First he had to establish control. He began by appointingprovincial governors which he did on the Persian model, using hisgenerals and some Persian aristocrats.

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He then tried to introduce the Greek model of cities (about thirtyof which he modestly called Alexandria).

But he still had restive peoples, as had the Persians, and ran tenyears of suppressive wars to bring then under control. There aresome indications that these were not always successful. He diedafter a humiliating withdrawal from India, so managing the parallelgood luck of avoiding destruction in Chandragupta’s irresistiblesweep across the sub-continent.

His death prevented a final judgement of how he would have fared inthe longer term. His generals split up his new empire amongstthemselves. These successor Hellenistic Kings fought amongst eachother and established dynasties in Macedonia, Asia Minor,Syria-Mesopotamia and Egypt which were progressively taken over bythe Romans in the west and Parthia in the east.

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