Microbiological Aspects of Biofilms and Drinking Water This book is about the development of biofilms and their role in public health, especially drinking water. This is great for anyone interested in water related issues, where Microbiological Aspects of Biofilms and Drinking Water presents an overview of the public health effects associated with drinking water. It highlights the microbiological aspects relating to the development of biofilms. The first couple of chapters focus on the state of the water supply.
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The authors review methods for studying the epidemiological spread of waterborne infections and those used in surveillance and control of pathogenic microbes. He includes the methods used for the detection of pathogens of public health importance in drinking water. In the later chapters the authors pay close attention to biofilm development within drinking water systems, emphasizing the public health threat. They cover the microbes important to public health and include the methods used to detect biofilms. In conclusion they review the methods involved in biofilm control, both conventional and biocide treatments.
Overall, Microbiological Aspects of Biofilms and Drinking Water provides an overview of public health effects associated with potable water and includes particular reference to the microbiological aspects relating to the development of biofilms. It covers the future of drinking water and its associated health hazards and provides a deeper understanding of biofilms and how they provide a safe haven for pathogens and water related diseases. To begin, the authors talk about the two types of water, surface water and ground water this is where our two main sources of water come from.
They both play a very important role in how we have drinking water today. The process is just incredible and astonishing, I don’t think we ever stop and think about how incredibly lucky we are to have such technology. If we don’t do anything to conserve the water we have now, we may not be so lucky in the future. I have to say that I agree and like this book, because people are not aware and educated on what it takes to have that one glass of water, clean water to shower, or any other use of daily water. The importance of educating people about the consumption, conservations, and pathogens in water are crucial.
In order to have water in the future decades, we have to take all these important things into consideration. Can you imagine what life would be with limited sources of water or dirty water with pathogens that cause a huge epidemic that could be deadly? Our world would come to an end in a matter of years or days, without water. Biofilms are talked heavily throughout this book because of their enormous diversity they have. Evidence today discussed in the book suggests that a constantly changing dynamic ecosystem is not possible.
With this, it seems plausible to suggest that bio? lms form different structures and are composed of different microbial consortia dictated by biological and environmental parameters which can quickly respond and adapt both phenotypically, genetically (possibly), and structurally to constantly changing internal and external conditions. In nature, the human body and industrial surroundings, it is now widely accepted that the majority of bacteria exist, not in a free floating planktonic state but attached to surfaces within biofilms.
With the use of electron microscope, researchers have identified the presence of microorganisms enclosed in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) which are associated with surfaces. Other devices have been used to study bacteria like with the use of scanning confocal laser microscopy (SCLM), microbalance applications, microelectrode analysis, high-resolution video microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Bacteria generally range in size from 0. 5 (nanobacteria) to 4 µm in length or diameter, with slow-growing and starved cells dominating at the smaller end of the range and fast-growing cells, especially in nutrient rich environments, at the larger end. The adsorption of macromolecules and attachment of microbial cells to a substratum are only the ? rst stages in the development of bio? lms. This is followed by the growth of bacteria, development of micro colonies, recruitment of additional attaching bacteria, and the colonization of other organisms, like microalgae.
An attachment of bacteria takes place, the bacteria begin to grow and extracellular polymers are produced and accumulated so that the bacteria are eventually embedded in a hydrated polymeric matrix. The biofilm bacteria, consequently. According to this book, the global effect of waterborne diseases is colossal, with more than 250 million new cases being reported each year, resulting in over 10 million deaths. Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. , and Vibrio cholera are the most common worldwide to cause water contamination.
In order to make sure that our water is clean and safe to drink the examiners have to be aware of certain pathogens that tend to cause contaminated water. Untreated water usually contains bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and many viruses. It takes disinfection and water treatments to remove all these pathogens in order to get clean water. Even though people work so hard to give us clean water, free of pathogens, sometimes contamination still occurs due to other unknown things happening.
Biofilms, play a great role in capturing a lot of pathogens, but not always prevent from epidemics occurring. We can only hope that the water cleaning systems get better over time in order to prevent any of kinds epidemic from happening. It’s very overwhelming to learn all this facts about the water we consume daily. It could really happen to anyone and anywhere, like I said before we just aware and continue educated people about possibilities of any of this thing occurring. Bacteria play a large role in the contamination of water.
I think this book hits it perfect when discussing about the different types of disinfections used in potable water treatment processes in order to reduce pathogens to an acceptable level and thus prevent public health concerns. However, scientific evidence is mounting, suggesting that exposure to chemical by-products formed during the disinfectant or altering the disinfection process may decrease by-product formation; however, these practices may increase the potential for microbial contamination.
Therefore, at this time, it is necessary for research in the areas of potable water and disinfection to balance the health risks caused by exposure to microbial pathogens with the risks caused by exposure to disinfection by-products, specifically tri-halomathanes. They are several types of different ways to test for pathogens in water. In this book they review a few of them, which I find very interesting. Which also include, non-invasive which leaves the substrata intact, such as swabbing and invasive which breaks the integrity of the system, such as sampling pipe sections.
It would take me pages and pages to name all the types of tests that are ran in order to test for pathogens. Biofilm control with potable water systems us very complicated I think and requires immediate action with respect to potential waterborne disease implications and all the possible effects with contamination. The major control with respect to reducing biofilm accumulation is governed by the careful control of water levels and maintaining, but ultimately reducing, cell count levels.
Post disinfection with the use of chlorine is by no means a curative measure, but a precautionary measure when biofilm growth and coliform after-growth is evident. While biofilm development with potable water cannot be avoided, right now there is an emerging problem associated with them exists. I think it is very important to know and understand that it is related to the public health significance of growth as part of a biofilm where it is known that biocidal activity is greatly reduced.
Also, the increasing isolation of bacteria resistant to present day disinfectant concentrations will only complicate the argument. Even if increased dosage of chlorine is the answer, it is well known that the development of secondary precursors will have a major long term effect on human health. It is not possible to fully assess the performance of disinfection on bio? lms in potable water distribution systems owing to the constantly changing variables evident.
While these have been looked at in many laboratory-based experiments, they have led to a number of con? icting results and unanswered questions. Citation Percival, Steven L. , James Thomas. Walker, and Paul R. Hunter. Microbiological Aspects of Biofilms and Drinking Water. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000. CRCnetbase. University of North Texas. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <http://libproxy. library. unt. edu:3672/doi/book/10. 1201/9781420041941>.