Hammurabi extended his empire northward from the Persian Gulf through the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys and westward to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea as king of Babylonia, and the greatest ruler in the first Babylonian dynasty. Hammurabi is primarily remembered for his codification of the laws governing Babylonian life.
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The king took over Babylonia when the times in Mesopotamia lie in confusion, turmoil, and constant war. King after king manages to rule a city-state or a small empire for a short time by conquering neighboring city-states. But these kings are cruel to the people of the conquered city, rule unjustly, and leave turmoil and a struggle for power. Hammurabi took over to be another kind a king who ruled to unite Mesopotamia under a just law.