CHAPTER 2 : PARADIGMS, THEORY, AND RESEARCH Sociology is defined as the study of human societies, collective actions and situations of many individuals and the social behavior within groups Social Sciences ? ? involves the study of statistically significant patterns in social behavior ? aka social regularitiesfundamental to sociology, the study of human societies, because they reflect the common behavior of many individuals ? ? most important goal of research is to elucidate why these aggregated patterns of behavior remain constant despite the fact that individuals change over time categorized by scope (level) ? ? ? macrotheory: institutions, whole societies, and the interactions of these societies microtheory: understand individuals and the interactions among individuals mesotheory: takes the place in between these two ? It studies organizations, communities, and perhaps social categories such as gender.Scientific Community ? ? ? scientific research is held at universities and performed by research who hold Ph.D. degrees researchers work to understand reality and determine the causality of an issue some military and government organizations perform research ? ? more like to donate grants to universities but not always without incentive pseudo-scientists ? people who are paid to produce evidence in support of a certain predetermined result through their “research” ? ? only “research” done in this case will be a search for ways to back up a “result” that has already been chosen based on which outcome is desired corporations seek researchers who have the findings and/or opinions that they desire (ie. results that would be beneficial to the corporation) ? ? pay these researchers to conjure up more claims to support their positions, in order to make them appear even more credible most scientists use outlets such as academic journals to expand human knowledgeTheory ? ? ? is a systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of…

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