The largest empire theworld had ever known up to 1580 was the Mongol Empire (1206-1368)which covered an area of 12.74 million square miles. This empire isthe second largest one in history after the British Empire (13.01million square miles)The largest empire in1580 was the Ming Empire of China (1368-1640) of the Ming dynastyof China which, with a surface of 2.51million square miles was asbig as the Roman Empire had been. The second largest empire was theOttoman Empire of the Ottoman dynasty of Turkey (1453-1922, 2.01square miles). The third largest empire was Northern Yan Dynast ofMongolia (1.93 square miles). The fourth largest empire was theSafavid Empire of the Safavid dynasty of Persia (1501-1736, 1.35million square miles).