The Greek city-states were never united, they formed temporary coalitions against each other, which came and went accorting to self-interest at any particular time.

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After temporarily uniting against the Persian invasion (and even then there were Greek cities on the Persian side) they went back to business as usual the Persian threat was driven back.

The unifying force of the Delian League against Persia was converted into an empire by Athens, and when longer term peace was arranged with Persia in 449 BCE, Athens continued to collect the League funds to spend on itself and on maintaining naval supremacy. This led to the Peloponnesial League led by Sparta to counter Athenian dominance, and these two leagues slid into war.

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