The feat of Lupercal was part of the pastoral religious festival of the Lupercalia which was performed at the Lupercal was a cave at the Palatine hill . The name was derived from the lupa (she-wolf) who suckled the baby twins Romulus and Remus. The Lupercal was said to be the place where the she-wolf found them after they landed in the area. The twins were said to have been thrown in the river Tiber by the king of Alba Longa and their basket got caught by a branch of a fig tree.

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The Lupercalia was a celebration of Lupercus, the god of shepherds. It was officiated by priests called Luperci (brothers of the lupus, wolf) who belonged the college of priests of Lupercus.
The festival involved the sacrifice of a goat and a dog, two animals with a strong sex drive. Two noble youths anointed the foreheads of the priests with a sword dipped in the blood of the victims. The priests wiped the blood off with wool soaked in milk. The youths then had to laugh loud. Afterwards there was a feast. Then the priests cut the skin of the goats and covered the part of their bodies with goat skin (Lupercus was depicted half naked and half covered with goat skin). They also cut thongs. They then run half naked though the streets of the Palatine hill, striking people. This act was symbolic of purifying the land and of fertility. The struck men were purified. Young women lined up to be hit. This was to ensure fertility and ease the pains of labour.

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