The study presented herewith focal points on the amendments that the CEO needs to follow in heightening the usage of the BSC that is already in topographic point within the air hose for the past three old ages. The BSC is adopted to assist directors and colleagues monitor their public presentation both in fiscal and non-financial footings.

The followers is the organisational construction of Ethiopian Airlines as of composing this study.

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2. Performance Measurement Approach at Ethiopian Airlines

Ethiopian Airlines uses the Balanced Score Card attack to mensurate its public presentation. The Airline uses the BSC as a strategic and communicating tool to aline the vision and scheme of the organisation to the overall concern activities and to supervise public presentation as compared to the set ends.

The BSC helps to mensurate the drivers to accomplish the strategic aims of the air hose ; by alining the scheme with the day-to-day activities, where all involved are punctually communicated and are cognizant of what is expected in their future public presentation.

The BSC maps the Airlines ‘ strategic aims in four positions: fiscal, internal procedures, clients, and larning and growing ; and specific prosodies are attached to each position. The balanced mark card enables the stakeholders involved to see the activities as internal and external to the air hose, as a fiscal and non-financial metric ; and for comparing of past and future public presentation. My BSC for the current financial is attached in the Appendix

During the one-year assembly the CEO communicates the strategic aims to all employees and the marks are cascaded from EVPs all the manner to single degree. Management employees prepare BSC in audience with their immediate supervisor and agree on marks and measurings ; non-management staff will hold ISCs with the KPIs clearly stated.

The BSC as a public presentation measuring attack in the Airline can be considered as the control system to supervise the executing of programs and if the marks set are non in line with the program, the air hose will be able to reexamine during the mid-year appraisal and seek agencies of bettering the overall public presentation.

As stated in B2S4p117 public presentation direction “ is associated with an attack to making a shared vision of the intent and purposes of the organisation, assisting each employee understand and acknowledge their portion in lending to them, and in so making, manage and heighten the public presentation of the person and the organisation. “ In this respect the Airline enterprise to assist each employee understands the aims and ‘ensures ‘ necessary tools are provided so that the public presentation of employees may non be hindered.

3. Identifying Stakeholders at Ethiopian Airlines

“ Stakeholders – any group or person who can impact or is affected by the accomplishments of the house ‘s aims ( Freeman ) ; or components who have a legitimate claim on the house ( Hill & A ; Jones ) . ”

The public presentation measuring attack used by Ethiopian Airlines is the Balanced Score Card ; and really few of the stakeholders were involved during the procedure of development of the public presentation measuring system. The undermentioned system map shows the stakeholders of Ethiopian Airlines. Despite the legion sets of stakeholders, the air hose ( in fact the Kaplan and Norton model – BSC ) focuses on employees, stockholders and clients, which the theoretical account is presented as a simple signifier of the existent complex real-life state of affairs if the wider environment is considered.

Fig.3 System Map of Stakeholders at Ethiopian Airlines

I have tried to include as many stakeholders as possible in Fig3. The environment and procedure interest holders ( B1S18p147 ) are of peculiar involvement in the designation of stakeholders of Ethiopian air hoses. The BSC being a strategic and public presentation measuring tool, stakeholders that define the critical elements of scheme demand to be identified. Atkinson et Al. identified five stakeholder groups and categorized them as environmental stakeholders, which is comprised of clients, proprietors and the community ; and procedure stakeholders comprised of employees and providers. Harmonizing to Atkinson et al. , the environmental stakeholders “ defines the administration ‘s external environment that, in bend, defines the critical elements of its scheme ; “ and the procedure stakeholders “ work within the environment defined by the external stakeholders to be after, design, implement and run the procedures that make and present the administration ‘s merchandises or services. ”

The followers are the cardinal stakeholders that constitute the development of the BSC at Ethiopian Airlines:


The Airline is a authorities owned commercial organisation and the activities of the air hose are someway geared with the aims of the national authorities. The concern being capital intensifier, and prone to assorted environmental state of affairss ( STEEP ) , the authorities ‘s interest is so high. The state being really hapless, the economic viability of the air hose is given precedence, i.e. the air hose has to be profitable. Hence, the fiscal position of the BSC is of high importance to the authorities, and in fact the BSC of the air hose is designed like theory Z of Halifax PLC ( A ) ( B2S17p64 ) .


The clients are the really ground that the air hose exists and how the air hose is perceived by the clients truly affairs. Customers of the air hose need a dependable and safe transit and the service must be at par with rivals ‘ degree of service ; with regard to on-time public presentation, quality, and loss or harm of rider goods. Therefore, the clients are at the heat of the public presentation direction as the air hose must function its targeted clients to run into the steps in the fiscal position.


This group of stakeholders are the 1s that are at the Centre of the BSC of the organisation ; and in the BSC the Internal Process position and the Learning and Growth perspective straight affects and they in bend affect those positions. The other positions being reciprocally interdependent will besides be affected. In the internal procedure perspective the employee cognition of the concern procedure and the apprehension of it help to supply a quality service as perceived by the clients and drive them to stand out in the things they do. The internal procedure besides affects the fiscal position in such a manner that the cost incurred to supply quality service comes into factor, where employees are non cognizant of a cost-efficient method of managing a given undertaking. The acquisition and growing perspective straight affects the employees as they need to be trained both on the manner of managing their undertaking and in continuing the corporate civilization. The employees drive the concern, and as described in B2S14p92, the concern procedure will hold greater impact on client satisfaction.

4. Evaluation of the BSC at Ethiopian Airlines

Atkinson et al. , “ argue that administrations exist to function the aims of their proprietors or patrons. If the administration is commercial, this aim is likely to be increasing stockholder wealth. ”

Ethiopian Airlines being a commercial entity aims to do net income from its operations and every bit has discussed above the primary driver is net income and is aimed at increasing the wealth of the proprietor – the authorities.

The Airline from the oncoming recognised that the BSC would assist to pull off and mensurate its public presentation. The BSC perspectives address both the primary and secondary aims of the organisation. “ The primary aims are defined by an administration ‘s proprietors or funders. What the administration expects from and gives to each stakeholder group are secondary aims. ”

If we evaluate the part that the BSC makes through the direction of stakeholders involvement utilizing Atkinson et Al. ‘s theoretical account it can be seen that all the positions of the BSC theoretical account addresses the aims at different degrees and lays down the activities in a measureable and touchable mode, thereby enabling directors view the position at the same time in a consistent mode.

Arguably, at Ethiopian Airlines the BSC has created some alteration in the civilization where accomplishment has become a driver to make more and be recognized. Employees focus on cardinal mark countries and proctor tendencies that might hold an inauspicious consequence on the future operation of the organisation in general. The attitude alteration in stakeholders is besides deserving adverting that the BSC serves its intent of being a system of measuring and instilling attitude and cultural alteration.

The aims of the authorities – profitableness ; and that of the CEO – making ‘Africa ‘s World Class Airline ‘ are non in line ; and likely that could be the ground that the slogan, which Ethiopian Airlines used in the beginning of the BSC execution with the Vision 2010 scheme, changed to ‘The New Spirit of Africa ‘ . Though the false cascading of the BSC is supposed to get down from ‘Africa ‘s World Class Airline ‘ it starts from the manner of doing the air hose profitable. All activities are geared in achieving the ends of the fiscal position of the BSC.

Though the BSC is at its babyhood at Ethiopian Airlines, the public presentation reappraisal made every six month is so long that some things might travel incorrect irreversibly. At Halifax the public presentation is monitored monthly and 75 % of the information was available within the company. At Ethiopian Airlines, the informations aggregation undertaking is backbreaking and cumbersome, which makes the monitoring undertaking unpleasant. Furthermore, as the information to be analyzed is excessively much the chance of doing error addition and the inaccuracy of informations creates bitterness.

During public presentation measuring, merely the fiscal position is considered. For illustration my last twelvemonth public presentation rating was based on the gross mark that was given, which was 5 % less from the mark. Factors ( internal/external ) that could hold affected the public presentation are non taken into history. In the long tally this will impact the public presentation of the employees.

Strengths and failings of the BSC at Ethiopian Airlines


Individual public presentation will associate straight to the Airline ‘s strategic ends, and values, thereby making important impact on productiveness and profitableness.

Targets ways of bettering on supplying seamless, systematically high-quality service that address client issue, enabling to make successful relationship.

Creates chance for the employees to continually develop and turn as employees and leaders of the Airline.

Redundant and undertakings that do non add value are removed

Easy to understand the relationships of each position


Normally informations is non readily available

Data aggregation is backbreaking and de-motivating

Employees part to the accomplishment of the aims f the air hose is can non be measured, merely the consequence of their activity can be measured

Team work is thwarted as each employee focuses on single BSC

The fiscal position is given precedence that dwarfs the other positions

5. Designation and Evaluation of Complementary Procedures

Geting Information and Communication Technology

As discussed above the informations aggregation and the undertaking associated with it takes ample clip, the usage of ICT will ease the undertaking and in making so the mistakes made will diminish significantly. Creation of a database for the needed information enables each employee to entree pertinent information in relation to his undertaking or the aims one intends to accomplish. In add-on a information base has to be created for the steps, marks and enterprises that are to be taken and implemented. The information base helps to easy entree information and thereby associate undertakings to employees, holding in head the aims of the organisation ; and come on can easy be checked and can be used as a tool for tracking alterations. In Halifax ‘s instance 75 % of the information was available and the execution of the BSC was non a large challenge as faced by Ethiopian Airlines.

Consultancy service

Ethiopian Airlines implementing the BSC as it was recommended by the advisers it hired. The manner to travel approximately was non clear, even after three old ages the BSC of some of the divisions is non prepared on a timely mode. For illustration the commercial division does non hold BSC for the current financial twelvemonth ; staffs under that division were forced to fix their ain so that they may hold a counsel and deliverables to work on. Ethiopian Airlines can pull lessons from Halifax, as Halifax took over two old ages to plan and implement ; and in fact they were doing alterations till 1999. The adviser that will be hired demands to hold the thorough apprehension of the national and corporate civilization and develop the senior direction on the rules of the BSC. The advisers need to hold their ain office where they can supervise the development of the BSC and its execution from the top direction to lower degree supervisor.

Training and Development

The employees of the Airline demand to be current with the manner the concern is being dealt in the air hose industry and uninterrupted preparation and betterment is compulsory to remain in concern with the of all time altering environment and accomplish the Airline ‘s aims. To assist the air hose focal point on specific preparation demands, benchmarking would assist to maintain in gait with rivals and ‘best-in-class ‘ performing artists. The benchmarking could be on procedures or consequence countries. As discussed in the instance survey of Britannia Airways ( B2S15p133 ) a lesson can be drawn on the manner to travel approximately. A really good illustration of South West Airline for refuelling an aircraft in 12minutes, which Southwest adopted from Formula 1, can besides, be practiced ( B2S15p134 ) . Presently, the air hose is implementing ACE ( Achieving Competitive Excellence ) in its Maintenance and Engineering Division. ACE is an operating system used by United Technology Companies is focused on increasing efficiency and cut downing waste. Since the start of ACE at care and Engineering Division, other divisions are besides seeking to implement and internal benchmarking is taking form. In Finance division, Ethiopian Airlines is larning best pattern from its fierce rival Emirates Airlines. Process re-engineering can besides be implemented at Ethiopian Airlines to avoid unneeded non-value adding stairss from the work flow. For illustration it sometimes takes six months to acquire compensation for lost luggage compensation ; because of excessively long and excess procedures.

Performance related wage

As discussed above the BSC has contributed in making a civilization of accomplishment and employees are endeavoring to accomplish to their degree best. If their accomplishment is rewarded in a commensurable manner, employees ‘ attempt could increase and their public presentation as a consequence can be positively affected. This can be related to equity theory ( B1S14 p139 ) which states that wagess motivate employees provided they are perceived just and just ; and harmonizing to anticipation theory motive of an employees can be influenced by the commensurability the undertaking they perform and the wages they got ; and comparable wages with other co-workers ; and the perceptual experience of wagess received by others.

6. Decision

The air hose is yet to profit from the execution of the BSC as a public presentation direction system. The BSC at Ethiopian Airlines has a spread but follows what every public presentation direction system need to follow – an attack of making a shared vision among the employees and direction where the aims are clearly defined and employees know the marks and the measurings attached to those marks. The BSC is assisting the directors to understand the inter-relationships of the positions which finally consequences in improved determination devising and job resolution, and in the procedure the air hose will be “ looking-and moving-forward alternatively of backward. “ B2S14p95.

Hence, the BSC as a public presentation direction system has contributed a batch in “ making a shared vision of the intent and purposes of the organisation, assisting each employee understand and acknowledge their portion in lending to them, and in so making, manage and heighten the public presentation of the person and the organisation. ” The BSC should non be considered as a Panacea for the complaints which the company has, but every bit far as the public presentation measuring is concerned. Though the BSC is in the right path of functioning its intent as a public presentation direction tool, the practise is far from being perfect.

7. Recommendations

The air hose without holding delivered necessary preparation to execute the given undertaking in a better manner the marks are being stretched in order to maximise net income ; and staff are besides forced to manage multiple undertakings in an attempt to increase productiveness, and after the coveted productiveness is reached another stretch will follow and some of the staff become redundant, which consequences in lay-off. The very staff who helped increase the productiveness sometimes becomes victims.

Chairman and CEO of Milliken & A ; Co. , emphasized on the function played by uninterrupted betterment in client position and internal concern procedure position, which implies that the internal steps which a company takes have great impact on the satisfaction of clients B2S14p92. Similarly the air hose needs to work on internal concern procedures and client positions. As people are the primary resources in accomplishing the organisational ends Ethiopian Airlines demands customized preparation and development that are provided by air power experts or the regulative organic structure – IATA.

Harmonizing to Kaplan and Norton “ the steps are designed to draw people toward the overall vision. Senior directors may cognize what the terminal consequence should be, but they can non state employees precisely how to accomplish that consequence, if merely because the conditions in which employees operate are invariably altering. ” Here, the demand for employee authorization is called for. Employees are non empowered plenty to to the full use their accomplishment and originative endowments and the air hose benefits thereof.

The demand for an information engineering should be given precedence. As in some instances of measuring, the informations needed for analysis already exists and sometimes in a refined signifier, but what will be required are the subject and the direction dedication and capableness to analyze the information ; this calls for intensive preparation in informations analysis or usage of information engineering at all degrees of the direction hierarchy. As in the instance of Halifax PLC, the information was available and it any member was able to entree it from any computing machine. ( B2S17p67 )

As discussed above the leaders of the organisation set the vision and communicate to the employees and marks and steps are placed in each position so that the public presentation of the organisation is measured ; but the vision alterations and the employees have a moving mark which will be hard to hit. Hence, the leading of the air hose needs to be focused in the execution of the scheme where the procedures are aligned with the aims which the air hose needs to accomplish.

Ethiopian Airlines operates in different civilizations and the attitudes and values attached to the work moralss are different in all vicinities. The BSC that has been ab initio conceived by caput office located in Ethiopia and with Ethiopian outlook is being forced to be implemented with the same status elsewhere, even in extremely developed states in Europe and the USA, which is excessively restrictive in the manner employees use their creativeness and the agencies of lending to the advancement of the air hose. The BSC for caput office and for the field offices, though have a common end demand to hold fluctuations with the local civilizations and manner of making things or the degree of economic or technological development. In the instance of Halifax the territory director and the subdivision director had different sets of direction patterns. ( B2S17pp69-70 ) Furthermore, the positions used are being followed as tenet, which could hold been amended for gross bring forthing divisions and support offices. The support office alternatively of holding the fiscal position, they can hold ‘efficiency and effectiveness position ‘ . Hence, a batch has to be done in the execution of the BSC.

The air hose operates in environments where the concern procedure needs the engagement of the community in one manner or another, as its gross is generated from these communities. The BSC developed by Ethiopian air hoses, though follows the basic model laid down by Kaplan Norton, and needs to invent a manner where other cardinal stakeholders can be addressed – the community and providers.

Finally, though the BSC is feasible public presentation measuring attack for the air hose, it needs to turn to the part made by employees and providers ; and the function of the community in which the air hose operates demands to be addressed.

8. Appendix

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