R.E- Euthanasia Coursework

Part A

Euthanasia comes from the Greek, where ‘eu ‘ agencies good and ‘thanatos’means decease. Euthanasia normally means the clemency violent death of person, to live over them from enduring badly from a terminal unwellness. It should be distinguished that mercy killing wholly depends on the word “intentional” – if the decease is non intended, it is non an act of mercy killing. The 10 commandments are a list of spiritual ethical motives which Christians are expected to follow. In exodus 20:1-17 the most outstanding instruction that goes against mercy killing is the 5th commandment “thou shall non kill” . In Britain to kill person deliberately is classified as slaying, even if person requests you to kill them. But the inquiry is ‘if self-destruction is non a offense so why is euthanasia a offense? ‘ However the following are non euthanasia.

* To develop a medical intervention where the load of that intervention would outweigh the benefits ; giving interventions in order to live over hurting even when the intervention may shorten the patient‘s life and do him or her to decease earlier. Known as ‘double consequence ‘ , it is more helpful to recognize that the physician ‘s purpose is to relief the hurting, non the shortening of life.

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* When a mentally capable individual chooses to decline intervention. Doctors can non coerce patients to hold intervention against their will and it is legal for a patient to decline intervention.

There are four types of Euthanasia, some are perceived as right and others incorrect which are identified as either “ active ” or “ inactive ” , and as either “ voluntary ” or “ nonvoluntary ” . Despite the fact that “active” and “passive” are complete antonyms, they still portion similarities ; they both achieve an “easy death” . Active mercy killings take topographic point when medical professionals, or person, intentionally take specific stairss to put to death something that will finally do the patient ‘s decease, usually achieved through giving the patient with an overdose of drugs such as pain-killers or a deadly injection as they believe that they are easing the agony of the patient. A good known illustration of this was on September 17, 1998, where Dr. Jack Kevorkian videotaped himself administrating a deadly medicine to a patient with amyotrophic sidelong induration, doing the patient ‘s decease. Kevorkian was found guilty of second-degree slaying in 1999, and was sent to prison. Passive mercy killing is normally characterized as when a patient dies due to medical professionals either do n’t make something mandatary in order to maintain a patient alive, or when they stop making something that is maintaining the patient alive, such as backdown of medical equipment or unpluging a eating tubing with the premeditated purpose of doing a patient ‘s decease. For illustration, The most common construct is DNR, most once known as “do non resuscitate” , this means if a patient was to all of a sudden hold an unforeseen break in their life maps, such as a bosom onslaught, medical professionals will necessitate to do an attempt to resuscitate them, if they do non even seek to resuscitate the patient, but simply watch them presumptively die shortly. This is inactive mercy killing. In instances where the patient is physically and mentally exanimate, “vegetative state” , and is bound to a foreseeable life in a coma, their life support systems are removed, hence doing the patient ‘s decease.

Voluntary mercy killing besides known as aided self-destruction is when a patient who is capable of doing their ain determinations makes a calculated petition to stop their ain life. These included fortunes, where the patient refuses to eat, take ineffectual medical interventions or bespeaking that life support machines to be switched away. The patient who bears a terminally unwellness is enduring from unbearable hurting which makes their ain life seem like a load ; therefore they require aid to decease a peaceable decease. An illustration of this is Velma Howard aged 76 had Lou Gehrig ‘s disease and was taking off the usage of her limbs one by one. So she decided on an accelerated decease. Unable to compose clearly, Velma recorded an audiotape sketching her grounds for make up one’s minding to decease now instead than wait and that she takes full duty for her action, and stresses that no 1 else should be blamed. Her hubby assisted in her decease and was charged with a category B felony. Non-voluntary mercy killing occurs when person decides that a patient should decease without the patient ‘s cognition and consent, even if the patient does non desire to decease, intending that they can non do their a determination for themselves, in pattern it normally means that the patient is in a coma, unable to pass on, or is excessively ill and weak to be cognizant of what is go oning. Upon being classified as “legally incompetent” , the patient ‘s result remainders on the attendant determination that the assigned guardian green goodss, in conformity with their life will, or antecedently expressed wants. However in legion state of affairss, the job is that the patient ‘s relations and medical professionals disagree with the patient ‘s determination.

Catholics instructions oppose mercy killing ; euthanasia is a sedate misdemeanor, as it goes against God ‘s will and God ‘s word, and the “deliberate and morally unacceptable violent death of a human person” the words of Pope John Paul II. Catholics see euthanasia as slaying, and to let mercy killing is to travel against God ‘s instruction of the 10 commandments “thou shall non kill” ( Exodus 20:1-17 ) . Although no affair how much the bible emphasiss that mercy killing is incorrect, God has given us free will, and no-one can take that off from God ‘s creation.With this free will we are able to do up our ain determinations so people should non be prosecuted for what they may believe. Their statement merely means that it is iniquitous for us to take our ain life. God planned that birth and decease is a portion of our life, so we should esteem that and be thankful that God has given life to each individual. In the Bible, Ecclesiastes Chapter 3 Verse 1-3, there are extra instructions which province that “there is a clip for everything. A clip to be born and a clip to die” , this means that merely God himself has the right to take away life. It is of import to understand that mercy killing is considered incorrect due to the fact that merely God can take away life, and Catholics should understand this. Several churches believe that during the stage before decease is an highly religious event. They believe that it is immoral to interfere with the procedure of deceasing, as this is interrupting God ‘s program for us, and the procedure for the spirit to come on closer to God.

Teachings in the bible show that Euthanasia is incorrect and so backs up why most Catholics think Euthanasia is incorrect:

* God wants each one of us, “You create every portion of me. You put me together in my female parent ‘s womb.” ( Psalm 139:13 ) . Therefore Catholics believe God is maestro of our lives.

* “Before I formed you in the uterus I knew you, before you were born I set you apart ; I appointed you as a prophesier to the nations.” ( Jeremiah 1:5 )

* “Do n’t you know that you yourselves are God ‘s temple and that God ‘s Spirit lives in you? If anyone destroys God ‘s temple, God will destruct him ; for God ‘s temple is scared, and you are that temple.” ( Corinthians 3:16-17 )

These instructions are farther emphasised in the Bible, ( Genesis 1:27 ) , where God is described as making the first worlds in his ain image. “So God created people in his ain image, in the image of God he created himself ; male and female he created them.” ( Genesis 1:27 ) God created Humans to resemble himself. Christians believe that resembling God means to be the ‘image of God ‘ which implies that that human existences are alone since God created us to be like him, and that every person is a portion of God. The instructions and the beliefs of the Catholic Church is moreover emphasized in the catechism, which teaches that “those whose lives are diminished or weakened deserve particular respect” and “the sick and handicapped people should be helped to take as normal unrecorded as possible.” Additionally the catechism believe that “whatever its motivation and agencies, direct voluntary mercy killing consist in seting an terminal to the lives of the disableds, ill or deceasing people. It is morally unacceptable.

Catholics church stresses that life is sacred because these Bible transitions. In 1980 the Catholic Church wrote a papers summing up the instructions of the Catholic Church. This is called ‘Declaration on Euthanasia ‘ . This official announcement of the Church, refering mercy killing, explains why back uping mercy killing is incorrect. It teaches us that our life is sacred and comes from God. That we should esteem God as our Godhead, to take life is to travel against God ‘s program or us. Euthanasia is the incorrect manner to assist person who is ailment, even if they ask for it. Alternatively we should assist that individual to experience valued and loved and non a load to others. The papers accepts that hurting is a portion of life, what does n’t kill us makes us stronger. It besides states that physicians and nurses do non possess the right to help in the decease of another individual, and should alternatively utilize pain-killing drugs, although, certain drugs have the capableness to incite a patient ‘s decease. However the Catholic Church says the usage of these drugs is satisfactory because the purpose is non to kill the individual. The declaration most conspicuously explains the relevancy of the “sanctity of life” with mercy killing, in the sense that the entireness of human life is holy, and the hallowed and alone creative activity of God. The issue of Euthanasia does n’t come up in the Bible. However, there are general holiness of life rules, and some specific instructions that talk about the importance of life. The undermentioned holiness of life instructions could be applied to euthanasia:

* “In the image of God” ( Genesis 1:26 )

* “Do non kill” ( Exodus 20:13 )

* ”You yourselves are God ‘s temple” ( 1 Corinthians 3:16 )

Although the Catholic Church is strongly against mercy killing but we must understand that non all Catholics agree with the church. There are some Christians who believe that mercy killing is viewed as an appropriate response to Jesus ‘ call “Love thy neighbour” and “Do unto others as you would hold them make to you” , intending that we should assist person or let them to decease in self-respect without hurting and that if we were enduring we would likely desire the same thing, moreover the individual ‘s relation should non hold to bear informant to the torment of their loved 1s. To do person to travel on life when they in torment it is immoral, it fundamentally that their human rights and freedom are taken off from them. Other instructions include that we are required to esteem every individual human being ; therefore we should besides esteem their determinations even if it ‘s to stop their life. On the other manus non every individual has to ensue to euthanasia, there are interventions such as hospices and alleviant attention which helps the individual live the remainder of their life every bit happy as possible with hurting killing control.

Part B

The word “hospice” is originally from the Latin word “hospitium” , which refers to both host and invitee. “Hospice” was originally a topographic point of shelter where pilgrims, the sick, wounded, or deceasing could happen remainder, comfort and seek safety from brigands particularly during the Middle Ages. Today ‘s modern definition of a hospice is a little residential infirmary, which has a attention plan which provides comfort and supportive attention for terminally sick patients and their households, by concentrating on the alleviant of a patient ‘s symptoms, alleviating them of their hurting and to assist them undertake their frights of hurting. Their intervention focal points on their felicity instead than a remedy for their unwellness. The whole household is besides considered the unit of attention, and attention extends through their period of mourning through emotional and religious support. Hospices are different to infirmaries ; Hospices offers alleviative, instead than healing intervention and treats the patient non the unwellness. They besides emphasize the quality, and non the period of life.

In 1842 the word “hospice” was to detect a topographic point where the inveterate sick and patients who were deceasing were cared for. It was foremost identified by Mme Jeanne Garnier who set up an organisation devoted to the attention of deceasing patients, known as the Dames de Calaire in Lyon, France. Later on, it was revived by the Irish Sisters of Charity when they started a hospice named “Our Lady ‘s Hospice” in Dublin in 1879. In 1885, the Sisters of Charity expanded internationally, and in 1900 five of the sisters travelled to the East terminal of London to get down the work of caring for the death, and so within a few old ages they had established St Joseph ‘s Hospice in Hackney, London ( 1905 ) . It was at that place in the fiftiess that a immature nurse, Cicely Saunders started work at St. Joseph ‘s, and developed many of the initial values of modern hospice attention.

Dame Cicerly Saunders ( born 22 June 1918 ) , was the laminitis of the earliest modern hospice, St. Christopher ‘s hospice. St Christopher was founded upon the chief belief that the reasoning hebdomads of a individual ‘s life could potentially be highly rich and of import for them and their household. She had foremost trained as a nurse, but due to her chronic wellness jobs, she gave this up and pursues a calling as a medical societal worker. Whilst at this occupation she had developed a relationship with a deceasing patient named David Tasma. Throughout this relationship she recognized that terminally sick patients needed particular attention. She questioned if it was accomplishable to develop a abode to care for those who have been struck with a terminal unwellness, so that their physical, religious and emotional demands could be met.

When David died, she decided to travel in front with her thought, which meant that she needed to develop as a physician, so she concentrated on the usage of drugs to command hurting. To go on her preparation as a physician, she entered a medical school, at the same clip continued working at St. Joseph ‘s Hospice that was run by Catholic Nuns therefore she herself became a practicing Christian. There she conversed with many patients and learnt of the frights and battle that occurred in their contemplation of the procedure of deceasing. In 1959 she decided pursue her thought to get down a Centre for the death, the name of the hospice was named St Christopher ‘s, this was decided as the deceasing travel to an unknown topographic point after decease and St Christopher is a saint who takes attention of travelers. She mailed her proposal for a Centre that cared for the deceasing to legion of import people which had the authorization to do a difference ; St Christopher ‘s Hospice was set in gesture in 1967.

Modern hospices, particularly those of a Christian nature, have alone values which are reflected in their recognition of the fact that every person deserves to populate the remainder of their life with self-respect and regard and without hurting. At the bosom of every hospice ‘s pattern is its importance on alleviative attention instead than healing intervention, where the focal point of a patient ‘s attention is the alleviation and bar of their wretchedness. A chief hospice ‘s ethos is its apprehension of the holiness of life, which is a Christian value which states that all human life is sacred and should be treated with the greatest regard throughout the whole of their unrecorded. This belief is applied in hospice pattern by handling their patients with complete apprehension and great consideration, therefore as to vouch that they are ready for a decease that is satisfactory to them. Hospices are known to supply specializer, alleviative attention for people who face a life endangering disease, and are traveling to decease shortly, because of their incurable unwellness. Hospices do non seek to rush or prorogue a patient ‘s decease, but affirms life and respects deceasing as a normal procedure. This is achieved by turn toing all the symptoms of the unwellness, at the same clip commanding the patient ‘s torment and uncomfortableness. It can be said that hospices is non merely a topographic point for attention, but a construct for wellness attention bringing to people who are covering with life-limiting unwellnesss. Patients and their loved 1s are included in the decision-making procedure, and mourning guidance is provided to the household before, during and after the decease of their loved 1. Most hospices offer reasonably short-run attention. Patients seldom stay longer than six months. Some lone semen for a hebdomad or two to give relations the opportunity to hold a short vacation. Often a individual spends a short clip in a hospice and so returns place for a piece. It allows patients to retain a sense of independency for every bit long as possible, but allows them to develop a relationship with hospice staff. At the same clip, they can get down to come to footings with their ain decease.

Hospices chiefly focus on bring forthing a natural and comfy terminal of life experience for patients who are confronted with a terminal unwellness when healing therapy is no longer desired or allow for the patient. This is achieved through a scope of nursing, psychosocial, alleviative, religious and medical attention provided by interdisciplinary squad of health care professionals that includes a doctor, nurses and societal workers ; other trained professionals include counselors, healers and voluntaries, these professionals work together with the patient and household to develop the hospice program of attention, associating to their hereafter attention and intervention to a grade dictated by, and acceptable to, them, in order to promote patients and their households to be active participants in finding the topographic point and manner of future attention. Hospices seek to alleviate hurting, control symptoms, provide comfort, give medical attention and support services for non merely the patient where remedy is no longer possible, but besides for the patient ‘s household and friends in order to better quality of life and to take the chief fright that people have of deceasing. Doctors and nurses spend a huge sum of clip with each patient providing to their demands. They have perfected hurting control through the usage of drugs, although it does non bring around the patient, it allows them to experience less hurting. By supplying hurting and symptom direction, every bit good as emotional and religious support for the person and household, hospice helps people to populate every bit to the full as possible, in comfort and with self-respect. It can be said that the terminal of life attention is the perceptual experience that hospice agencies to give up hope, as it is no longer realistic to trust for a remedy from the disease but hospices do non seek to take away hope. Rather, hope is seen by hospice workers as an indispensable tool to get bying and covering with a peculiarly hard state of affairs. Some people fear that accepting hospice in their lives means “ to give up. ” They feel the battle for life must go on no affair what the state of affairs. Some deceasing patients may concentrate their hopes on reformulated ends such as the alleviation of hurting, an improved quality of life, or merely the hope for a good dark ‘s slumber. By working with patients to place their single ends, hospice fills an indispensable function in assisting persons preserve and maintain hope. Although hospices have cared chiefly for people who have advanced malignant neoplastic disease, many are now including people with other life-limiting unwellnesss, such as Motor Neuron Disease and AIDS.

In my sentiment, I think that hospices can show a existent option to Euthanasia, since people who have terminally unwellnesss or are deceasing, are traveling to be enduring from hurting, emphasis and anxiousness which their unwellness brings. Therefore they think their life is non deserving life, as they have to endure minutes before their decease, and the patient ‘s household will be really emotional during the procedure of his/her decease, they have to digest watching him/her suffer. This is why people result to euthanasia as they know that they are traveling to decease Oklahoman or subsequently and that their unwellness can non be cured, so they do n’t desire to populate on with the hurting and want to decease. Whereas hospices can do euthanasia unneeded as hospices aim to better the quality of life of the deceasing individual and convey alleviation to household members to assist them come to footings with their feelings. Hospices provide hurting control, intending the patient can populate the remainder of their leftover life merrily without hurting and would non hold to fear hurting when they are sick. They non merely offer Christians but patients from other faiths to understand that the last yearss of their life is cherished, and can hold great significance, they do non hold to be full of hurting and fright ; moreover they should non blow their life merely because they have an unwellness. Many people disagree with mercy killing as they believe hospices allow people to decease with self-respect, the patient will be able to populate usually and merrily until the clip when they die, this can be achieved if the hurting is kept under control. Many Christians support the hospice motion and believe that if there were adequate infinites available for everyone who had a terminal unwellness and wished to travel at that place, that mercy killing would non be needed. Euthanasia goes against God ‘s will, people are non allowed to make up one’s mind who or when they should or should non decease, that is for God to make up one’s mind. Hospices do non interfere with God ‘s program for person to decease ; they merely assist ease the hurting of the patient ‘s before leting them to decease merrily. Dame Cicely Saunders quoted: “Anything which says to the ailment that they are a load to their household and that they are better off dead is unacceptable. What kind of society could allow its old common people dice because they are in the manner? ” This meant that she believed that hospices average mercy killing is unneeded. That mercy killing is non the lone manner to travel if person is terminally sick or is deceasing, hospices is an alternate to euthanasia.

Part C

Assorted people may hold that mercy killing can ne’er be justified, because mercy killing means to stop a life and if person aid in another individual decease, it is seen as slaying, it does non count what type of mercy killing it is, to kill another individual is seen as slaying and it goes against the Catholic Churches ‘ instructions, particularly the bible instruction in the Ten Commandments “thou shall non kill” . Although it is true that people who suffer intolerable hurting from their terminal unwellness want to decease rapidly so they do non hold to bear the hurting, but it is non for us to make up one’s mind when we should decease, as this means that we are throwing off the greatest gift that God has given us, it shows that we do non appreciate God ‘s gift, merely God can make up one’s mind when we die, so we should non fiddle with this, when it is person ‘s clip to decease, they will decease. It is non for us to play God and make up one’s mind for ourselves or person else when they should decease. Not merely this but if mercy killing was justified, so some people may kill others even those who do non desire to decease, and would utilize mercy killing as a screen. Peoples would acquire off with slaying, therefore it could be said that we can ne’er command mercy killing. Additionally many people end their life, since they do non wish to endure non merely from the hurting of their terminal unwellness but besides humanity sing them as different and handling them severely, hence they feel even more down and makes neglect more acceptable as we are allowing them to make this, furthermore it avoids the duty of holding to handle every person with regard and self-respect.

Euthanasia is a inexpensive and ugly act.Christians think that it is cowardly to run off from the adversities of life. Relatives and loved 1s of the terminally sick individual, would non desire the him/her to decease, although it may be a load holding to watch them endure in hurting, they would instead populate with that load instead so hold them decease, they would instead happen ways to command the hurting and allow them populate the remainder of their life merrily than ensuing to euthanasia. There is merely one clip when life can be taken off, but could be said that it is still fiddling with Gods program. This is when a female parent can non present her kid without troubles and hazard of losing her life. However this interferes with God ‘s program as it may be the female parent ‘s clip to decease, and new life to be born. Active and Non-voluntary mercy killing are types of mercy killing which involve a individual stoping another individual ‘s life. Christians can utilize this to demo that mercy killing can non be justified. What gives anyone the right to stop person else ‘s life? Why are people ensuing to euthanasia when they are Centres such as hospices and alleviative attention, where hurting is used to allow people with terminal unwellnesss to populate the remainder of their unrecorded happy? Overall it can be said that life is sacred no affair what status it is in, hence mercy killing is ne’er acceptable, even if you are terminally sick.

On the other manus some people even some Christians will differ, and will state that mercy killing can be justified, because people taking to decease is a basic human right and God has given worlds free will, so people have the right to desire to decease if it ‘s what they wish for. If an single chooses to stop their life for whatever ground, who has the right to knock? No-one should of all time be “ forced ” to populate if they do n’t wish to transport on populating their life. If person decides that they do n’t desire to go on their life for any ground, the pick should be theirs non their household or the authorities. If person does non wish to populate on, cipher has the authorization to state them they “have to” live. Every person has the right to stop their ain life when they please, they have lived their life, and so their last want should be granted even if it ‘s to decease. Peoples had no pick in being born into the universe ; they should hold the pick in taking our ain clip of decease, which is something everyone should hold the right to make. If you were terminally sick and is enduring from intolerable hurting, you would desire to stop that hurting by deceasing a peaceable decease, as you are traveling to decease from the unwellness Oklahoman or subsequently, so why non decease earlier, to avoid holding to populate with hurting, and to avoid holding your loved 1s Black Marias break from watching you suffer and cognizing they cant do anything to assist you. Furthermore if you were to see a loved 1 who was enduring would you non desire to make something to halt them being in wretchedness whatever manner possible. The inquiry is why should authorities forbid mercy killing, when they are n’t around to offer aid, or see what terminally sick patients go through everyday, yet they forbid mercy killings, with the purpose of go forthing them to go on populating on with hurting and unhappiness, people positions on objecting mercy killing are doing people to endure. What has the authorities got to make with what person chooses to make with their life?

If the individual is terminally sick and has no quality of life and has made a petition when mentally stable that they are n’t left to “ vegetate ” so it should be allowed. It could be said that when an animate being such as a Equus caballus has an illness/disease that is incurable they would be put down, since they are non of any usage, so how is this, any different to person who wishes to stop their ain life that has no hope of retrieving and will decease sooner or later.

I think that mercy killing should non be justified, because life is cherished, we should appreciate every individual 2nd no affair what status our life is in. God create us, so merely God can make up one’s mind when we should decease it is non for anyone to play God. Furthermore there are hospices and alleviative attention so people with terminal unwellnesss do n’t hold to needfully stop their ain life, hospices and alleviative attention can assist people live the remainder of their life merrily, and less distressingly, so I do n’t see why there is a demand for mercy killing, mercy killing merely tamping bars with God ‘s programs. Lots of people are taking their leftover hebdomads of their life in a hospice, alternatively of ensuing to euthanasia, this is because it does non travel against God ‘s will and they appreciate God ‘s greatest gift, and in a hospice they can suppress all their frights affecting decease without experiencing intimidated by any of the alleviative attention physicians and nurses. When they die they can decease cognizing that it was a natural decease and they died happy. Their loved 1s would be happier for them to be alive and pain free than enduring in hurting want for decease everyday, hence holding to ensue to euthanasia so they are non in hurting any longer. So if they are hospices to assist people with terminal unwellnesss to be pain free, so it could be said that there is no demand for mercy killing, and some people who want to stop their life are chiefly merely depressed and do non desire to populate any more, which is stupid, because this means that when people get depressed they can stop their life, if it is like this so it merely shows that God making human life was a waste because people are merely traveling to kill themselves. On the other manus there are times where types of mercy killing could be acceptable, such as inactive mercy killing, which means when person has a bosom onslaught and medical professionals do n’t make something mandatary in order to maintain a patient alive, so this could be seen as mulct, because God has planned for them to decease, so no-one should interfere. This is different to other mercy killing, which means to stop an person ‘s life even if it ‘s non their clip to decease.

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