They were nomads, and stayed as such for centuries. There were lots of oases, or “a fertile spot in a desert where water is found.” These oases were perfect for farming, and they adapted well to this. But although there are a fair amount of oases, there are no permanent lakes or rivers. Oases form where underground “water bubbles” come to the surface. Oases have also long been key stops along Saudi Arabia’s overland trade routes.
Saudi Arabia is one of the hottest, driest places in the world. With a blazing sun and clear skies, Summer temperatures in the interior can reach to over 100 degrees daily. In pure desert, plants and animals will indubitably not survive without a substantial water supply. Deserts cover approximately 80% of Saudi Arabia. Sand dunes, or hills of sand shaped by wind, can rise to 800 feet high and stretch for hundreds of miles.

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