The city-states of Athens and Sparta joined forces along with theother southern Greek city-states to defeat the Persian invasion in480-479 BCE, however they were not enemies – they were alliesbefore and after the Persian invasion.
Sparta had offered support to Athens against the Persian attack onAthens a decade before that, and Athens supported the Spartans whenMessenia revolted against Spartan rule twenty years after thePersian invasion. Not exactly enemies.

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They became enemies when Athens set out to dominate the Greekworld, resulting in the Spartan-led Peloponnesian League and Athensand its new empire clashed in a destructive Peloponnesian War431-404 BCE. Athens lost, was stripped of its empire and became asecond rate power.

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