They had turned their geographical disadvantages to their own favour by building the long walls from the city to their port. They could then defend themselves, supply themselves by sea and launch sea invasions against their enemies – all in their favour.

This allowed them to keep going for 27 years until the Persians gave the Peloponnesian League the money to field a fleet which destroyed the hitherto dominant Athenian one. Athens, then beseiged without supply or allied support, had to surrender.

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