis skyline.
6 ) . Involving in optimum distribution web designs.
7 ) . Obtaining point of Scale Data from the retail merchant will assist the provider know the exact gross revenues of the retail merchant and thereby affecting in keeping right sum of stock at the right clip in the right proportion and at the right location ( Distribution centre or Warehouse ) .
8 ) . Involving in Vendor Managed Inventory.
9 ) . Involving in Supplier contracts. that is in the state of affairss where the retail merchant is out of stock. retail merchant can inquire the jobber or the warehouse to straight transport the constituents to the client.

5 ) . See the supply concatenation for breakfast cereal. Discourse the viing aims of the husbandmans who make the natural stuffs. the fabricating division of the company that makes the cereal. the selling of the company that makes the cereal. the distribution arm of the food market concatenation that sells the cereal and the director of an single food market shop that sells the cereal. A ) . The viing aims for the husbandman would be bring forthing the natural stuff i. e. crop every bit much every bit much as natural stuff possible and sell it to the maker i. e. in big measures. The maker might non desire to take the hazard in purchasing big sum of natural stuff from the husbandmans. because of the fluctuations in demand from the distributers.

The viing aim for the distributer arm of the food market concatenation would be acquiring the needed packages or measures of cereals harmonizing to the demand of the retail merchant. So the major aim for them is to pull off the uncertainness in demand from the retail merchant or the existent food market shop and acquire the right measures from the maker. The viing aim of the food market shop is to understand and reply the uncertainness in the client demand and acquiring in needed measures of the cereal. 6 ) . See Example 5-1 and discourse schemes that could assist Newbury Comics and SoundScan Inc. Solve the misalignment job. A ) . Information sharing is an of import component in cut downing the variableness in the supply concatenation and thereby cut downing the bullwhip consequence. But if they ate non done on the footing of dependable contracts and understandings so it will be a loss to one of the participants involved in it.

Here in the Newbury cartoon strips instance. the company got monetary value inducements on the record labels provided by the SoundScan and in return to that ; Newbury Comics used to portion the information with the Sound Scan. but the disagreement came when SoundScan started sharing the information from the viing retail merchants which did non follow with the Newbury Comics supply footings because they did non have the exact aggregative demand for the merchandises. So in order to avoid such a misalignment in the information sharing SoundScan should come into footings like what kind of information they would desire to portion with Newbury cartoon strips and to what degrees. Since this causes loss to the Newbury Comics. if SoundScan portions the Newbury information to other viing retail merchants. Therefore both the parties should be careful in sharing the information and doing understandings as we can detect in this instance it’s a great loss for the Newbury Comics to remain in competition in the market.

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