The actuality of the research. With the aim of basing upon the significance as an important relative form of phraseology, enriching the vocabulary, developing the speech action, formation of relative culture arose the problem in the methods of formation of phraseological word combinations. The object of the research. The process of using phraseological word combinations in teaching English language in business and political spheres.
The aim of the research. To propose the effective method for enriching the vocabulary using business and political phraseological word combinations in the process of comprehencing English and Kazakh newspapers. The structure of the work. The research work consists of an introduction, two parts, conclusion, list of reference. This paper is devoted to define the role of idioms and proverbs in mass media. Our task consists in to indentify using the idioms in news articles. Before proceeding to the subject of the discussion the question is bound to arise whether mass media.
The language – is the treasure of nation. To know language – is knowing and feeling richest and deepest sight of nation’s culture. In any language the role of idioms is differ with important sights. Idioms – is the peace of history, which appeared in ancient times. But the Mass media appeared later than idioms and proverbs. The first newspaper was printed in China 868 A. D. As Kazakh journalist Nurken Tokaev remarks each nation has it’s own idioms and proverbs which show the character, stereotypes, habits of the nation. Mass media – is an important part of our life.
People from different walks of life have become nowadays listeners, readers, viewers. Or in other words, reading newspapers and magazines, watching TV, listening to the news on the radio are our main means of getting information in all its variety. Newspapers with their enormous circulation report different kinds of news. They carry articles which cover the latest international and national events. In linguistics, phraseology describes the context in which a word is used. This often includes typical usages and sequences, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and multi-word lexical units. Idiom’ is not originally an English word – it is one of the many that have come into the language from Greek. ‘Idiom’ means ‘one of a kind’ and indicates that a phrase is being used with a special meaning that can be very different to the literal meaning. If someone says ‘When Mr Bloggs fell over the files someone had left on the floor, he hit the roof. ‘ we can understand that though Mr Bloggs actually hit the floor, he was extremely angry about it; because ‘hitting the roof’ is an idiom for being very angry and letting everyone know it.
Idioms are a problem for language learners because they have to be learned individually, they are often ungrammatical, and English people often assume that their listeners know the idiom, and make a joke or a pun on it. For example ‘When me Bloggs fell over the files someone had left on the floor, he went ballistic. ‘ (That is, he hit the roof like a rocket starting on its journey. ) Idioms should be used with care, and only when we are sure of their meaning. Some idioms are very colourful, but they can also express strong feelings, and it is easy to give offence without meaning to.
If we say someone has a light touch we are praising that person’s ability to run things without interfering, but if we say that person is light-fingered, we are calling him a thief. A person who does not give away secrets may be poker-faced but if he is tight-lipped he is angry but saying nothing. We should take in ti account also that in 21st century England almost the only people who say that it is raining cats and dogs are pensioners and language students. A modern Englishman will more probably remark ‘It’s chucking down’. Some idioms last for generations, but others come in and out of fashion in a year or less.
So we should be careful, or our idiom use will go all pear-shaped. Of course, we should learn idioms. Learning idioms is not a piece of cake(very easy) but once we know them they can be a lot of fun, and anyway, because English people use idioms non-stop we will be all at sea(totally confused) in most conversations until we learn the ropes(understand how things work). Reading English texts or listening to native speakers will help us to find a large number of idioms. After a while some idioms will become familiar, and we will learn the places and situations where we hear them.
English newspapers use idioms a lot, but they often make puns of the idioms rather than using the original idiom. For example a famous newspaper critic wrote of an actor ‘he went through the range of emotions from a to b’ (instead of ‘a to z’ which means ‘all of them’. ) So we might prefer to start by reading books, listening to conversations, and of course, creating new exercises which can make the learning process easy. Gabriele Knappe gives a quick look at the history of phraseology. Phraseology is a scholarly approach to language which developed in the twentieth century.
It took its start when Charles Bally’s notion of locutions phraseologiques entered Russian lexicology and lexicography in the 1930s and 1940s and was subsequently developed in the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. From the late 1960s on it established itself in (East) German linguistics but was also sporadically approached in English linguistics, too. The earliest English adaptations of phraseology are by Weinreich (1969; within the approach of transformational grammar), Arnold (1973), and Lipka (1974).
In Great Britain as well as other Western European countries, phraseology has steadily been developed over the last twenty years. The activities of the European Society of Phraseology (EUROPHRAS) and the European Association for Lexicography (EURALEX) with their regular conventions and publications attest to the prolific European interest in phraseology. With regard to bibliographical publications, the voluminous bibliography by Joachim Lengert (1998–1999) is an inventory of studies on phraseology (in a wide sense) in Romance philology “from the beginning until 1997″. It comprises 17,433 titles.
Bibliographies of recent studies on English and general phraseology are included in Welte (1990) and specially collected in Cowie/Howarth (1996) whose bibliography is reproduced and continued on the internet and provides a rich source of the most recent publications in the field. Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning. A. V. Koonin classified phraseological units according to the way they are formed.
He pointed out primary and secondary ways of forming phraseological units. Primary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group : a) The most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, e. g. in cosmic technique we can point out the following phrases: «launching pad» in its terminological meaning is «?????? ???? ?» , in its transferred meaning – « ???????? ?????», «to link up» – « ? ?? ??? ???, ? ???? ?? ?????????? ? ?? ??? ?? » in its tranformed meaning it means -«??????»; b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, e. g. «granny farm» – «? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ? ???? ???», «Troyan horse» – «??????????? ????? ??? ??? ? ??? ? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ???????»; c) phraseological units can be formed by means of alliteration , e. g. «a sad sack» -«? ??? ??? ??? ????», «culture vulture» – « ? ????? ? ???? ?????? ? ??? ???? », «fudge and nudge» – «?????????». d) they can be formed by means of expressiveness, especially it is characteristic for forming interjections, e. g. My aunt! », « Hear, hear ! » etc e) they can be formed by means of distorting a word group, e. g. «odds and ends» was formed from «odd ends», f) they can be formed by using archaisms, e. g. «in brown study» means «in gloomy meditation» where both components preserve their archaic meanings. g) they can be formed by using a sentence in a different sphere of life, e. g. «that cock won’t fight» can be used as a free word-group when it is used in sports (cock fighting ), it becomes a phraseological unit when it is used in everyday life, because it is used metaphorically, h) they can be formed when we use some unreal image, e. . «to have butterflies in the stomach» – « ? ?????? », «to have green fingers» – « ??? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???? » etc. i) they can be formed by using expressions of writers or polititions in everyday life, e. g. «corridors of power» (Snow), «American dream» (Alby) «locust years» (Churchil) , «the winds of change» (Mc Millan). Secondary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a phraseological unit is formed on the basis of another phraseological unit; they are: a) conversion, e. g. «to vote with one’s feet» was converted into «vote with one’s feet»; b) changing the grammar form, e. g. Make hay while the sun shines» is transferred into a verbal phrase – «to make hay while the sun shines»; c) analogy, e. g. «Curiosity killed the cat» was transferred into «Care killed the cat»; d) contrast, e. g. «cold surgery» – «a planned before operation» was formed by contrasting it with «acute surgery», «thin cat» – «a poor person» was formed by contrasting it with «fat cat»; e) shortening of proverbs or sayings e. g. from the proverb «You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear» by means of clipping the middle of it the phraseological unit «to make a sow’s ear» was formed with the meaning «? ?????? ». f) borrowing phraseological units from other languages, either as translation loans, e. g. « living space» (German), « to take the bull by the horns» (Latin) or by means of phonetic borrowings «meche blanche» (French), «corpse d’elite» (French), «sotto voce» (Italian) etc. Phonetic borrowings among phraseological units refer to the bookish style and are not used very often. There are diffrenent combinations of words. Some of them are free, e. g. to read books (news papers, a letter, etc. ) others are fixed, limited in their combinative power, e. . to go to bed, to make a report. The combinations of words which are fixed (set-expressions) are called phraseological units. A free combination is a syntactical unit, which consists notional and form words, and in which notional words have the function of independent parts of the sentence. In a phraseological unit words are not independent. They form set- expressions, in which neither words nor the order of words can be changed. Free combinations are created by the speaker. Phraseological units are used by the speaker in a ready form, without any changes.
The whole phraseological unit has a meaning which may be quite different from the meaning of its components, and therefore the whole unit, and not separate words, has the function of a part of the sentence. Phraseological units are frequent not only in colloquial style but in the sphere of business and some adjoining fields as well. With the view of singling out and defining the spheres we undertookma semantic analysis of the most recent dictionaries on business and finance. In the process of their study the phraseological theory suggested by A. V. Kunin was referred to.
It has been observed, as a result, that a number of English phraseological units serve as specialized terms in the following specific domains: • advertising: prime time – ‘the time of day when the greatest number of people listen to the radio or watch television and when advertising rates are highest’ reply coupon – ‘a printed form that can be detached from a magazine page, a leaflet, etc and used to ask for advertised goods’; • accounting: sales ledger – ‘a book or a computer file in which the money owed or paid to a company for the goods it sells is recorded’; prudence concept – an accounting principle in which expected losses are recorded at the highest possible rather than the lowest possible amount ; • banking: the rate of interest – ‘the amount of money charged by the bank, or paid by the bank for the loan or use of money’; refer to drawer – ‘words written on a check that the bank will not pay, usually because there is not enough money in the account’; • business: a sleeping partner – ‘a person who provides a percentage of the capital of a business but who does not have a part in the management of a business’; to shake hands on a bargain/ deal –’to express agreement that it is binding’; • buying and selling: to run up an account (with a shop) – ‘to buy a number of things on credit’; hard sell – a forceful way of getting people to buy things; • commerce: price ring – ‘a group of sellers in the same industry who have agreed to fix a minimum price for a product’; market forces – ‘factors such as the amount of raw materials and goods available and the amount wanted by customers that influence the price of goods and the way they are distributed and sold’; • economics: free market – ‘a market where prices are allowed to rise and fall according to supply and demand, without prices being fixed by governments; bilateral monopoly –’a situation where there is only one buyer and one seller in a arket’ ; • finance: revolving fund – ‘a source of money from which loans are made and repaid with interest so the fund is maintained and the money can continue to be lent’; easy money –’money that is earned without difficulties’; • stock exchange: government bonds – ‘securities issued by a government in the form of debenture stocks with a fixed interest that is paid at regular intervals’; hot money – ‘money that is passed quickly from country to country to take advantage of differences in interest rates and exchange rates’ , etc. All the phraseological units under study are widely used in business, economics and management. Their phraseological character is proved by the semantic coherence of their components. This linguistic feature is particularly relevant in teaching English to students of business and finance.
This Group phraseology is characterized by a marked emotional often they have a negative color: disapproval, for example: small fry, poke nose, scratch their language; inattention, such as: clerical press, Krapivnoe seed, nut weak; brannosti, for example: ratface, dolt king of heaven old pepper and others. In degree of semantic fusion of the components of phraseological units are divided into several types. The most known and popular of the classification proposed by Academician VV Vinogradov. VV Vinogradov has identified three main types of phraseological units, which were named phraseologism”matching”,”phraseological unity”,”phraseologism combination”.
Phraseology seam – absolutely indivisible not laid out the phrase,”meaning are completely independent of their lexical structure, the value of their components and as is conventional and arbitrary, as the value of unmotivated ff. sign”. For example, a dog will eat, sharpen fritters, twiddle, and the like. Phraseology Unity-phrase,”in which a value associated with understanding inside the rod shaped phrases, the potential meaning of the words”. Example, ”to keep the stone in his bosom, wash dirty linen in public, old bird”and so similar. Phraseology combinations – VV Vinogradov described the phrase,”formed by the implementation unfree meanings”.
He noted that most of the meanings of words and limited in its relations within the semantic relationship of language itself system. These lexical meanings can manifest themselves only in connection with strictly certain circle of concepts and their verbal labels. For example, one can say Fear”takes”,”longing”takes, but we can not say:”the joy of taking” takes”pleasure”and so on. NM Shan identified a fourth type of phraseological units, called them” phraseological expressions”. Phraseology expression -”stable in its composition and use phraseological turnovers, are not only semantically chlenimymi, but consists entirely of the words with free values”. For example,”labor progress”,”horseradish radish is not sweeter”,”higher education”, and so on.
NM Shan said frazeologizmov difference in terms of their lexical structure, as well as a detailed description of phraseological revolutions”in terms of their structure”,”their origin”,”their expressive-stylistic properties”. As part of the lexicon, phraseological turnovers form several stylistic layers. C terms of style (that is, depending on their preference use in a particular field of public people) are allocated mezhstilivye bookish, colloquial and vernacular phraseologisms. Mezhstilevoy phraseological turn is used in all styles of modern n language. By mezhstilevym include, for example, “In the end,” “New Year”, “cousin” and the like. Mezhstilevye turnover smaller part of the vocabulary, as most of phraseological units are formed and function or in a conversational style, or in a book.
Fulfilling purely nominative function, they not express the attitude of the speaker to the designation of objects and their attributes. These phraseological units can be called neutral in terms of style, and with emotional. Gabriele Knappe gives a quick look at the history of phraseology. Phraseology is a scholarly approach to language which developed in the twentieth century. It took its start when Charles Bally’s notion of locutions phraseologiques entered Russian lexicology and lexicography in the 1930s and 1940s and was subsequently developed in the former Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. From the late 1960s on it established itself in (East) German linguistics but was also sporadically approached in English linguistics, too.
The earliest English adaptations of phraseology are by Weinreich (1969; within the approach of transformational grammar), Arnold (1973), and Lipka (1974). In Great Britain as well as other Western European countries, phraseology has steadily been developed over the last twenty years. The activities of the European Society of Phraseology (EUROPHRAS) and the European Association for Lexicography (EURALEX) with their regular conventions and publications attest to the prolific European interest in phraseology. With regard to bibliographical publications, the voluminous bibliography by Joachim Lengert (1998–1999) is an inventory of studies on phraseology (in a wide sense) in Romance philology “from the beginning until 1997″. It comprises 17,433 titles.
Bibliographies of recent studies on English and general phraseology are included in Welte (1990) and specially collected in Cowie/Howarth (1996) whose bibliography is reproduced and continued on the internet and provides a rich source of the most recent publications in the field. Business vocabulary is constantly enriched by means of common English stock idioms. The relations between new business idioms and their common English genetic prototypes are different. Some of them retain their meaning in the new sphere of business as in: make a go of (a business) – ‘to make progress in’, etc. The others develop new meanings peculiar only to business sphere, e. g. : catch a cold – ‘to lose money in a business deal’, cut a melon – ‘to distribute big additional income’, etc.
There are many specific expressions, used only in Business English and unknown by common people, for example: tax heaven – a country, where taxation is very low and therefore attracts investment from foreigners who wish to escape paying tax; Nikkei Index – the main list of ordinary shares showing price changes on the stock exchange in Tokyo. There also exist a great part of phraseological units, borrowed from common English into Business English. In this process word combinations either remain their first meaning or loose it. Thus, an expression to make a go of something means the same when it is used as in common English so in the sphere of business: to make progress in something.
But the most interesting for semantic analyses are PUs, which in the process of secondary nomination acquired a new meaning. These expressions are very difficult to recognize. Thus, a word combination ‘to catch a cold’ a person, who doesn’t deal with business operations, will use to describe a person’s condition and understand as ‘to fall ill’. At the same time for a business dealer this expression means ‘to loose money in a business deal’. Newspaper practice has developed certain techniques such variations of stable combinations. Of course, the task of a journalist – search for a precise, vivid word – would extremely simple, if all the methods can be applied mechanically.
But no accident Otto Jespersen (famous Danish linguist) called the phraseology “Capricious and elusive thing: virtually every word in the phraseologism in varying degrees, changing its semantics. Changes in primarily depend on how closely the word “lapped” to each other, ie the degree of cohesion of components. In terms of the information market, fierce competition, the struggle for the reader the media seek to be attractive as a “pack” their products, ie to present information in the most striking characteristic, memorable form. Packaging content of information – the so-called language game, Timelines, attracting the attention of readers, which at drafting of texts (and in particular, headers, Lidov) should pick bright catchy, witty expression. This entails the use of phraseological material.
Chosen topic of interest to us in terms of features the use of phraseology in the language of contemporary print media, namely, the possibility transformation phraseologisms while avoiding stylistic errors. Business phraseological word combinations is one of the less outcropped fields which is related to the idioms. By the term “business” is mentioned business letters, market advertisements, sales, phrases which are used in meetings, negotiations, presentations and etc. In order to obtain high level of awareness of business idioms a person should know appropriate usage of the idioms. However usage of the idioms is more easy than usage of business and political phraseological word combinations.
The onset of political idioms is embarked on the political meetings, political negotiations, voting process, by and large all the idioms according to the political system. Every language has its own priorities with its colourful idioms and matured phrases. Moreover a particular language can have plenty of idioms, but the second one can’t have. However in English there are amount of distinctive idioms including all spheres even politics and business. Nevertheless not native speakers do not aware about them entirely. However in order to attain even less peace of the political and business idioms there are provided tasks in order to memorize them instantaneously.
There are 3 main reasons of memorizing political and business idioms: – The phrases should be collect by one particular topic. Idioms which is related to one topic shouldn’t be mixed with the other idioms from another topic. For instance, “Market”: at a premium; Example: When flat-screen televisions first came out, they were selling at a premium. Meaning: at a high price; at a relatively high price. – Practicing idioms in speech with the help of real-life situations. For example, students should speak on the particular topic including idioms into their speech. Their speech should be evaluated in a severe ways. – Inculcating the usage of idioms in writing: to write an negations, treaties, situations about market discount, trade sales and etc.
In this report is namely identified fuction of phraseological word combinations in kazakh and English newspapers. In order to be definitely pointed there were chosen articles from New York Times and Egemendi Kazakhstan. First of all, there is given brief information about New York Times and Egemendi Kazakhstan. The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. The New York Times has won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization. Its website is the most popular American online newspaper website, receiving more than 30 million unique visitors per month. The newspaper is organized in three sections, including the magazine. 1.
News: Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, The Metro Section, Education, Weather, and Obituaries. 2. Opinion: Includes Editorials, Op-Eds and Letters to the Editor. 3. Features: Includes Arts, Movies, Theatre, Travel, NYC Guide, Dining & Wine, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine, and Sunday Review. Although the print version of the paper remains both the largest local metropolitan newspaper in the United States, as well the third largest newspaper overall, behind The Wall Street Journal and USA Today, its weekday circulation has fallen since 1990 (not unlike other newspapers) to fewer than one million copies daily, for the first time since the 1980s.
Nicknamed “the Gray Lady”, and long regarded within the industry as a national “newspaper of record”, The New York Times is owned by The New York Times Company, which also publishes 18 other newspapers including the International Herald Tribune and The Boston Globe. The company’s chairman is Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. , whose family has controlled the paper since 1896. The paper’s motto, printed in the upper left-hand corner of the front page, is “All the News That’s Fit to Print. ” It is organized into sections: News, Opinions, Business, Arts, Science, Sports, Style, Home, and Features. The New York Times stayed with the eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six columns, and it was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography. Access to the newspaper’s online content is through a metered paywall beginning in 2011.
Frequent users (over 20 articles per month) have to purchase digital subscriptions, but access remains free for light users. There are apps to access content for various mobile devices, such as Android devices and the Apple’s iOS platform. The New York Times was founded on September 18, 1851, by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond, who was then a Whig and who would later be the second chairman of the Republican National Committee, and former banker George Jones as the New-York Daily Times. Sold at an original price of one cent per copy, the inaugural edition attempted to address the various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release.
We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good;—and we shall be Radical in everything which may seem to us to require radical treatment and radical reform. We do not believe that everything in Society is either exactly right or exactly wrong;—what is good we desire to preserve and improve;—what is evil, to exterminate, or reform. The paper changed its name to The New York Times in 1857. The newspaper was originally published every day except Sunday, but on April 21, 1861, due to the demand for daily coverage of the Civil War, The New York Times, along with other major dailies, started publishing Sunday issues.
One of the earliest public controversies in which the paper was involved was the Mortara Affair, an affair that was the object of 20 editorials in The New York Times alone. Egemendi Kazakhstan is a daily Kazakh newspaper founded and continuously published in Orynbor since 1919. Initial name was “Ushkyn”. The newspaper is organized in 2 sections, without magazine. 1. News: Economy, Human Rights, Global News, Society, Politics, Sport, Existence. 2. Features: Informal department, Retro, Ruhaniyat, letters, Etjendi, Main Articles. In this report are given examples of phraseological word combinations from political and business articles. Phraseology – is one of the brightest and the most sufficient means of language.
The bedrock of all characteristics of phraseological word combinations attach to the primary tributaries of speech and expressiveness. A news article – is an article published in a print, or Internet news medium such as a newspaper, newsletter, news magazine or article directory that discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i. e. daily newspapers) or on a specific topic (i. e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news websites). Elements of an article: 1. Headline – is a text at the top of article, indicating a nature of the article. 2. Lead – is an introductory paragraph captures the attention of the reader and sums up the focus of the article. 3.
Body – is the most important part of article, which include details and elaboration of the article and quotes are used to add interest and support to the article. 4. Conclusion – is the final quote. Idioms plays important psychological and cultural roles in language processing and social cohesiveness. The use of idioms can be seen to contribute to clarity of expression and ease of comprehension in formal registers, and ease of linguistic composition in spontaneous speech. The use of idioms contributes to a socially convergent style of speech or writing. Phraseological unities are the phrases where the meaning of the whole unity is not the sum of the meanings of its components but is based upon them and may be understood from the components.
Proverb – is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. Proverbs contain popular wisdom acquired by mankind over the ages. The Phraseological unities and Proverbs have following advantages: – Develop the intellect; – Make the language more colorful; – Improve creative thinking; Idioms often come from jargon – the technical language used by a group of specialists. For example soldiers have given us overshoot for ‘to go past the target’ and a ‘last ditch effort’ for a final try before giving up. Sportsmen have given many idioms, such as being on a sticky wicket from cricket, which means being in a difficult situation.
Pharaseological unities and proverbs can be used in news articles. As we know there are several types of phraseological unities: free combinations, collocations, idioms, quotations. There are 5 causes of using them in news articles: – Influence people to catch the credible information and believe it; – Phraseological unities and proverbs make information more flexible and understandable; – Make language more colorful and fruitful; – Help enlarge the awareness of people; – Motivate the people reading. Justifying himself position Teliy wrote that idioms have “cultural connotation”. He comments that the idioms – are interpretation of cultural mentality of nation.
By the way proverbs and sayings are not easy to express the context of mentality than the idioms. Furthermore the sayings characterized syntactical incompleteness. According to these facts the idioms are used more often than proverbs and sayings. Few idioms can be quoted from news articles: 1. Water over the dam – it means the time, which is not got back. (?????-??????? ???. 1. 08. 2008. , “China could reach Moon before US”); 2. I can fill the boots – it means to cope with something. (?????-??????? ???. 25. 05. 2009. , “UK man lands “world’s best job” ); 3. It took Carolyn Fellwock and Charlie Watson only 11 months to tie the knot after meeting on Yahoo Personals – and three years more to call it quits. Wall Street Journal,3, march,2011;  to tie the knot – to get married; to call it quits – to end something (such as a relationship, a job, a project, etc) ; 4. As the cost of living for young people rises, the helping hand from parents is extending well past college years. – helping hand – assistance; help;The New York Times, 12. 04 2010; There are several proverbs and sayings in news articles: 1. Fair exchange is no robbery – Swapping one thing fairly in return for another is not the same as stealing. Arisona Daily Star, 30. 01. 2010; 2. Truth will out – The truth always appears eventually, despite all efforts to hide it. It is impossible to keep something secret forever. Morning Star 13. 04. 2011; 3.
Dying men speak true – When people are about to die, they usually tell the truth. TimesOnline 24. 06. 2010; Few Idioms from the New York Times are given below: 1. After all – in the long run. 1) In spite of everything to the contrary; nevertheless: We chose to take the train after all. 2) Everything else having been considered; ultimately: A car is after all a means of transportation. Equivalent in Kazakh: ?? ?? ??? ????. (New Trove of Stolen E-mails From Climate Scientists Is Released. , November 22, 2011. Business. ) 2. At worst – in the least satisfactory conditions There’s no harm in sending them your resume – you might get an interview, and at worst, they’ll ignore it.
Equivalent in Kazakh: ???? ?????, ?? ?? ??? ????. (A Park, an Oyster Farm and Science, Business, November 24, 2011) 3. As well as – 1. in addition to someone or something. Mary and Jane are coming to the party, as well as Tom. I’m studying biology and chemistry, as well as history. 2. to the same high degree as someone or something; as much as someone or something else. Mary’s parents treated me as well as they treat her. I did as well as you on the test. Equivalent in Kazakh: ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? (T-Mobile and AT&T Edge Closer to Scrapping Merger, Business, November 24, 2011) 4. Precise window of opportunity – Fig. a brief time period in which an opportunity exists.
This afternoon, I had a brief window of opportunity when I could discuss this with the boss, but she wasn’t receptive. Equivalent in Kazakh: ?? ?????? ?? ?, ?? ????????? ?? ?????. (Friday’s Deals May Not Be the Best, Business, November 24, 2011) Few Idioms from the Egemendi Kazakhstan are given below: ??? ??? ?? ???? – 1. Lit. a region of the afterlife on the border of hell. (In some Christian religions, there is a limbo set aside for souls that do not go to either heaven or hell. This sense is used only in this religious context. *Typically: be ~; remain ~; stay ~. ) The baby’s soul was in limbo because she had not been baptized. 2. Fig. n a state of neglect; in a state of oblivion; in an indefinite state; on hold. (*Typically: be ~; leave something ~; put something ~. ) We’ll have to leave the project in limbo for a month or two. After I got hit on the head, I was in limbo for about ten minutes. Equivalent in English: be in limbo. (December 2, 2011, politics, «?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????»);  ??? ???? ??????? – to remove from a position of prominence or power (as a throne) ;lt;the board of directors unthroned the CEO when it became clear that he was not going to reverse the company’s sagging fortunes anytime soon>. Equivalent in English: clip somebody’s wings. (December 2, 2011, politics, «? ???? ???? ?????????????? ?? ????»);  ?? ?? ?? ?, ?? ?? ?? ??? – someone who is experienced at doing something. The maid was an old hand at polishing silver. Bob is an old hand at training dogs. Equivalent in English: old hand. (December 2, 2011, existence, «?????? ????? ? ?? ???? ?? ????»); ? ??? ? ??????, ?? ? ?? ????? – Emotional pain will grow less as time passes. You may think your heart is broken and you can never possibly love again, but time is a great healer. Equivalent in English: time is a great healer. (December 2, 2011, existence, «?????? ????? ? ?? ???? ?? ????») . Conclusion The phraseological word combinations serves a main function in newspaper style.
Idioms are used in newspapers according to the following reasons: – In order to make an article more attractive;( in headlines) – In order to make the meaning of the phrase depper. From scientific point of view, there are 2 methods of using idioms in newspapers: – Idioms are used in understandable way, they should be casual for everybody – Idioms are changed by author’s of articles. In this this report also is hold this point of view. So here are given 2 methods of using idioms in newspapers: – Traditional idioms; – Specific idioms, which are used by pecular authors. Traditional phraseological word combinations mostly used in today’s life. Because, they are more understandable than spesific idioms.
In the long run the role of idioms takes part important sight in scientific research. In any event using the idioms high and low is not due. But as a matter of facts with the help of idioms people are influenced. As we have said Mass media – is the way of inculcating some information to people’s consciousness. Lay it on the line Mass media conduct people. But not everybody can recognize the meaning of idioms in news articles. Because a lot of people, foreigners and learners even don’t know idioms. This it matter of time when foreigners and learners can fully understand idioms of native language. Reading newspapers or listening to native radio will help learners to find you a large number of idioms.
After a while some idioms will become familiar, and learner will learn the places and situations where learner hear them. Bibliography: 1. ????? ?. ?. ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????. – ?????: ??????, 2005. – 471 ?. 2. New York Times, November, 22, 24, 2011 3. Egemendi Kazakhstan, December 2, 2011 4. ??????? ?. ?. ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????. – ??????: ?????? ?????, 1986. – 293 ?. 5. ?????-??????? ???, 1. 08. 2008. , «China could reach moon before US» 6. ?????-??????? ???, 25. 05. 2009. , «UK man lands World’s best job » 7. Wall Street Journal. , 3. 03. 2011 8. New York Times. , 12. 04. 2010 9. Arisona Daily Star. , 30. 01. 2010 10. Morning Star. , 13. 04. 2011 11. TimesOnline. , 24. 06. 2010 12.
New York Times. , New Trove of Stolen E-mails From Climate Scientists Is Released. , November 22, 2011. 13. New York Times. , A Park, an Oyster Farm and Science, Business, November 24, 2011 14. New York Times. , T-Mobile and AT;T Edge Closer to Scrapping Merger, Business, November 24, 2011 15. New York Times. , Friday’s Deals May Not Be the Best, Business, November 24, 2011 16. Egemendi Kazakhstan. , December 2, 2011, politics, «?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????» 17. Egemendi Kazakhstan. , December 2, 2011, politics, «? ???? ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????» 18. Egemendi Kazakhstan. , December 2, 2011, existence, «?????? ????? ? ?? ???? ?? ????»