The Indus Valley civilization itself, for those that do not know, was a merchant oriented civilization that sprang up in Pakistan and India on the borders of the Arabic sea. It’s cities are numerous and more discovered continually, but mainly between the Indus river (modern name Sindhu) and the ancient river of Sarasvati that has since dried up. It takes it’s “Harrappa” name from one of these cities in modern day Pakistan.They were great fishermen, and also traded their finely made goods to Mesopotamia and elsewhere. I personally consider them to be one of the “artisan civilizations” for their keen appreciation for well made goods.
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Back to the jewelry, the region around the main cities of the Harrappa was rich in many metals and worthy stones. What they could not mine themselves, they contracted miners from neighboring regions to acquire for them, namely modern day Afghanistan. Carnelian, gold, copper, torquoise and other metals/semi precious stones were used in the making of their jewelry. Most were made for the purpose of necklaces and bracelets, but many pendants and amulets have been found as well over the years. Digs are still underway and more items discovered continually, including a recent one near the border of Iran (very far away!) containing a cache of distinctly Indus Valley jewelry hinting at far flung trade of these items.
The Indus Valley civilization, dating from approximately 2500 b.c. marks this as being not only some of the oldest jewelry found in the Orient but in the entire world.