The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) located in the western region[1] ofSouth Asia,[2] and spread over what are now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan.[3] Flourishing in the Indus River basin, the civilization[n 1]extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley[7] and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab;[8][9] it extended west to the Makran coast ofBalochistan and north to northeastern Afghanistan. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km?, making it the largest ancient civilization.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan).[10] Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.[11] There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization.

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