2500 B.C.E.- Each city was rigidly designed into a latticework of streets that reflected the orderliness of the culture. They were laid out in grids. Cities and towns were built on massive platforms that protected inhabitants against seasonal floods.- A uniform system of measures and weights were established in the marketplaces, which further reflected the society’s preference for ordered systems.- A functioning system of sewage and plumbing was established. Community baths were placed in prominent locations within the cities, with several surrounding buildings.- Each city had its own storage area for food. Crops, including wheat, peas, and dates were grown. The food was then stored in the town granary, for everyone to eat.- Houses were mostly the same in size and shape, were often two-storied. Walls surrounded a courtyard, with its own well and bathroom. Pipes led to sewers.- All houses were connected to an elaborate city-wide drainage system.- Women wielded significant authority, especially over the daily lives of everyone living with them, and rarely held to the restrictions presented within certain law texts (such as the Manu-Smriti). They had distinctive customs, rituals and spirituality, with which men were not allowed to interfere.- Scientists have found bowls of bronze and silver among the remains within cities. Since, neither of these metals were available nearby, they likely traded with civilizations far away.- the dead were buried in wooden coffins along with many pottery vessels that were probably filled with food for the afterlife.- Most individuals, both male and female, were buried with some simple ornaments, such as shell or copper bangles and agate beads.- Artisans produced a wide range of utilitarian and decorative objects using specialized techniques of stone working, ceramics and metallurgy.- Copper and bronze were used to make tools, mirrors, pots and pans.- Bone, shell and ivory were turned into tools, jewelry, gaming pieces and especially furniture inlay.- Silver and gold utensils and ornaments were crafted.- Fine ceramic objects, such as stoneware bangles and glazed faience ornaments were also made.

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