The Third Punic war was the only instance of Rome having thedestruction of an enemy and the obliteration of a state as her waraim. Rome did destroy other cities in some of her wars. However,this was an outcome of military engagement and was not part of theinitial war aim. Moreover, they did not involve the destruction ofan enemy state. For example, the Romans destroyed Jerusalem after along siege. However, this was not the initial intention and did notinvolve the destruction of the whole of Judea.
There was a similarity with Corinth. Rome destroyed Corinth, whichwas one of the cities of the Achaean League (an alliance of Greekcity-states in southern Greece) which fought Rome. Both cities weredestroyed in the same year (146 BC). Julius Caesar ordered therebuilding of both cities as Roman colonies in 44 BC. However,again, destruction had not been the war aim in the case of Corinth.
The destruction of Carthage was advocated by a war party which wonthe day in Rome’s politics. Their advocates argued that Carthagereturned to prosperity and that there was a danger that she mightrebuild her military might. This was not the case. Despite peaceterms imposed by Rome after the Second Punic War which were meantto be economically crippling, Carthage did well. Her land was veryfertile. It was one of the breadbaskets of the Mediterranean.Moreover, with the demilitarisation imposed by Rome she savedenormous amounts of money by not incurring military expenses. LaterCarthage levied a military force to fend off attacks by herNumidian neighbours. However, she would not have been able to be amatch for Rome’s military prowess ever again. This policy wasdriven by resentment and fear due to the tens of thousands of Romanand Italian allies who lost their lives when Hannibal invaded.Carthage was destroyed and the 50,000 survivors of the siege weresold into slavery.

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