Turkey has a land district of about 781,000 km2, 7100 kilometer of which is a coastline ( Ernst and Young ; 1999 ) . Countrys topography is varied: the biggest portion of the state consists of upland tableland which are surrounded by cragged countries. Turkey ‘s natural magnetic attraction is picturesque, diverse and unchanged landscape with woods, rivers, lakes and mountains.
In 1995 the population of Turkey was 63 million, nevertheless in 2010 it was estimated at 74 million.
The capital of the state is Ankara, whereas the largest metropolis and the Centre of industry and commercialism is Istanbul.
The bulk of the Turkish population is Muslim. However there is really little figure of non-Muslim like Greek Orthodox and Armenian Christians and Jews ( Ernst and Young ; 1999 ) . The official linguistic communication of the state is Turkish.
Tourism in Turkey developed aggressively in 1980s and from that clip it has became one of the most of import factors for the state ‘s life ( Balali ; 2009 ) . Compared to other Mediterranean part states or elsewhere in the universe, Turkey has exceeding wealth of touristry. However, touristry is an activity that affects the environment in which it prevails. Hence touristry impacts disperse to many different countries. This essay is chiefly focused on issues related to economic, socio-cultural and environmental touristry impacts on Turkey.
To get down with, this essay is traveling to measure environmental impacts of touristry in Turkey. The history of touristry demonstrates that the environment of topographic points has contributed to the birth and advancement of touristry ( Wall, Mathieson ; 2006 ) . It is clear without stating that any signifier of industrial development will doubtless convey with it impacts on environment in which it takes topographic point. As a regulation, “ tourers must see the topographic point of production in order to devour the end product ” ( Cooper et Al ; 2008:161 ) and inescapably their activity will be related with environmental impacts. The environment, no affair if it is natural or semisynthetic, is the basic ingredient of the touristry merchandise. Unfortunately, every bit shortly as touristry touches the environment, it is changed, modified and fitted to tourism demands. The same thing happened for the Turkey ‘s touristry industry. Harmonizing to the fact that Turkey has more than 26,336 million visitants per twelvemonth ( WTO ; 2009 ) it is clear without stating that touristry left some impacts on state ‘s environment. Harmonizing to Tosun ( 2001:295 ) ‘unbalanced and geographical concentration of touristry development has created environmental jobs in assorted signifiers at different local tourer finishs ‘ . First, and likely the most harmful, impact has been made on the alone natural and semisynthetic resources. This could be seen in Pamukkale every bit good as in the part of Cappadocia. The natural beauty and singularity was destroyed by tourers. Pamukkale, which has one of the most beautiful travertine patios in the universe, was opened for the tourers in 1993 ( Simsek et al ; 2000 ) . Even though the country was declared as World Heritage Site, supported by UNESCO and protected by International Research and Application Center for Karst Water Resources and the Ministry of Culture of Turkey ( Simsek et al ; 2000 ) now it is confronting with large jobs. Hotels and motels have been utilizing thermic H2O to provide private swimming pools and baths, which is wash uping the natural hot springs ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . Some unfastened crevices are being filled by waste from hotels, motels and tourers. These things will do major jobs. First, thermic H2O will be dirty and secondly, more significantly, the contaminated H2O will do a menace to human wellness ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . Apart from this, Pamukkale is traveling to lose its natural white coloring material and go darker ( Simsek et al ; 2000 ) . As for Cappadocia, it is besides one of the most astonishing sites in the universe due to its cultural heritage and volcanic beauty. The country is popular non merely because of its beauty but besides because of its spiritual relics. However, some non spiritual tourers have damaged these resources by utilizing stone houses as a gardens, bars etc. ( Tosun ; 2001 ) .
Another touristry impact confronting Turkey ‘s environment is uncontrolled hotels on coastlines. Alipour ( 1996 ) and Brotherton and Himmetoglu ( 1997:77 ) as cited in Tosun ( 2001:295 ) provinces ‘these touristry installation development in the premier Aegean and Mediterranean coastal parts took topographic point to a big extent in a hit-or-miss manner ‘ . The Ministry of Tourism claims that some of the hotels violated building ordinances and the Coastal Law No. 3621. As a consequence, Aegean and Mediterranean coastal parts are filled with hotels. Furthermore, environment pollution has besides became a large issue in Turkey ‘s touristry finishs. Due to increasing figure of visitants, the transporting capacity of sewerage disposal system has been exceeded ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . There has been made a survey, which shows that in 2007 the metropolis of Antalya was visited by 4 030 170 aliens and 1 014 956 Turkish citizens, the mean length of their stay was 6 yearss ( Erdogan and Baris ; 2007 ) . The figure of visitants is increasing and the job about waste and sewerage following it.
On the other manus, some hotel directors and locals who are working in touristry sphere, attention about environment and seek to assist salvaging it. Harmonizing to Erdogan and Baris ( 2007:612 ) ‘nearly tierce of the hotels ( 30 % ) screen their waste to pull out reclaimable stuff, 32,5 % do some screening ‘ . Apart from this, some hotels, for illustration, Radisson Sas Hotel even has three different container for glass, fictile bottles and paper. Other hotels, like the Capital Hotel, cod paper, aluminium and metal and sell them. In malice of this, even peculiar undertakings to undertake environmental jobs were established. One of them is the Blue Flag Campaign, which works from 1993 and trades with all possible beginnings of pollution, safety on the beaches, solid waste direction etc. ( Goymen ; 2000 ) . All these activities could be called as positive touristry impacts on Turkey.
However, the usage of wood for the touristry intent is another negative environmental impact. As Kuvan ( 2005 ) provinces, in 2001 in Turkey metropolis Belek the entire country which has been allocated to touristry was 863 hour angle. To set it in another manner, the sum allocated country creates 39,06 % of the forest lands. Tourism investors build tourer installations such as vacation small towns, golf classs, hotels, motels in the countries where woods supposed to be. Not merely edifices but besides usage of woods for athleticss and recreational activities has harmful effects on the woods ( Kuvan ; 2004 ) . The survey have been made about this subject and an absolute bulk of the respondents agreed with the fact that forests in and around Belek have been damaged by touristry ( Kuvan ; 2004 ) .
Surely, there are even more touristry impacts on Turkey ‘s environment, like noise, traffic jams, overcrowding, H2O pollution etc. ( Simek et al ; 2000 ) . However, they are non traveling to be discussed in this essay due to the economic impacts, which besides should be considered.
Tourism has been playing an of import function in Turkey ‘s economic system since 1980. As Balali ( 2007:34p ) provinces since that clip Turkey “ accepted free market economic system and export – oriented industrialisation theoretical account every bit good as flexible exchange rate policy and more broad import government ” . So it means that the chief transmutation in Turkish touristry started in mid 1980s. In 1985 touristry sector started booming and mostly contributed to state ‘s economic growing ( Zortuk ; 2009 ) . While in 1980 – 1983 touristry income was US $ 1.488 million and the figure of visitants was 5.709.000, in 2004 – 2007 the figures increased to 81.801.000 tourers with a touristry income of US $ 52.597 million ( Table 1 ) .
However, harmonizing to Tosun ( 1998 ) there were two chief stages in Turkish touristry development. The first stage was ‘natural procedure of touristry development ‘ . During this period touristry industry belonged to locals and all the money from touristry went to them ( Tosun ; 1998 ) . However, during another period, which Tosun ( 1998 ) called as institutionalized, locals control over the touristry industry have been wholly lost. Even 85 % of all visitant reachings travelled by utilizing alien owned and operated companies ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . This means that even though touristry in Turkey is good developed, it does non give positive impact for states economic system. To set in another manner, while locals even do non hold comfy houses, proper irrigation systems, schools of national criterions or modern agribusiness equipments, luxury hotels and tourers leisure installations ever get a major portion from public financess ( Tosun ; 1998 ) . That creates escapes in Turkey ‘s economic system. The local people do non hold adequate capital and money to set up appropriate hotels and stores to function tourers and to vie with foreign investors ( Tosun ; 2002 ) .
As for Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) in Turkey, it is expected that Travel and Tourism direct industry in 2010 will lend 4.2 % to GDP ( WTTC ) . However, the Travel and Tourism economic system part is expected to worsen from 9,7 % to 8,2 % . If these Numberss are compared with for case Italy, where in 2009 Travel and Tourism industry contributed 3.8 % to GDP ( WTTC ; 2009 ) , they are high plenty. It is non a good thing, though, because it shows Turkey ‘s mutuality on touristry.
However, there are some facts which motivate that touristry brings some positive economic impacts for Turkey. In 1999 2.5 million indirect occupations in touristry industry were created and about 265,000 people were straight employed in touristry industry ( Goymen ; 2000 ) . What is more, the Numberss are turning. WTTC ( 2010:9 ) provinces that “ the part of the Travel and Tourism economic system to employment is expected to lift from 6,4 % of entire employment, 1,389,000 occupations or 1 in every 15,5 occupations in 2010, to 7,2 % of entire employment, 1,847,000 occupations, or 1 in every 13,9 occupations by 2020 ” . These Numberss, compared with, for case Greece, where in 2009 10,4 % of entire employment was Travel and Tourism industry ( WTTC ; 2009 ) , are non rather high. In malice of these facts, although, Turkish citizens do non see these occupations as profitable. Harmonizing to the survey, which has been made, in the part of Urgup touristry related occupations are the most unwanted ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . The fact is that touristry normally offers merely seasonal occupations with comparatively low rewards, which are non attractive for locals. Furthermore, youth do non acknowledge touristry as a possible calling pick and occupation related with touristry do non hold regard in citizens eyes ( Tosun ; 2001 ) .
The last impact, which is traveling to be discussed in this essay, is socio-cultural touristry impact in Turkey. Changes in economic growing and development will ever be associated with alterations in socio-cultural characteristics of the country ( Cooper et al ; 2008 ) . Sing the fact that touristry brings visitants into contact with the local population, it besides adds farther significances to the socio-cultural alterations. In fact, the contact between locals and visitants can be either utile or destructive depending upon the difference in civilizations, traditions and people attitudes ( Cooper et al ; 2008 ) . In instance of Turkey, socio-cultural impacts there are more negative than positive.
First, and the most of import, issue is the fact that Turkey ‘s cultural heritage and traditional values were strongly influenced and used for the interest of economic benefits of touristry development. Local civilization and values in many Mediterranean and Aegean coastal parts have been used as a trade good and selling tool to increase the mean length of visitants stay and maximise foreign currency gaining ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . As Tosun ( 2001 ) claims even such things like a Circumcision banquets are demonstrated in forepart of crowds of tourers. The fact is that this process is non merely uncomfortable for the male childs but it besides breaks Muslims spiritual beliefs. Besides, due to the cheapest monetary value, hotelkeepers and eating house proprietors for traditional Turkish Nights public presentations better hire unprofessional squads instead than educated common people terpsichoreans ( Tosun ; 2000 ) . To set in another manner, the existent Turkish traditions, civilization and the imposts have been destroyed and overtime it may go hard to divide commercialized and reliable civilization.
Apart from this, even such alone sites as Cappadocia have lost its singularity and glorification. As a regulation, sites like Cappadocia are visited for their historical heritage, now, nevertheless, it have lost its historical and cultural value ( Tosun ; 2001 ) . Nowadays Cappadocia and Pamukkale are visited even without tourers ushers, which shows that visitants are non interested in the site ‘s history. Furthermore, there is no contact between locals and tourers unlike it was in the yesteryear ( Tosun ; 1998 ) . The Doxey ‘s Irridex ( 1975 ) can be used here every bit at first, in the yesteryear, locals felt “ euphory ” that visitants are coming, they communicated with them, were pleasant to demo tourers their state. The 2nd stage was “ apathy ” , when locals did non pay as many attending for the visitants. Then “ irritation ” while Aborigines started experiencing disrupted by aliens and eventually “ hostility ” so touristry became intruders for the local people. On the other manus, sometimes the job is that locals want to provide for tourers and as a effect they start to bury their existent civilization. However, locals themselves believe that touristry have no impacts on their manners, but it have negative impacts on drug dependence, single and organized offense ( Alvarez et al ; 2008 ) .
However, Turkey seems to be concerned about the negative socio-cultural touristry impact. In malice of the fact that nutrient dramas less of import function in state ‘s image edifice than historical and archeological sites, Turkey tries to maintain its alone culinary art and attract visitants with it. Harmonizing to Okumus et Al ( 2006 ) Turkey tries to advance merely its alone culinary art whereas for case Hong Kong offers international culinary arts every bit good as local.
Equally far as touristry impacts are concerned, it should be mentioned that Ministry of civilization and touristry in Turkey attentions about the states future. The touristry scheme of Turkey – 2023 is the actions program, which is prepared to work out the jobs, cut down the negative touristry impacts and better touristry in the state. ( Ministry of Culture and Tourism ; 2007 ) . First, touristry industry is traveling to be posed as a taking place raising rates of employment and regional development. Furthermore, touristry merchandises are traveling to be based on agreeable quality and monetary values. Furthermore, an instruction plan in touristry is traveling to be introduced. The Ministry of civilization and touristry expect Turkey to go a universe trade name in touristry acquiring the highest figure of tourers and grosss by 2023 ( Ministry of Culture and Tourism ; 2007 ) . Besides, there are actions planed which are traveling to recognize the scheme. The international cooperation is traveling to be strengthen and interregional differences in degree of development are traveling to be eliminated. Apart from this, there is a program to assist increase the fight of touristry sector through creative activity re-regional touristry trade name ( Ministry of Culture and Tourism ; 2007 ) . And these are non even all the visions and programs which Turkey has. Although no 1 knows if at least some of them are traveling to be realized.
To sum it all up, touristry is the domain which has impacts on every state, no affair where it is or how strong its economic system is. Turkey is non exception. As it is seen from this essay, the Republic of Turkey has more negative than positive impacts on state ‘s life. First, touristry is destructing Turkey ‘s natural environment beauty, which is non renewable. It causes tonss of harm for historical sites, coastal countries, woods. However, touristry besides encourages locals to believe about their environment, set up nature salvaging undertakings. Second, touristry created escapes in Turkey ‘s economic system. In malice of the fact that it creates 1000s of occupations, touristry related occupations are non wanted. Furthermore, Turkey ‘s touristry industry is run by foreign circuit operators more than locals and it causes likely the biggest issue, as locals can non vie with aliens. The 3rd thing, which have been discussed in this paper, is socio-cultural impact. As a consequence of touristry, Turkeys civilization is losing its genuineness. Turkish traditions, imposts, believes are being commercialized for the interest of touristry. On the other manus, sometimes Turkey attempts to safe its civilizations while for illustration showing its alone culinary art. Besides, as Ministry ‘s of Culture and Tourism scheme program demonstrates, the state shows involvement in work outing the jobs, increasing the degree of touristry. At present Turkey truly has jobs with touristry impacts, hopefully the scheme program will work and work out the jobs.