The Greek city-states within the Persian Empire in Asia Minor wererestive, and two of their mother-cities in Mainland Greece, Eretriaand Athens, provided military support to them. During this in 498BCE, forces from the two cities over-reached by burning downSardis, the Persian provincial capital of Asia Minor.

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Persia mounted an amphibious punitive expedition against the twocities, capturing Eretria, but repulsed by Athens at Marathon in490 BCE.

Persia realised that these interventions would continue, anddecided to incorporate the mainland Greek cities within its empireto keep them quiet. The invasion was defeated in a series ofbattles at Salamis, Plataia and Mykale 480-479 BCE, and sporadicwarfare ensued for the following 30 years until Persia gave up andagreed to a peace in 449 BCE under which both sides undertook tostay out of each other’s territories.

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