Categorization of Fungi is done so that Fungi with similar features and constructions can be grouped together and therefore doing designation easier. Fungus kingdoms are classified on the footing of their ability to reproduce sexually, asexually, or both. Ascospores, basidiospores, oospores, and zygospores, every bit good as any specialised constructions associated with their development, are the footing of sexual constructions. These standards reflect phyletic relationships because they are based upon constructions that form following miosis. The term holomorph is used to depict the whole fungus consisting of sexual and nonsexual constructions ( Samuel Baron, 1992 )

The survey of Fungi is called mycology. Fungi are described as eucaryotic beings that bear spores, have absorbent nutrition, deficiency chlorophyll and reproduce sexually or asexually. Most Fungis are tellurian beings although there are some that are freshwater or marine. Many Fungis are infective and infect workss every bit good as animate beings nevertheless, some Fungis besides form good relationships with other beings e.g. bulk of vascular workss signifier works root associations ( mycorrhizae ) with Fungi. Endophytic Fungis are found in upper parts of workss where they affect works reproduction and palatableness to herbivores ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 )

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All genera of Fungis belong to one of 3 wide groups which are barms, molds and other. Yeasts reproduce well by budding or fission and molds by elongation of tips. The other group consists of genera that are non typically fungi but are surveies along with Fungis for assorted grounds. All fungous genera of medical importance can be classified into 5 sexual groups which are Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Zygomycetes, Chytridiomycetes or Chytrids and Fungi Imperfecta ( Doctor Fungus USA, 2007 ) . The Fungi Imperfecta does non detect sexual reproduction therefore merely the other four of the genera which observe sexual reproduction will be discussed in item in this essay. The four correspond to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota severally. These four phyla are genuinely sexual because they are characterised by production of sexual spores viz. ascospores, basidiospores, ascospores and oospores severally. The first three groups infect worlds whereas the 4th group causes disease in workss and lower animate beings.

Fungus kingdoms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. The sexual signifier is known as teleomorph and the nonsexual signifier is known as anamorph ( Koneman et al. , 2006 )


The Ascomycota consist of Ascomycetess or pouch Fungis which form meiotic spores called ascospores enclosed in a particular sac-like construction called an ascus. They include morels, some mushrooms and earthnuts, every bit good as one-celled barms and many species that have merely been observed undergoing nonsexual reproduction. The merchandises of miosis are retained within the ascus and therefore most Ascomycetess are used to exemplify rules of genetic sciences and heredity ( Deacon JW, 2005 and Kamistein D, 2002 ) .Examples of some celebrated and ill-famed Fungis within this are Saccharomyces cerevisiae the barm of commercial importance for baking and brewing, Penicillium chrysogenum manufacturer of penicillin, Aspergillus flavus manufacturer of aflatoxin, contamination of nuts and stored grain, Candida albicans cause of thrush, nappy roseola and vaginitis ( Tree of life web undertaking, 2009 ) . Ascomycota are morphologically diverse and include beings from unicellular barms to complex cup Fungi and consist of 2000 identified genera and 30,000 species ( SparkNotes Editors, 2009 ) . Ascomycetes have a characteristic reproductive construction called the ascus. Many Ascomycetess are barms which alternate between haploid and diploid provinces. The haploid and diploid cells undergo mitosis when foods are plentiful and bring forth haploid and diploid girl cells which leave a cicatrix on the female parent cell as it separates. When no more scarred cellwall remains on the female parent cell it dies ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 ) . When foods are limited barm cells undergo miosis bring forthing four haploid cells that remain enclosed in the ascus and when sufficient sums of foods are received two monoploid cells will blend to organize a diploid cell ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 ) .

Sexual reproduction in these occurs by ascus formation with each ascus incorporating eight monoploid ascospores. However, in more complex ascomycetes particular ascogenous hyphae develop and into these braces of nuclei migrate. One karyon of each brace is from a male mycelium ( antheridium ) and other from a female cell ( ascogonium ) . As ascogenous hyphae turn the mated nuclei divide so that there is one brace of karyon in each cell. When the hyphae mature, atomic fission occurs at the tips in the female parent cells. Meiosis occurs in the diploid fertilized ovum karyon and the ensuing four haploid karyon divide mitotically bring forthing a row of eight karyons in each developing ascus. These nuclei wall off from each other and 1000s of asci are packed together in a cup shaped fruiting organic structure, the ascocarp. When the ascospores mature they are released and upon making a suited environment they germinate and start the rhythm all over once more ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 )

Asexual reproduction in these is termed a blastic procedure, which involves the blowing out of the hyphal tip wall and can affect all wall beds, or there can be a new cell wall synthesized which is extruded from within the old wall ( MicrobiologyBytes, 2009 )


Members of the Basidiomycota consist of the Basidiomycetess or nine Fungis and bring forth meiospores called basidiospores on club-like chaffs called basidia. Most common mushrooms, the rust fungus and carbon black Fungis which are major pathogens of grains belong to this group ( Deacon JW, 2005 and Kamistein D, 2002 ) . The most common illustration of species in this phylum is the infective barm Cryptococcus neoformans is an of import homo and animate being pathogen and produces a disease called cryptococcosis which is a systemic infection of the lungs and cardinal nervous system ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 ) . Basidiomycetes are characterised by the most complex and big constructions found in the Fungi. They really seldom produce nonsexual spores and most of their life rhythm is spent as vegetive mycelium, working complex substrates. Sexual reproduction starts when compatible mycelium fuse in presence of two copulating type of karyon ( MicrobiologyBytes, 2009 ) .This creates a dikaryon in which each cell in the thallus contains two haploid karyons ensuing from a coupling event is another characteristic characteristic of Basidiomycota. The dikaryon has individual transcripts of the two copulating type of nuclei held within every hyphal compartment for long periods of clip. “Maintenence of the dikaryon requires luxuriant septum formation ( figure 1 below ) during growing and atomic division” ( MicrobiologyBytes, 2009 )

Sexual spore formation starts with formation of a fruit organic structure the anlage and is triggered by environmental conditions. The anlage expands and divides to organize big fruit organic structures of mushrooms and toadstools go forthing the mycelium within it as a dikaryon and diploid formation merely occurs within the modified hyphal tip the basidium. Within the basidium miosis takes topographic point and the four merchandises are extruded from the tip on to the sterigmata that is below and this event normally occurs across a big country of basidia called a hymenium which is normally formed over an extended unfertile bed of tissue like the mushroom gill. This is shown in figure 2 on following page.

Asexual reproduction in Basidiomycota happens either by budding or nonsexual spore formation. Budding occurs when the branch of parent cells is separated into a new cell. Any cell can bud. Asexual spore formation occurs in conidiophores. The septae of terminal cells cause division of a random figure of nuclei into cells. The cell wall thickens into a protective coat doing the spores to interrupt off and these are so dispersed ( SparkNotes Editors, 2009 )


These are known as Zygomycetess and reproduce sexually with meiospores called zygospores and asexually with sporangiospores. Rhizopus stolonifer is a common species that belongs to this group. Medically relevant genera include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus ( Deacon JW, 2005 and Kamistein D, 2002 ) . Humans normally get infected in the upper respiratory piece of land through inspiration of airborne spores but can besides acquire primary GI infections from consumption of contaminated groceries ( Koneman et al. , 2006 ) . These include molds occupying nutrient merchandises. The separating feature of these is the production of zygospores during sexual reproduction and the deficiency of hyphal cell walls except in generative constructions. The mycelia of Zygomycota are divided into three types of hyphae. The rhizoids map in nutrient soaking up and range below the surface. Sporangiophores are above the land and bear the spore case which are spore bring forthing. Groups of the sporangiophores and rhizoids are connected by runners above the land. Name walls that separate single cells are merely present in generative constructions to let the cytol and karyon to travel between cells ( SparkNotes Editors, 2009 ) .

Sexual reproduction requires compatible strains of opposite coupling types and when these two come near to each other endocrines are produced doing their hyphae to organize prometangia which are projections which so form mature gametangia. When the gametangia fuse the karyon of the two gametes besides fuse organizing a fertilized ovum which develops a thick coat going a hibernating zygospore. When miosis occurs at the clip of sprouting, the zygospore splits open bring forthing a hypha which bears nonsexual spore case and starts a rhythm for nonsexual reproduction ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 ) .

Asexual reproduction varies greatly among the different species within this phylum. Spores may organize by separation and thickener of hyphal cells but may besides be produced in specialized variety meats whose construction widely varies ( SparkNotes, 2009 ) . The staff of life cast, Rhizopus stolonifer grows on a damp surface of saccharide rich nutrient materials where its hyphae quickly cover the surface. The hyphae besides called rhizoids extend into the nutrient surface and absorb foods. Other hyphe called the runners become vertical and arch into the substranum organizing new rhizoids. Others still remain vertical and produce nonsexual spore case at their tips which are filled with black spores giving it the characteristic coloring material. Each spore when acquire the autonomy can shoot to get down a new mycelium ( Prescott, Harley and Klein, 2008 ) .


These grow and survive in a broad scope of home grounds. These Fungis are preponderantly nonsexual and discharge bare zoospores from sporangial gaps. The rate at which to the full developed zoospores become motile varies and finally when they locate a suited substrate they withdraw their scourge bring forthing a wall around the zoospore and developing into a thallus. Sexual reproduction is more normally found among members of the most the Class Monoblepharidomycetes among the Chytridiomycota where motile sperms fuse with non-motile oospores. Chytriomyces hyalinus green goodss resting spore case fertilized ovums as the consequence of rhizoidal merger. Electron microscopy has demonstrated the migration of karyon through the rhizoids of lending thalli and merger of karyon in the fertilized ovum ( Botany & A ; Mycology, 2009 ) .

All of the three phyla undergo both sexual and nonsexual reproduction. The reproduction procedures are rather similar in all three of them and the chief difference being the type of spores produced because each phylum has distinguishable types of spores that they produce. The spores are the chief sexual constructions in each of the phylum.


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