British Airways Plc, renowned in the universe as a prima air hose, operates international and domestic scheduled and charter rider services, cargo, mail every bit good as accessory services. Including 6 domestic flights, British Airways serves about 150 finishs. New codification portion agreements agreed with Finnair, Iberia and Cathay Pacific are included in BA ‘s planetary confederations. The air hose operates in geographical countries such as the UK, Europe, America, Africa, Middle and Far East, Australasia and Indian sub-continent.

For the twelvemonth ended March 2009, the company generated grosss of ? 8,992 million which is an addition of 3.1 % on the ? 8,753 million grosss generated in the twelvemonth ended 2008. The net loss of the company was ?358 million during the 2009 fiscal twelvemonth, demoing a major lessening from the ?696 million net income in the old twelvemonth.

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British Airways Plc was formed from the air hoses, A BOAC, A BEA, Cambrian AirwaysA and Northeast Airlines on 1 September 1974 throughA nationalisationA by the Labour Government. In February 1987, thirteen old ages subsequently, the company was privatised. Measured by rider Numberss, British Airways was the largest air hose of the UK until 2008. British Airways is listed on theA LSEA and is a component of theA FTSE 100 Index. The air hose celebrated its thirty-fifth day of remembrance on 31 March 2009.

Change direction

Harmonizing to cook et Al ( 2004 ) alteration direction is a set of procedures that is employed to guarantee that important alterations are implemented in an orderly, controlled and systematic manner to consequence organisational alteration. One of the ends of alteration direction is to cut down opposition to alter in order for organisational members accept the alteration and thereby accomplish the organisation ‘s end of a smooth transmutation.

Change direction can be seen to hold five specific phases that must be realized for an administration to be successfully implementing alteration. First the administration must cognize why a specific alteration or series should be brought approximately. Second the administration must be motivated and desire to travel through this peculiar alteration. Third the administration must posses the cognition of how to transport out the alteration. Fourthly the administration must get new accomplishments and behaviors that are necessary for the alteration to happen. Last the administration must go sustainable by doing these new behaviors their usual pattern.

Further harmonizing to Wilson ( 1992 ) alteration can happen chiefly in two dimensions depending on the theories and theoretical accounts used. This position explains that alteration can be either planned or unplanned. Besides alteration can be described in footings of the procedure or execution scheme. The issues of apprehension and managing alteration within an administration depend on the alteration attack that is selected by the administration.

Organizational Structure

British Airways operates as a group of companies whose chief industry sectors are international and domestic scheduled and charter air services transporting riders, cargo and mail every bit good as supplying auxiliary services. The group consists of British Airways Plc and a figure of subordinate companies, including British Airways Holidays Ltd, British Airways Travel Shops Ltd etc. The two chief runing bases of the company are Heathrow and Gatwick airdromes and has established in subdivisions around the universe. The company is listed in several stock exchanges including LSE, Munich, US etc. British air passages together with its partnerships have managed to widen its web therefore come ining all important markets.

As for the construction of BA, it has suffered a displacement from modern to post modern to post modern organizational construction i.e. it has moved from mechanistic to more organic manner of operation. The operations of BA can be analysed departmentally into Planning, Distribution and milage partnerships, Selling communications, Global contact Centres, eCommerce, Triton Programme, Revenue direction, AirMiles Travel Company, Travel Shops, BA Holidays, BA travel Clinics, Corporate communications, BA universe Cargo, Ground Operations, BA technology, Information direction, BA portions etc. Each division has its ain functionalities to execute, ends and aims to run into which contributes to corporate purposes and aims.




Planing fleet, web, agenda, substructure, resources, belongings

Distribution & A ; milage partnerships

Ensure that clients can book pay and fine a engagement through the web site, contact Centres, stores, travel agents around the universe

Selling communications

Selling communications, advertisement, publicities, addition penetration into client demands

Global contact Centres

Delivers services to clients who prefer utilizing the phone


Major undertakings to broaden the scope of minutess clients can make on their ain, improve quality of online channels

Triton Programme

The 10 twelvemonth contract with Amadeus, taking supplier of travel industry systems

Gross direction

Proctors, controls, prognosiss gross revenues working to better profitableness

AirMiles Travel Company

Carries out client trueness programmes

Travel Shops

Provides personal services and adept advise from good travelled advisers

BA Holidays

Sells vacation bundles

travel Clinics

Offers travel wellness advice and comprehensive inoculation service

Corporate communications

Protects and manages the planetary repute guaranting that a broad audience are cognizant of the air hoses intelligence and developments.

universe Cargo

Provides cargo, mail and messenger services

Land Operationss

Management of Customer services and terminal operations with safety and security


Responsible for air power care supplying full support for the fleets

Information Management

Responsible for all IT across the BA group and plays a cardinal function in determining the hereafter of the air hose

BA portions

Responsible for all investor dealingss

Table 1: Departmental Analysis of British Airways

Market Environment – Plague Analysis

The Airline industry has become highly competitory due to the budget air hose and the current unfavorable economic conditions. All participant compete for the market portion in an environment where the bargaining powers of client have increased and there is no control over the powers of fuel providers and monetary values. In the current economic conditions there is limited growing in volume and demand for air travel has declined significantly. The PEST analysis shows the external factors that affect the administration and its alteration processes. It besides reveals the alterations the administration must do in order to stay competitory in inauspicious market conditions. Therefore, this subdivision looks into the external environment of British Airways since alteration schemes are affected by the factors and alterations in the macro environment. Such alterations could convey about favorable or inauspicious effects on the company ‘s turnover and growing. The PESTEL model has been applied to analyze the external factors and its impact on the company.

Political and Legal Factors

Developments in the political and legal factors can hold a high impact on the air hose industry. Political developments include alterations in governmental policies, international ordinances and statute laws, authorities revenue enhancements on air travel, political and economical relationships with counties, alterations in airdrome and air power regulations etc. Some of the developments have a favorable impact on the company while some others will hold an unfavorable impact. The Europium policy has increased air travel and therefore has been a positive impact on the air hose industry. On the other manus, addition of authorities revenue enhancements has inauspicious consequences on the industry since demand for air travel diminutions due to high airfare.

Economic Factors

Economic developments such as addition in fuel monetary values, unfavorable currency and involvement rates, recession, rising prices, addition in unemployment has a negative impact on British Airways. In such environments leisure travel diminutions because people have less disposable income and concern travel diminutions because corporate disbursement is reduced. Besides recession negatively impacts on growing of companies in footings of enlargements and purchasing extra aircrafts.

On the other manus, alterations such as economic roar, deflation could favorably lend towards a company ‘s public presentation.

Social and Environmental Factors

Airline industry is invariably under force per unit area for assorted environmental force per unit area groups due to high CO emanation, noise and the effects on the clime. Besides outbreaks of diseases such as such as Swine Flu can diminish air travel. Another facet that could cut down air travel is safety related issues such as Acts of the Apostless of terrorists and clangs.

Technological Factors

Changes in engineering have shown negative and positive impacts on the air hose industry. The positive impacts have been safety, cost decrease and easiness of booking and be aftering travel online. On the other manus due to new technological developments such as advanced meeting installations concern travel is non necessary to the same extent as earlier.

BA and Ryanair

British Airways purposes to run a high quality service to its clients at a low-cost monetary value. It operates long and short draw flights to many finishs around the universe and ensures comfort while taking the riders closer to their finish. British air passages chiefly operate in three countries, viz. rider conveyance, lading and mail services. British air passages aim to understand its clients ‘ demands and operate consequently. The company has a strong trade name image and the employees are expected to work up to its criterions. The organizational construction can be regarded as a level type because it has merely one degree of hierarchy that separates Pull offing Directors at the top from bottom-line employees.

On the other manus Ryanair operates on a “ no- frill ” scheme which means that the riders are non provided with any excess installations and operates merely as a point to indicate transit service. It has grown mostly in Europe by pulling clients who prefer low ticket monetary values thereby cut downing the market portion of British Airways. It chiefly operates short draw flights to finishs which are secondary airdromes.

Factors Affecting Change Management

Harmonizing to Paton and McCalman ( 2008 ) Change direction can be defined as a planned procedure for altering a nucleus map or organisation of an endeavor. Change Management is an organized, systematic application of the cognition, tools, and resources of alteration that provides organisations with a cardinal procedure to accomplish their concern scheme. ( Lamarsh 2000 ) . With the assistance of engineering the industries and merchandises are congregating which means each house has to take a really holistic attack to the selling of goods and services. Paton & A ; McCalman ( 2000 ) .

Factors driving alteration

Most administrations change when internal and external environments alteration. The factors that initiate the demand for organizational alteration can be two fold. The first factor can be called an External Trigger which involves the activities and inventions of rivals, alteration in client demands, statute law and authorities policies, and so on. Economic alteration can make the demand for alteration. Besides, due to the EU policies many companies had to alter their patterns and processs. Environmental force per unit area groups that impose force per unit area due to inauspicious environmental effects can coerce a company such as BA to alter its procedures to do it climate friendly.

The 2nd factor can be called the Internal Triggers including new merchandise and service design, inventions, assignments of new managers, new thoughts on how to accomplish service quality etc ( Buchanan D. & A ; Huczynski A. , 2004 ) . The British Airways denationalization plan that changed the company ‘s ownership was launched due to the impact from such triggers. The purposes and aims of this programme was to better the administrations public presentation and derive a competitory advantage over its rivals. Harmonizing to the alteration theoretical account described by Lewin, organizational alteration occurs in three phases. The first phase is called Dissolving which reduces the forces which maintain behavior as it is presently and acknowledgment of the demand for alteration occurs. The 2nd phase is called Movement which is the development of new patterns and the execution of the alteration. The concluding phase is named as Refreezing which is stabilising the alterations that occurred and support through back uping mechanisms. ( Mullins, J. , L. , 1999 )

Involving Peoples

It is indispensable that the administration manages its human resources in a mode that is favorable to the alteration procedure. It is of import that the employees understand and support the alteration in order to hold a smooth transmutation. If the alteration directors can do the people involved to see the common aims and common benefits that the alteration will convey about it helps in doing the alteration more successful ( Paton & A ; McCalum, 2000 ) . However, each person will respond to alter in a different mode. The factors that affect how persons will respond to alter are manifold, viz. the organizational civilization, the grounds for alteration, factors of alteration, leading facets and organizational construction. The alteration direction manner and attack are of import facets with respects to affecting the employees of the administration. Change direction requires a considerable sum of accomplishment and old experience on the direction of the administration. It is of import to see each persons perceptual experience and attitude towards the procedure for it to be a success.

For illustration during the 2nd phase of alteration, BA developed tactics and plans to convey the vision of the top management-level to the bottom-line employees throughout the administration. Thus the internal construction and systems were changed and besides a lasting preparation centre was established to advance staff preparation.


It is of import that the company analyses its stakeholders since the alteration will hold an consequence on them. Communication is critical to affect all stakeholders in the procedure so that the alteration is successful. It is besides of import to categorize your stakeholders harmonizing to their power and involvement affecting the alteration. There are some facets sing stakeholders and the alteration procedure that should be taken into consideration. Differentiating and grouping employees and make up one’s minding how to cover with different types, be aftering communicating in both waies and besides looking after the involvements off all persons. There are chiefly four types of stakeholders, blockers, patrons, title-holders and slumberers Green ( 2007 ) . Blocker have high power but low degree of committedness, while the patrons have high power and high committedness. Besides Champions have high energy and high committedness while sleppers have both low power and low committedness to alter. For a successful alteration it is of import to place the stakeholders with high power and committedness.

British Airways has a figure of stakeholders who have assorted involvements in the concern and from whom the company expects different things. There have been struggles between these stakeholders due to their differing involvements every bit good as formations of alliances. It can be observed that most stakeholders have an involvement in the administration executing good. In the above context it is of import that the stakeholders are analysed harmonizing to the power and committedness grid so that alteration can be successful.

Planing the alteration

The alteration procedure must be planned and it is advisable to utilize theoretical accounts of alteration and besides see the impacts of opposition to alter. Two different alteration theoretical accounts are discussed in the undermentioned subdivision, viz. the Mckinsey 7-S theoretical account and Lewins Model. The basic rule of the theoretical account is that there are seven internal facets of an organisation that need to be aligned if it is to be successful. The 7S theoretical account can be used in a broad assortment of state of affairss such as bettering the public presentation of the company.

The McKinsey 7S theoretical account contains seven interdependent factors which are categorised as difficult or soft elements. Difficult elements are scheme, construction, systems and soft elements are shared values, accomplishments, manner and staff. The Difficult elements are easier to place and act upon while the soft elements are more hard to pull off but every bit of import for a successful transmutation. The theoretical account depicts the mutualities of these elements in footings of how a alteration in one component affects the others.

Harmonizing to the theoretical account the seven elements must be aligned. In the instance of BA, the theoretical account can be used to place what needs to be realigned to better public presentation during other alterations in the company. What of all time the alteration is this theoretical account can be used to understand the interrelatednesss. Further it can be used to analyze the current place, proposed place and place the spreads between the two. It is besides necessary to set these elements to do certain the company works efficaciously.

Now let ‘s examine Lewin ‘s alteration theoretical account. Harmonizing to Lewin, there are three phases of alteration in an administration which are dissolving, motion, and refreezing.

Dissolving Phase

consequently, the first measure for BA is to unfreeze present form of behavior to pull off opposition. In this phase alteration did do an impact on single degree due to the execution of Downsizing of Workforce policy to reconstitute the administration. This policy reduced hierarchy, and allowed worked to be carried out easy therefore bettering public presentation. ( Shibata. , K. , 1993 ) The retrenchment was achieved through compassion. BA besides introduced developing plans such as Puting People First to assist line directors and workers understand the alteration and the demands of the industry.

Motion Phase

The 2nd phase of Lewin ‘s Model is motion. During this phase BA used tactics and plans to convey the vision of the top direction and line employees. In support a figure of new systems where implemented. ( Goodstein. , D. , L. & A ; Burke, W. , W. , 1991 )

Refreezing Phase

In the refreezing phase the company stabilized alterations by set uping systems that can set up behavioral form in the administration. A new public presentation assessment system based on behaviors and consequences was introduced to promote client service. ( Goodstein. , D. , L. & A ; Burke, W. , W. , 1991 )

Resistance to alter

It is non easy for an administration alteration its construction and concern procedures since any alteration may take to some degree of opposition by the employees. One of the chief causes for opposition is the fright of the unknown and loss of what is familiar. There are four grounds of opposition from employee to organizational alteration including 1 ) Parochial opportunism, 2 ) Misinterpretation and deficiency of trust, 3 ) Contradictory appraisals, and 4 ) Low tolerance for alteration. ( Buchanan D. & A ; Huczynski A. , 2004 ) BA tried to alter behavior by altering the direction manner from important to participative. BA wished employees take part more in direction determination but since this was unfamiliar employers would fall back to the old forms.

A tactic that was used in BA to pull off opposition to alter was the HR policy which included preparation guidelines. Such an Hour policy is of import in doing the employees understand and react positively to alter. There is besides an illustration where opposition to alter hindered the administrations ends and aims. In an effort to cut down cost can vie with low cost air hoses BA tried implementing a new payment system and besides engaging workers for lower wages. This created insecurity among the employees which ended in a work stoppage that cost the company in 1000000s in 2000. Therefore managing opposition and the HR facets of the company is critical to a successful alteration procedure.

Potters five forces model – British Air passages


British air ways has near relationship with their providers. This close relationship is of import when implementing the production JIT production system. Harmonizing to the system, the company keeps zero stock degrees and providers should be capable plenty to provide as per the BA demands. The providers are depending chiefly on BA.Therefore they have low bargaining power over BA


There are many participants in the market topographic point. Therefore consumers have big figure of picks available. Online merchandising besides facilitates clients to seek for the best offering that match their demands. Therefore the consumer bargaining power is high in the car industry.

Competitive competition

BA chief rivals are American air lines, Ryan airways.


The replacement manners are trains, ships and coachs. However clip devouring people prefer air travel

New entryway

As moneymaking industry, many participants are seeking for an chance to come in into this market. But the competence, substructure and fiscal stableness required to prolong in this market create barriers for new entrywaies.


Year 2009 is one of the worst old ages for the air hose industry as a whole. Most of the company ‘s were sing the adversities of planetary recession during 2008/2009 period. BA was no exclusion. However, in comparing with its equal, BA is one of the severely affected.

During the twelvemonth, BA posted its worst of all time fiscal public presentation with pre-Tax Loss of ?401m. This is merely 12 months after it announced record pre-tax net income of ?922m. Harmonizing to BA, reduced concern travelers triggered by the planetary recession is the chief ground behind the losingss. Lowered concern activity and rise in unemployment in a recession fuel this inauspicious state of affairs. In such environments leisure travel diminutions because people have less disposable income and concern travel diminutions because corporate disbursement is reduced.

BA farther indicate out that, weak Sterling Pound has increased their operating costs as they deal with multi-currencies around the universe. Increase in fuel monetary values besides has hindered BAs profitableness.

Having to vie with low-priced bearers ( i.e. Ryanair ) , BA has to be monetary value competitory. This has compelled BA to keep lower monetary values in order to be monetary value competitory.

BA ‘s in house issues with its staff has besides affected smooth tally of daily concern. There interruption influence adversely to its gross revenues gross and besides increase operating costs

BA has to look for ways in order to be cost efficient including fuel costs. The company needs a stringent fuel direction policy to get by with unanticipated fuel monetary value hikings.

Pricing of air tickets has to be revised invariably in order to be monetary value competitory among its equal. Decrease in costs will assist this.

BA has to look into the staff issues and screen them in house, extinguishing possible breaks to its operations.

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