He attempted to incorporate the city-states of mainland Greece into his empire to put an end to their endless fighting which spilt over to his empire.

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He failed and the Greek city-states retained their freedom to continue their fratricidal warfare and disruption, culminating in the Peloponnesian War which for 27 years devastated the Greek world from Sicily to Asia Minor.

Persia then tried again to impose the ‘King’s Peace’ which reduced these wars until Philip II of Macedonia imposed his own form of peace on them, and diverted their warmongering towards the Persian Empire, led by his son Alexander the Great.

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