When a certain topic or affair is being discussed by persons it is best to follow the topic or affair to the root of it or in another word its history. In the early old ages of human civilisation ( the age of BC & lt ; Before Christ & gt ; ) there was no such thing as Critical Thinking or logical thought. It is all more on the construct of the instructions of faith, math, art and many more through the footing of monkey see, monkey do.
Therefore, giving the rubric of this subject, the part of Grecian Logics and Metaphysicss in Critical Thinking. From the rubric of the topic in inquiry, Grecian Logics means the constructs of logic that originated from the land of Greek. Last, Metaphysics means a high degree of natural philosophies constructs.
In this context, there are many from the ancient land of Greek that has given parts to civilization sing Logic and Metaphysics, nevertheless, there are merely three that truly has given the true part to the civilisation of the universe. These three harmonizing to Hakim ( 1997 ) is “ aˆ¦the three three of Grecian doctrine ” . Before traveling on, it must be exhaustively be understood that there were no critical thought in the yesteryear and merely doctrine exist. Furthermore, the doctrine of that clip must non be confused with that of present clip. This is due to the fact that the doctrine of the past until the age of the European Renaissance are a combination of scientific discipline, linguistic communication, moralss, mathematics, logic, and many more that are considered as such in this age and clip. Therefore, it should non be of any inquiry of whether philosophers of the yesteryear hold given any parts to the critical thought of the present, for the reply is true.
The three that are meant by Hakim ( 1997 ) are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Furthermore, Hakim ( 1997 ) besides states that Socrates had greatly influenced his pupil Plato, and in bend, Plato has greatly influenced his pupil Aristotle. This shows the relation of these three great minds of their clip.
1. A ) Socrates
The first that will be discussed in this subject is the maestro out of the three, and is the individual harmonizing to Wikipedia as one of the laminitis of modern Western Philosophy.
1. A ) I. The Life of Socrates:
Socrates as harmonizing to Wikipedia was born on the twelvemonth of 469 BC and that he met his ill-timed decease on 399 BC. Even with the illustriousness that he has brought upon himself due to the parts that he had made to the development of Western Philosophy, really small is known about the Maestro himself. This was chiefly caused by the fact that Socrates ne’er wrote any records sing his theories or himself at that. Most of what the modern civilisation even knows about the individuality of Socrates is chiefly due to the Socratic Dialogues that were written by his pupil Plato. ( The Socratic Dialogues are paperss written by Plato in duologue signifier about what was spoken by Socrates in presenting his cognition in his life-time. The Socratic Dialogues are written at the early life of Plato )
Therefore, it must be understood that all of the information obtained sing Socrates were passed on from his pupils such as Plato, Xenophon and others such as Aristophan.
Harmonizing to the histories that were given by all of the related persons, Socrates was a boy of a sculpturer, and that he was married to a adult female called Xanthippe. Furthermore, harmonizing to all the beginnings available, the household life of Socrates was as such ; his female parent Phaenarate after the decease of Socrates ‘ male parent Sophroniscus had remarried and gave birth to another kid, Socrates ‘ stepbrother, Patrocles. In add-on, it was besides said that Socrates was ne’er a male parent to the three kids he had received from Xanthippe, it was said that he had left them to last on their ain. This was due to the fact that Socrates believed that cognition can non be passed from parent to child, it is more of what one does to derive the cognition the individual had originally possessed.
In conformity to the beginnings every bit good, when compared to the other Athenian males of that clip, Socrates appeared hapless. This is because the mean Athenian male at that clip are really good concerned about their celebrity, glorification and wealth. In contrast, Socrates does non even care about his fiscal being.
Socrates by profession is a instructor, even with him himself denying the fact. Socrates can frequently be seen with crowds no affair the grade let it be a adult male, adult female, kids, slave or anyone and prosecute them in a inquiry and reply signifier of conversation. However, even though he gives the community of Greek the hoarded wealth of cognition he ne’er accepts any payments in return for it nor did he of all time inquire for any payments.
Furthermore, it is understood that Socrates is a really pious individual. He would ne’er make anything without seeking consent from the Gods. Furthermore, it was said that Socrates had a voice that ever advices him whenever he would make something bad. This voice became known as a Daemon for Socrates which guided him on all of his actions.
Last, it was made known from the Apology that Socrates started his life as philosopher after his friend told him that the Oracle of Delphi had said that Socrates is the wisest adult male of all Greek. In order to turn out that statement incorrectly, he started oppugning others whom considers themselves smart when after the conversation with Socrates proves that they are non. This showed Socrates that the ground of why he is the wisest adult male of Greek is due to his ignorance. Thus the statement of “ I know cause I do non cognize ” was born ; which meant that merely one who is nescient and knows it is more willing to derive more cognition.
1. A ) two. Contribution:
Again, due to the small cognition known about Socrates, small besides is known about what his parts genuinely are. This is partly due to the fact that Plato ( the greatest subscriber to the being of Socrates tends to utilize the Master as a medium for his ain theories, really small is genuinely known of the Master, this is called the Socratic Problem or the Socratic Paradox ) does non give existent histories of Socrates more of a record of conversations made by Socrates and this posed a batch of jobs for researches to truly understand Socrates. However, harmonizing to Hakim ( 1997 ) “ aˆ¦a graven image is sometimes best left puzzling. ”
Therefore, after many research, philosophers agree that the chief part of Socrates is his debut of the Socratic Method. The Socratic Method or besides known as the method of “ elenchus ” ( sometimes pronounced as “ elenchos ” ) is a alone method where if an person or group is to try to seek an reply to a topic or affair at manus, that peculiar individual or group is must interrupt up the topic into several inquiries and reply them consequently in order to make the reply they seek. The Socratic Method is similar to the Scientific Method which are used today except for the fact that the Socratic Method is a negative method compared to the Scientific Method. This is because as better hypotheses are found due to the experiments that were conducted, the Socratic Method forces one to analyze 1s ain belief in order to obtain the reply they seek. In fact, Socrates one time said: “ I know you wo n’t believe me, but the highest signifier of Human Excellence is to oppugn oneself and others. ”
This led to Socrates ‘ following part, the thought of a topic in a logical mode. Whenever Socrates is in the metropolis, he would ever promote everyone around him to believe logically and non accept everything that was thrown into them. Furthermore, Socrates besides ever asked the people around him to reflect themselves better everyday. This construct of self-reflection and logical thought became about synonymous to Logical Thinking.
1. B ) Plato:
Plato is one of the pupil of Socrates, he received the greatest influence signifier the Master which drove him in composing plants of his ain which brought on Platonism. The full item of this philosopher is as such.
1. B ) I. The Life of Plato:
Plato merely like the Master is besides an Athenian. Plato was born on 428/427 BC ( due to incompatibilities of the records ) , and he died on 347 BC. Plato ‘s household was confirmed to be an influential household in the Athenian Democratic regulation and that Plato was believed by his equals that he would one twenty-four hours take his topographic point in the political place of power at Athens ; nevertheless, this idea was nil more than an semblance. This is chiefly due to the undue decease of his maestro Socrates. ( Socrates was forced to imbibe a poisoned hemlock by the authorities due to the false accusals that was made to him by many others that hated Socrates due to the lower status they felt to him. This event can be found in the Apology and Crito in Hakim ( 1997 ) )
More on Plato ‘s household, Plato ‘s male parent is known as Ariston and his female parent is Perictione. Plato had two brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon and a sister Potone. Besides, originally, Plato was merely a moniker for Plato, Plato ‘s original name was Aristocle, the same as his gramps, and the ground as to why he was called Plato is due to his wide brow. ( Plato means “ wide ” in Greek )
In Plato ‘s early life, Plato was believed to had been instructed in the accomplishments of music, grammar and gymnastic exercises by the most distinguishible instructors of his clip. Furthermore, it was besides said that before Plato met with Socrates he besides had studied doctrine with Heraclitus, Pythagoreans and Parmenidas. ( Both Pythagoreans and Heraclitus are presocratic philosophers )
After finishing his early instruction, Plato met with Socrates and was under his tuition until the decease of the Master. After Socrates ‘ decease, Plato travelled to Italy, Sicily, Egypt, and Syrene ; it was during those trips that Plato wrote his early works the Socratic Dialogues. After his travels, Plato returned to Athens and opened up a school of doctrine known as the Academy merely outside of Athens.
It was understood that Plato lived at the Academy until his decease.
1. B ) two. The Contributions of Plato
Merely as it was with Socrates, there are besides non much that could be said about Plato ‘s part other than the Academy ( The first of all time educational fascility built in the Western Countries ) . This is due to the fact that Plato kept records about doctrine in the signifier of a duologue of the Master, hence, doing it difficult for most bookmans to distinguish the true plants of Plato from that of Socrates.
However, non all hope is lost, this is because bookmans discovered an incompatibility in the Hagiographas of Plato which were depicted in the signifier of Socrates ‘ address which hinted the possibility of the doctrine or theories spoken by Socrates in these plants to really be that of Plato. These plants were ascertained to be that of Plato ‘s plants get downing from the Phaedo.
One of Plato ‘s work Republic was a book that was written by Plato during his mid-life. Thus, rendering the doctrine or theories written in it to be that of Plato ‘s original. There are many theories listed in the book, nevertheless, the 1 that was given the most attention by bookmans were the one sing the swayers of a state ; Plato said that until philosophers became male monarchs or male monarchs became philosophers the universe will non cognize true peace. The significance of Plato behind this statement is that a swayer or a leader of an organisation must be one who have the proper cognition to regulation and will go on to hold this sort of cognition. This paved the route for the development of cognition of swayers and showed that a swayer must ever be believing in order to govern a state ; intending active thought, and harmonizing to John Dewey, one who thinks actively is a critical mind. Therefore, Plato showed that critical minds are the perfect campaigner for the place of power.
Another one of Plato ‘s part is that of the lasting and passing. Harmonizing to Plato, this universe consists of a lasting object from which those of the passing are copied from the permanent. This theory of Plato is known as the Platonic Dualism. The Platonic Dualism is farther explained in his book on The Theories of Forms ( Metaphysics ) . This construct of Plato can be simplified by the illustration of a tree ; harmonizing to Plato there may be Oak, Pine, Palm and many other trees, but there is one tree from which the foundation for the other trees were derived from. The construct of Platonic Dualism spurred the thought of many bookmans into what it is meant by existent and what is an semblance. This signifier of believing brought upon self-reflection which is really much encouraged in the field of Critical Thinking.
Harmonizing to Hakim ( 1997 ) , Plato left in his Hagiographas which after interlingual rendition mean that worlds must convey about alteration in their thought by invariably believing about their thought. From this point, we can reason that Plato is stating to continuously believe about their thought in order to increase the quality of their thought. This harmonizing to Richard Paul is one of the traits that define a critical mind.
Finally, besides harmonizing to Hakim ( 1997 ) , Plato emphasis that one should ever endeavor to liberate from the binding of the organic structure and comprehend the perfect by a steady, brooding attempt. The significance of this statement is that one must ever endeavor to seek for the truth by the methods of changeless thought ; this fact can besides be associated with active thought which shows critical thought.
1. C ) Aristotle:
Aristotle is the pupil of Plato in the Academy. Aristotle plants are known throughout the West as one of the most famed plants of history due to subjectiveness that it possessed. This was one of the chief ground why the being known as Aristotle was able to dominate that of his maestro Plato.
1. C ) I. The Life of Aristotle:
Harmonizing to Hakim ( 1997 ) , Aristotle was born on 384 B.C. in a town that lay in between Thrace and Macedonia called Stagira, Chalcidice. Aristotle is the boy of Nicomachus, the personal doctor of the King of Macedon. Therefore, due to his male parent ‘s connexion with the male monarch, Aristotle had entree to the Royal Court as a kid and received his early instruction at that place as a member of nobility.
Aristotle ‘s male parent, Nichomachus died when Aristotle was still a kid. Even though orphaned, Aristotle was still loved by the Macedon royal tribunal due to the influence he received from his male parent ; which prompted Aristotle to be an observant kid. Subsequently on, when Aristotle became 18 old ages of age, he went to the Academy ran by Plato believing that it will be able to increase his cognition in many affairs.
After making the Academy, Aristotle met with Plato and since so regarded Plato as both a great instructor and a great friend. It was said that Aristotle stayed by Plato ‘s side until the decease of Plato. The period of his stay at the Academy was recorded for around 20 old ages.
After the decease of Plato, Aristotle travelled with Xenocrates to the tribunal of his friend Hermias of Atameus in Asia Minor ( now known as Turkey ) . Harmonizing to Wikipedia, whilst in Asia, Aristotle travelled with Theophrastus to the Island of Lesbos where they researched the botanical and marine biological science of the island. Subsequently on, Aristotle married with Hermias ‘ adopted girl ( niece ) Pythias who bore for him a girl.
After the decease of Hermias, Aristotle was invited by the King of Macedon to tutor his 12-year old boy, Alexander the Great at 343 BC. By 335 BC, Aristotle returned to Athens and constructed a school which stands at a topographic point with secondary school trees, with the name of the tree at the topographic point, Aristotle named his school Lyceum. It was said that during his stay at the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted classs and wrote many of his plant ( where merely a smattering remain now ) .
At 322 BC, Alexander the Great died. At this clip, most of the Athenians holds an anti-Macedonian sentiment due to the actions of Alexander the Great. Therefore, there were those that targeted Aristotle ‘s life due to his engagement with Alexander the Great. However, before anything could be done, Aristotle left the metropolis and headed for his female parent ‘s household estate in Chalcis, saying that he will non let the Athenians to transgress against doctrine twice. On that same twelvemonth, Aristotle died at Euboea due to natural causes.
1. C ) two. Aristotle ‘s Contributions:
As the tierce of the Three Trinity of Greek Philosophy, Aristotle has given great parts to the universe. Furthermore, in contrast with his predecessors, Aristotle kept a really organized and good written certification about himself and his plants. Therefore, it made the affair of understanding Aristotle and his plants really easily. Most of the plants of Aristotle is lost due to many grounds. Furthermore, those that did last are in the signifier of treatises or talk notes. Although these paperss are non able to give full history of the plants of Aristotle, they are able to give intimations on the plants that he has done which are considered as his ain part.
One of the parts Aristotle has given to the universe is the Aristotelean Epistemology. The Aristotelean Epistemology that we know today was known as analytics at the age of Aristotle. Basically, the Aristotelean Epistemology is fundamentally the logic that we know today. As logic is the Centre of critical thought, Aristotle is the greatest subscriber of critical thought with the debut of the method of seeking for replies by concentrating the range from a general to its inside informations by tax write-off.
The 2nd part of Aristotle is the giving of topics such as Mathematicss, Physics, Biology and many greater significance and deepness than any other adult male at his clip or until the age of the Renaissance. One of it is Aristotle ‘s Metaphysics. The Metaphysics that Aristotle explained was sing the existence. Aristotle believed that the existence is something that can be explained by the agencies of tax write-off and these lead many minds to really believe logically in order to work out the enigmas of the existence.
2. Muslim Contribution in Critical Thinking:
Harmonizing to history, after the autumn of Rome, the western states had fallen greatly in the range of cognition development and initiation, go forthing the plants of its past Masterss of cognition to decompose in basements or belowground storages without proper attention or care.
It was at this clip that the freshly appeared Islamic civilisation bloomed in the development of cognition and shadowing the West until the age of Renaissance.
The Islamic community were all guided by the Holy Quran to seek cognition without remainder and to forever learn new cognition. This godly counsel of the Quran spurred the visual aspects of many bookmans and researches in multiple Fieldss. It was with the visual aspect of these famous persons of cognition that the field of Critical Thinking was besides able to spread out.
Among these famous persons of cognition there are three whose parts to the universe were the greatest ; the three are Al-Kindi, Ibn Sina ( Avicienna ) and Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) .
2. B ) Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ) :
Al-Kindi or known in the West as Alkindus was an Arab and Iraqi polymath ; he was besides an Islamic philosopher, uranologist, astrologist, scientist, chemist, cosmologist, mathematician, musician, logician, physician, physicist, psychologist, and meteorologist.
Al-Kindi is besides called the Arab Philosopher. This can be proven from Wikipedia which stated that the historian Ibn Al-Nadim ( d. 955 ) had described Al-Kindi as such:
“ The best adult male of his clip, uniques in all his cognition of the ancient scientific discipline. He is called the Philosopher of the Arab. His books cover with different scientific disciplines such as, logic doctrine, geometry, uranology, and etc. We have connected him with natural philosophers because of his prominence in Science. ”
2. B ) I. The Life of Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ) :
Al-Kindi was born at 801 CE at Kufa, Iraq to a Kindah household. His full name is AbA«-YA«suf Ya’qA«b ibn Isa??A?q ibn as-a??abbA?a?? ibn ‘OmrA?n ibn Isma’A«l al-KindA« . The male parent of Al-Kindi was the governor of Kufah, and it was at Kufah that AL-Kindi received his early instruction. Subsequently on, Al-Kindi moved on to Baghdad to finish his instruction.
After the completion of his instruction, Al-Kindi was acknowledged and appointed by Abbasid calif, Al-Ma’mun andAl-Muta’sim into the House of Wisdom in Baghdad due to his ace for instruction. ( The House of Wisdom was a freshly established institute in Abbasid by the calif in order to interpret the ancient wisdom from other linguistic communications into Arabic, the ancient wisdom was the Hagiographas and books that was left by the Greek and others western philosophers before Islam. ) It was said that during Al-Kindi ‘s work at the House of Wisdom, his ain wisdom expanded due to the influence of the paperss he was transcribing and this lead to the creative activity of his ain books. However, as clip passed, the Hagiographas of Al-Kindi had been lost due to two chief ground ; foremost the devastation of the libraries of Abbasid by the Mongolian ground forces ; 2nd, the disinterest of Al-Kindi ‘s plants by the ulterior philosophers.
After the decease of Al-Ma’mun, Al-Mu’tasim rose in power, nevertheless, at this clip Al-Kindi had fallen. Harmonizing to historiographers this was due to the rough interventions of Al-Muta’sim against irregular Muslims. There was even the juncture of when Al-Kindi was beaten and had his library temporarily confiscated from him.
Al-Kindi died in Baghdad at 873 CE during the regulation of Al-Mu’tamid.
2. B ) two. The Contributions of Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ) :
Thankss to his clip spent at the House of Wisdom transcribing the antediluvian cognition, Al-Kindi was able to derive unbelievable cognition in many Fieldss such as natural philosophies, geology, uranology and many more. This addition I knowledge divine Al-Kindi to compose books of his ain in respects of his cognition. The books that were written by Al-Kindi was described as encyclopedic in signifier.
One of Al-Kindi ‘s greatest parts was that of cryptanalysis. Al-Kindi wrote a book sing the method of coding and decoding codifications. The method of decoding that Al-Kindi explained was the frequence method ; where within a specific encrypted text there is a certain similarity between each poetry, and Al-Kindi suggested that one looks for the similarity in order to decode the text.
The 2nd part of Al-Kindi is in the field of scientific discipline. Al-Kindi like his predecessor Geber placed a strong accent on scientific research and methods which requires observations and empirical cogent evidence in order to verify a fact or rule. Other than that, Al-Kindi besides introduced a new accent on quantification. In which AL-Kindi stated that after all the grounds have been given in that respect, one must accept it no affair the consequence of the research, the statement to which this is derived from is as such:
“ We must non waver to acknowledge theA truthA and to accept it no affair what is its beginning, no affair if it comes to us from the ancients or from foreign people… My intent is first to compose down all that the ancients have left us on a given subject and so, utilizing the Arabic lingua and taking into history the imposts of our clip and our capacities, to finish what they have non to the full expressed. ”
Which means that we must non of all time near our eyes or ears to the truth after it was proven even if it came from person other than ourselves or our co-workers. This rule is one of the rules that are in Critical Thinking.
The 3rd and possibly one of the most of import of the parts that Al-Kindi has made was the debut of Philosophy into the Muslim civilization. As explained before, in the beginning, the Islamic civilization depended on the Godhead enigmas of the Holy Quran every bit good as the cognition given by the Prophet Muhammed. However, after Al-Kindi went to the House of Wisdom, he translated the other plants of the past Western philosophers into the Arabic linguistic communication and made them available for usage by the other bookmans. These interlingual renditions brought upon the rise of other Islamic philosophers such as Al-Farabi and Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) .
The last of the part that Al-Kindi gave was that of metaphysics. Harmonizing to Aristotle, the existence in space and that it is absolute. However, this fact was denied by Al-Kindi due to his religion which believes that merely God is absolute and besides due to other factors. One such factor is that where he believed that there is no such thing as space. This is because for a affair to be infinite it will hold to hold an infinite temporal being. This fact was besides supported by Garos.
2. B ) Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) :
Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) is on of the most famed minds of the Islamic universe. In profession Ibn Sina is a doctor. However, Ibn Sina is besides a philosopher, uranologist, chemist, astrologist, logician, geologist, paleontologist, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, instructor, and scientist.
Ibn Sina was a famed mind due to his unbelievable part non merely to the plants of medical specialty but besides to the Fieldss of geometry, natural philosophies, star divination, and logic. In an extract from the History of Science by George Sarton:
“ One of the most celebrated advocates of Muslim universalismA and an high figure inA Islamic learningA was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna ( 981-1037 ) . For a thousand old ages he has retained his original fame as one of the greatest minds andA medical scholarsA in history. His most of import medical plants are theA Qanun ( Canon ) A and a treatise onA CardiacA drugs. The ‘Qanun fi-l-Tibb ‘ is an huge encyclopaedia of medical specialty. It contains some of the most enlightening ideas refering to distinction ofA mediastinitisA fromA pleurisy ; contagious natureA ofA pulmonary tuberculosis ; distribution of diseases by H2O and dirt ; careful description of skin problems ; ofA sexual diseasesA andA perversions ; ofA nervous complaints. ”
This shows that the single known as Ibn Sina was a great mind known through the ages is still being regarded as such.
2. B ) I. The Life of Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) :
The true name of Ibn Sina is Al-Hussain bin Abdullah bin Hassan bin Ali bin Sina. He was born at Bukhara, Turkistan on 980. Ibn Sina ‘ female parent ‘ name is Setareh and his male parent Abdullah.
Harmonizing to records, Ibn Sina was given careful instruction by his male parent at Bukhara. Furthermore, thanks to the intelligence and great memory that Ibn Sina possesses, he was able to memorise the contents of the Holy Quran by the age of 10. In Muslim civilization, one is considered to hold completed their instruction with the completion and memorisation of the Holy Quran and that any other signifiers of instruction are to be made on one ‘s ain history. It is due to this facthat Ibn Sina went to libraries available in Bukhara at that clip in order to prosecute the cognition that are available. It was said that Ibn Sina read the Hagiographas of Aristotle sing Metaphysicss 40 times in order to derive the significance of the text. However, still in confusion after the readings it was said that Ibn Sina would execute the supplications in seeking disclosure from God and that one twenty-four hours his supplications was answered in the signifier of Aristotle ‘s Metaphysics commentaries of Al-Farabi being sold at an highly inexpensive monetary value at a book shop. And so, at the age of 16, Ibn Sina turned towards the way of medical specialty and learned it from a rolling doctor. Furthermore, harmonizing to records, Ibn Sina is said to hold mastered all there is to get the hang at the age of 18.
Soon after began the terbulation of Ibn Sina ‘s life. After handling the amir from a serious unwellness, Ibn Sina was rewarded with entree of the Royal library of the Samanids. However, after the library was burned down non merely was Ibn Sina accused of the offense by his enemies. However, by non being appalled by the event, Ibn Sina helped his male parent in the fiscal labours and wrote some of his early paperss.
After the decease of his male parent, Ibn Sina traveled to many topographic points assisting out those that are in demand, offering his services to where it can be found and learning giving talks to whomever that wants for it. However, after many events, Ibn Sina was struck by gripes and this had caused Ibn Sina to non be able to execute his work every bit good as he did earlier. However, even at these fortunes, Ibn Sina still refuses to give up and continued his work till his decease at June, 1037.
2. B ) two. The Contribution of Ibn Sina ( Avicenna ) :
The part of Ibn Sina to the universe has been so great boulder clay it overshadowed that of Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ) . This was non merely due to the sum of cognition available to him from an early age but besides to his unbelievable memory and intelligence that many others including Al-Kindi ( Alkindus ) did non hold.
One and most likely the most of import of the parts of Ibn Sina is that in the field of medical specialty. Everything that can be related to that of human intervention such as have all been given part by Ibn Sina ; the Fieldss mentioned are chemical science, psychological science, medical specialty, biological science, and many more. The parts that Ibn Sina gave to the universe were so brilliant boulder clay we of the present call him with the name of The Father of Modern Medicine. This is because of these such parts ; the initiation of infective diseases and its belongingss, the initiation of psychological provinces, the account of the human organic structure, the debut of medicative herbs to the universe, and many more. All of the greater of Ibn Sina ‘s part can be found in his book the Canon of Medicine.
The other part that Ibn Sina gave to the universe is those in the signifier of the Islamic Metaphysics. Harmonizing to Ibn Sina, there are two things that life is based on, kernel and being. Essence ( Mahiat ) is something which are false and that it can non be by itself and that it requires something in order for it to be. Whilst being is something that does and can be by itself, and that even though it can non be accounted for it can still be. This was the chief ground as to why Ibn Sina said that these two elements can non coexist.
The following part that Ibn Sina gave to the universe is in the signifier of logic. Even though Aristotelean logic was still being used greatly at that clip, it was non long after that the Avicennian logic had replaced the former as the most dominant logic system used in the Islamic universe. This was because of the fact Ibn Sina had developed a theory on conjectural syllogism and that formed the footing for his hazard factor analysis. Other than that Ibn Sina besides developed an early theory on propositional concretion.
3. C ) Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) :
Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) is the 3rd of the Islamic subscribers. He was an Andalusian-Arab polymath: a maestro of Islamic doctrine, Islamic divinity, heavenly mechanics, physic, Maliki Law, law, psychological science, logics, political relations, Arabic music theory, the scientific discipline of medical specialty, star divination, geographics, and mathematics.
3. C ) I. The Life of Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) :
Ibn Rushd or known by his true name as AbA« ‘l-WalA«d Mua??ammad ibn Aa??mad ibn Rushd is born at Cordoba on December 10, 1198. Ibn Rushd was a pupil of Ibn Tufail, Ibn Bajjah. Just like his gramps and male parent before him, Ibn Rushd besides served the people as a legal bookman at Seville as a Qadi ( justice ) and served many tribunal assignment at Cordoba, Seville and Morocco. However, after the conquering of the Almohads of Cordoba Ibn Rushd ‘s calling came into a arrest and he was sent to expatriate. However, non short before his decease he was reappointed the Qadi of Cordoba. It was from that minute onwards that Ibn Rushd wrote his philosophical plants.
3. C ) two. The Contribution of Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ) :
Ibn Rushd ‘s chief part is in the point where he tried to associate the ideas and position of Aristotle ‘s philosophical position with that of Islam and to demo that there are no struggles between the two. This is because as harmonizing to Ibn Rushd one needs an analytical head in order to measure the Holy Quran decently, and that this sort of head is best obtained through the survey of doctrine.
In decision, although these persons were all different people with different civilization ; such as, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle of the West and Ibn Sina, Al-Kindi and Ibn Rushd from the East, they each have their ain similarities in the development of the human civilisation with the development of the human thought, which is the thought in the Critical field. It was with the parts that these persons had left behind that the present worlds are able to travel on frontward without many obstructions.