There were two main Persian campaigns into mainland Greece:

1. Darius I of Persia, in 490 BCE, sent a punitive expedition against Athens and Eretria – defeated by Athenian forces at the Battle of Marathon.

2. Xerxes I (Darius’ son) – defeated in the naval battle of Salamis 480 BCE, and in 479 BCE in the land battle of Plataia and the sea-land battle of Mykale.

3. There was subsequent fighting, including the naval battles at Euurymedon 466 BCE and Cyprus 449 BCE, after which Persia signed a peace, undertaking not to intrude into Greek waters.

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