They established a confederation to build land and sea forces which could match the Persians.

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They first established sea supremacy.

They then combined to establish land supremacy.

After initial setbacks in the Ionian revolt and at Artemesion, they defeated the Persians repeatedly on land and sea – Salamis, Plataia, Mykale, Eurymedon, Cyprus and other lesser battles.

They kept this confederacy viable for long enough – fifty years – to persuade the Persians to stay out of Greek waters (then they went back to their usual occupation of fighting each other).

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