Once the Egyptians were fully prepared for the war and they found that the success is definite for her allies, they launched attk at 1400 hrs on 6 Oct 1973 against Israel. Egyptians mounted attks on Bar Lev Lines in the desert and Syrians in the Golan Heights. This war continued up to 24 Oct 73 and ended with a cease-fire. The result was against the Arabs. However, the campaign was fought boldly and the world witnessed the greatest armd battle in the history since World War II in the African desert. 2.

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The Arab Israeli War- 1973 stands out as the most important conflict since the World War-II, if any one considers the weapon utilization or the effects of the war on world politics and economy. The war also left many lessons for the future. Back Ground 3. The explosion of 1973, however, was one of the eruptions in a history of simmering relations. The Oct War was the 5th clash between Arabs and Israelis. a. The first was in 1948-49, which the Israelis call as their “War of Independence”. b. The second war, which occurred in 1956. President Nasser had nationalized and then closed the Suez Canal, which led to an Anglo-French invasion. . The third outburst was the, “Six day war” fought between 5-10 June 1967. The Israelis destroyed the air force of Jordan, Egypt, Syria and Iraq. d. The fourth clash was President Nasser’s “War of Attrition” which began in 1967 virtually as soon as the Egyptian Armed Forces had regrouped and had received more Soviet materials. At this time Soviets sup Egypt the Surface to Air Missiles (SAMs) for def against Israeli ac. 4. The Arabs tried to regain their lost territories in these past wars after the defeat of 1956; Egypt was helped by USSR and began to rebuild her armed forces from ground up.

Training for continuously six years did this effort. Once they were fully prepared and found that success is definite for the allies, she launched attack at 1400 hours on 6 Oct, 1973 against Israelis and she mounted attack on Bar Lev Line in the desert and Syrians in the Golan Heights. 5. Arabs had all the bitter memories of the past. Twice in quarter century, hundred and thousands of Palestinians had been uprooted from their homeland following Israeli military victories in 1948 and 1967. By 1973 there were more than two million Palestinians living away from their home, six thousand were still living in refugee camps.

The chance of any resettlement receded. By the then president Anwar Sadat lost his faith in diplomacy as it became clear to him the pressure of “No peace, no war” which seemed to everyone’s advantage did not serve the purpose of the Arabs. The Causes of War 6. Syrian and Egyptian planned for the surprise attk against the Israelis in 1973 taking the advantage of the fol factors: a. Israeli forces were extremely over confident. b. Israeli political ldr were preoccupied with the upcoming election and very reluctant to mob prematurely. c.

Israel’s manpower and economic sit could not allow for the losses or pds of extended mob. d. A moonlit with the moon rising early and setting late would favour the bldg of br. e. The speed of the Canal current would be minimum and favour the x. f. It was a holy day in the Jewsih religious Calendar which would find many of the Israeli sldr on leave. g. Israel would not expect in attk during the month of Ramadan. 7. On 06 Oct 1973, the armed forces of Egypt and Syria backed by the most of the other Arab states, attked Israeli posn along Suez Canal and on the Golan Heights.

The Arabs went for war for the following reasons: a. To raise the morale of the Egyptian troops and the people and make them believe in ftg against Israel. b. To prove before the world that Egypt had not accepted the capture of Sinai as a permanent matter and construction of Bar Lev line does not mean complete annexation of Sinai with Israel. c. To attack world attention to come forward to persuade Israel to accept UN resolution 242. ORBAT 8. Comparative state (Army) of Egypt and Israel are as fol: SerItemEgyptIsrael 1. Manpower2,60,00030,000 (Reg), 85,000 (Coscripts) Total 3,00,000 on mob after 72 hrs.

The entire length, is not suitable for river x in str. 11. The Battle Plan. a. 2nd and 3rd Army were to attack with their five infantry divisions to secure a bridgehead 10-15 kms deep and ready to continue the attack. b. The armd and mechanized divisions would pass these infantry divisions to penetrate the Mitla and Giddi passes and retake the west Sinai upto north south line running through Bir Gifgafar. c. Estb of strong def posn after the successful completion of phase-2 the inf div would move forward to replace the armd and mechanized forces who will withdraw to the west to fall back positions. 2. Tasks. The task allotted to various Egyptian formations were as under : a. 1st Army to act as reserve. b. 2nd Army with five divisions will operate between port Saied Great Bitter Lake with HQ at Ismailia. c. 3rd Army to operate in area Great Bitter Lake and Port Suez with HQ in the desert south of the lake. 13. Egyptian Attack – 6 Oct. a. At about 1400 hours on 6 October 150 MIGs carried out attack on Bar Lev Line strong holds. b. The attack was followed by artillery fire from 1500 concealed guns in the west bank. Inf men and commandoes X the canal in rubber boats. c.

A first wave of infantry by passed the Israeli bunkers and penetrated into desert to neutralise the Israeli armour. The commandoes were lifted by helicopters and dropped into Sinai around key installations to disrupt and disorganize attempts of reinforcement by armoured units. d. The washing out of the gaps were conducted by the engineers with a surprising speed and within 9 hours they made 60 gaps, 10 bridges and 60 ferries. e. Within the 24 hours Egyptian crossed assaulting infantry divisions along with their 400 tanks and by morning of 08 October the Egyptians were in defensive positions as planned. . In the southern front General Sharon arrived on 7, October ahead of his formation. The attacking infantry has shattered the Bar Lev Line. The IDF has lost 150 out of 240 tanks in the Sinai desert by that time. 14. Israeli Counter attackk – Egyptian Consolidation (8 Oct – 13 Oct). a. To neutralise the Egyptian commando operations a mechanized task force was raised under Major General Sharon. b. The first major counter attack by IDF was launched at 0759 hours on 8 October by 2 x Bn. c. The leading battalion had initial success. d.

The Egyptian ambushed the main attacking battalions destroying 18 out of 22 tanks along with brigade commander. e. During 11 to 13 October, two Egyptian armoured divisions were moved across the canal bringing the total number of tanks to 1250. 15. Egyptian Second Attackk on 14 Oct. a. At dawn on 14 October an intense 90 minutes artillery preparatory fire and air strike. At dawn both 2nd and 3rd Army launched their major offensive. b. The 3rd Army’s attack was towards Mitla pass with secondary attack towards Giddi pass. c. The Israeli defeated the attacks with heavy Egyptian casually. 6. Israeli Counter Offensive – Operation Gazella (15 – 17 Oct). a. On the night of 15 October the IDF executed plan for crossing the canal. b. 27 Armoured and 16 division were deployed along the roads to the canal to Tasa. c. General Sharon sent armoured battalion to attempt to disclose they would fully opened the road. d. In morning 16 October, General Sharon splited his force into raiding parties and sent them to search and destroy the SAM sites, fuel dumps and artillery battalions. e. Egyptian higher command did not know anything of Israeli closing units.

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