The Jews and the Phoenicians were West Semitic people who lived in different parts of the Levant. The Phoenicians lived more or less where Lebanon is today. The homeland of the Jews was Judah, an inland enclave based around the city of Jerusalem and approximating the southern part of the modern Palestinian West Bank territory. Borders were subject to change over the centuries and these are only approximations. At times, Judah also included the Shephelah, to the east of Philistia.
To the north of Judah, and often spoken of synonymously, was the Kingdom of Israel, home of the Israelites. There may once have been a United Monarchy called that included both Judah and Israel.
After the Babylonian Exile, there was a substantial Jewish population in Babylonia, and another colony in Egypt.
Phoenicia was a narrow strip of land adjacent to the Mediterranean shores. They may have extended further inland, but all of their major towns were along the coast. On the north-south axis, they lived from below Tyre in the south, up to about 400 kilometers further north.
The Jews (Israelites) lived in different places depending upon the era. During the time of the Forefathers, they were a minority in the land of Canaan. After that, they sojourned in Egypt for some two centuries. Then they possessed the land that is now Israel, from the time of Joshua until the time of Rehoboam (around 450 years). After that, they split into two smaller kingdoms; and it was during that era that the Ten Tribes were exiled to Assyria and points beyond.
After the Babylonian exile, there were Jewish communities in Israel (Judea), Babylonia, North Africa, southern Europe, and throughout the Near East and Arabia.