PSYC 676 – Exam #1 – March 13, 2013 Due by 12:00pm on March 15, 2013 1. What is not an area of study within Human Factors research? (4 points) (referenced source: POWERPOINT 1/30 p. 2) a. Human performanceK: doesn’t involve these factors – it’s about system performance b. Human and technology interaction – THIS IS WHAT HUMAN FACTORS “IS” c. Human anatomy d. Cognitive research/information processing e. Technology design One Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human_factors_and_ergonomics 2. Usability is the extent to which users can access the functionality of a system to achieve the following goals EXCEPT: (2 points) a. Effectiveness b.

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Efficiency c. Credibility d. User satisfaction 3. The user/human-centered design process consists of the following basic steps EXCEPT: (4 points) a. Understand the organizational need b. Understand and Define Context of Use c. Develop and Define Jobs d. Perform Function Analysis e. Allocate Functions f. Analyze and Design Tasks g. Design User Interfaces 4. To choose the proper anthropometric measurements to use, which of the following information we should know (check all that apply) (4 points) 0 Cognitive characteristics of the user population 0 Specific application of the design problem 0 Physical characteristics of the user population Cultural norms of the user population *This could legitimately be a factor so I don’t know if I should include it (I brought this up at the end of the 1st class) but for the purpose of answering here I’m inclined to leave it out…. Unless of course it is correct! 5. List four of the issues that are captured in user profiles (4 points)? (referenced source: p. 86) a. Background Issues about Users b. User Feedback about Job Functions c. How this Interface Would Impact a User’s Job d. Organizational and Workflow Considerations 6. What are the advantages of developing a detailed task analysis specification (4 points) . Provides step-by-step instruction for the user and can be the basis for determining goals and objectives b. Helps us determine the importance of steps for sequential ordering c. We further break down general tasks into more specific actions d. Serves as a cost effective method of gathering and organizing information ahead of time. e. Enables the analyst to focus on crucial aspects of the task or get a clear idea of how the task can be broken down. f. Based on this organized hierarchical charts can be put together to detail the steps of completing the tasks g.

Can be used as a starting point for using various error analysis methods to examine the error potential in the performance of the required operations. 7. Suppose a team is developing a web-based ticket distribution system. Which of the following decisions was most likely made during system design? (4 points) a. The ticket distributor will include a user interface subsystem – b. The ticket distributor will follow web-accessibility standards c. The ticket distributor will provide the traveler with on-line help d. The ticket distributor requirements have been met and satisfy customer needs 8.

Which of the following is a common method of requirements elicitation? (4 points) a. Transactional Analysis b. Risk Assessment c. Implementing the System d. Observation 9. Specify and describe one advantage and one disadvantage of the traditional waterfall model of software development. (4 points) Advantage: It allows you to have a sequential approach to development, on a realistic model everyone is working collaboratively Disadvantage: Real problems rarely follow the flow of the sequential model. In a real application you’d move back and forth between the stages, as needed, while you progress on the project.

In addition, there is no customer feedback (based on the linear model), this assumes that the customer’s original feedback is ideal and no additional changes are needed 10. You drag a folder to make a copy of its contents. An animation appears on the screen, showing files moving from one folder to another. This is an example of which of the following (3 points): a. visibility b. mapping – c. an affordance – d. feedback – e. 11. Providing accelerators (e. g. keyboard shortcuts) mostly addresses (3 points) a. utility. b. efficiency. c. learnability. d. attitude (or likeability). 12. Design teams should include a customer. This is a shortcut to getting user input, and it allows you to skip the messy business of usability testing. ” Is this a myth or reality? Explain (6 points). This is a myth. One single user is not representative of the entire target population of the product being developed. Further, the application of this sole viewpoint in the design process simply CAN’T replace the need for original user feedback. If a design team wants to include this in the early stages it should be done to helpfully inform, or add to, the overall process NOT the basis for absolute decisions or shortcuts. 3. What is the difference between usability and utility? (4 points) Utility has to do with the actual functions and capabilities of the particular device itself. Utility essentially refers to how many different “things” the device can do, or even the number of useful ways the device can be applied by the user for benefit. Usability has to do with the ease at which the benefits of utility can be obtained. For instance, a device can have endless utility but if it’s usability is low, meaning it’s complicated, poorly designed, etc. nd the user gives up or chooses a more usable or “user friendly” device then the benefits, or “high utility”, of the device are lost and therefore have no value. Maximum benefits to the user are had when design to interfaces, devices, etc. have both: utility to perform many functions and usability by which those functions can be accessed and enjoyed! 14. Developing an information system is similar to building a house because you have to (check all that apply) (4 points) A) start with a basic idea of what is needed B) create simple drawings of what is needed and allow the customer to provide feedback C) develop a detailed set of blueprints

D) actually build the project, often with some changes directed by the customer – 15. Feasibility analysis may be defined as a(n)_____(4 points) A) assessment of ability of the ultimate users of the system to accept the system and incorporate it into the ongoing operations of the organization B) determination of the extent to which the system can be technically designed, developed, and installed C) guide to determining whether to proceed with a project D) identification of only the costs and benefits associated with the project E) none of the above 16.

The information gathering technique that enables the analyst to collect facts and opinions from a wide range of geographically dispersed people quickly and with the least expense is the _____. (4 points) A) document analysis B) interview C) focus groups D) observation E) questionnaire 17. Identify the four usability dimensions proposed by Shackel, and suggest a way in which each could be measured. (4 points) (referenced source: POWERPOINT 2/13 Text p. 27) How Each Can Be Measured in Terms of Usability

Effectiveness: for this you could give a limited number of time to complete a number of simple user tasks and calculate the percentage of completed tasks to measure the effectiveness Learnability: for this you could assign some user related tasks, measure task success, or time-on-task errors or even overall satisfaction to measure this dimension Flexibility: for this you could get a group of moderately experienced users together and have each think up the number of legitimate ways to apply the device and a similar device and compare those numbers to make a statement about average or superior application of uses.

Attitude: for this you could keep track of how many first time users return to use the device a second time and use the percentage as the measurement 18. Name and define two properties of an effective metaphor. (4 points) (referenced source: Text p. 126) a. They must be meaningful to the extent that the user is familiar with them and able to recognize them b. They must match the user’s expectations, or “tap into the mental model”, and behave the way the metaphor would be expected to behave 17. What is the purpose of use scenarios? (4 points) (referenced source: POWERPOINT 2/27 slide 26 “Comparison/Scenarios”) The purpose of Use Scenarios is to bring all users to life, test to see if your product meets the users needs, and develop artifacts for usability activities” Use scenarios are “a story that describes how a particular persona completes a task and/or behaves in a given situation”. The scenarios should include: the setting, actors, goals and objectives, the sequence of events, and results. 18. Write a use scenario for an international ATM machine that provides money in a specified currency and which allows the user to interact with the ATM using the language of their choice (6 points) (referenced source: POWERPOINT 2/27 ; text)

Necessary Use Scenario: Mauricio is an Italian native who is in town for the next 3 months wrapping up a top secret, probably illegal, business deal. He has no relatives, no transportation, and stays fairly “low key” in order to keep a low profile. During his time in the states, and likely because of his secretive business dealings, he has a LOT of money coming in that must be carefully monitored and managed. As the sheer volume of cash surging through his accounts continues to increase he decides it’s time to research various offshore banking options so he can redirect his funds discreetly.

He understands English to an extent but due to his thick accent, and the attention it brings to his low profile, he decided to come over with 16 suitcases of cash to cover personal expenses and avoid face-to-face banking methods. This would have been sufficient to get through the entire 3 months if Mauricio had not developed a passion for gambling and exhausted the large cash reserve he came with. Luckily the new offshore accounts are from an International bank with ATM’s on every street corner by which he has to access to his trillions.

Unfortunately Mauricio is only familiar with his native currency and does not know how to figure out what he needs in American dollars from a formal banking machine. Mauricio needs immediate access to these offshore funds in order to pay his bookie in US dollars (as opposed to his broken bones). Suddenly, he gets a call from his brother to talk about the new bank they opened accounts with; great timing. Mauricio tells his brother about needing access and is then reminded of the abundance of ATM’s that provide access to the accounts.

Mauricio promptly walks down the block to the closest ATM, located inside his favorite grocery store Harris Teeter. He is delighted when he realizes the ATM allows him to select his native “Italian” to correspond and proceed with the intimidating transaction. Next the machine prompts him to punch in the “Amount” he needs in either US or Euro, or alternatively select “Help Converting”. He decides to select “Help Converting” just to be cautious and the ATM then asks a series of other questions in both languages by which he, the user, can deduce the “Amount” needed in US currency.

Mauricio was delighted with the capabilities of the system, the ease of use, and the newly established method of getting immediate access to his bountiful fortune. 19. Consider a remote control for your TV and perform the following: (20 points) (referenced sources: POWERPOINT 2/27 ; text p. 74) a. Generate a user profile for this device. Include at least three categories of user characteristics. User Profile: TV RemoteFrances Malarky Insert Picture Age89 OccupationStudent Home LifeLives alone with her cats EducationHolds a B. S. Psychology from UMCP ; attends UMBC graduate school ActivitiesShuffle board, Enjoys Daytime T.

V. , Swimming, Community Outreach Ultimate GoalStay active into old age for as long as possible Web UsageUses the web to stay in touch with her grandchildren, Basic Information Seeking, Online Dating, and Facebook Web CompentencyLow – Mid FrustrationsTraffic, Running Behind, Slow Drivers, Troubleshooting, Complicated Tools, Disrespectful Youth, Red Light Tickets Frequent Info SourcesWikipedia, Daytime Programming, Gossip Sites, and Grandchildren KnowledgeNovice DiscretionLow MotivationModerate b. Develop a task analysis. (referenced source: powerpoint 2/27 and C. 5)

Consider a remote control for your TV The Task Analysis Description of tasks: Frances wants to use the device to control and adjust all functions of the system and associated peripherals to watch the Oprah program she records daily, check out this weeks New Releases to On Demand, and watch her favorite movie on DVD. Frances’s Goal Based Scenarios: I. To watch recorded program: Oprah II. Access On Demand and view New Releases for the current week III. Connect Peripheral, specifically the DVD Player, to watch favorite movie Outline of Tasks by Scenario: I. To watch recorded program: Oprah . Turn on system “Power” b. Select “Menu” button c. Navigate accordingly using the button with arrow symbol to select “DVR” i. symbol to select “Recordings” ii. symbol to select “Oprah” d. Additional Main or Exit options i. Adjust “Volume” to desired level by pressing + and – (increase/decrease) buttons ii. Press “Exit” to end current function II. Access On Demand and view New Releases for the current week a. Turn on system “Power” b. Select “On Demand” button c. Navigate accordingly using the button with arrow symbol to select “Movies” i. ymbol to select “New Releases” ii. symbol to move accordingly, left and right, through options to view ii. press “OK” to view preview of feature or “exit” to backout d. Additional Main or Exit options i. Adjust “Volume” to desired level by pressing + and – (increase/decrease) buttons ii. Press “Exit” to end current function III. Connect Peripheral, specifically the DVD Player, to watch favorite movie a. Turn on system “Power” b. Press “Open” on DVD player component i. insert movie disk into tray c.

Press “Close” on DVD player component d. Select “Set Up” button e. Navigate to associated HDMI device for DVD player/TV pairing i. navigate arrow symbol accordingly to select “Play” from onscreen menu ii. related movie viewing functions (pause, rewind, fast forward) utilized by associate symbol on remote. f. Additional Main or Exit options i. Adjust “Volume” to desired level by pressing + and – (increase/decrease) buttons ii. Press “Exit” to end current function

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