The word cordial reception comes from the Latin word hospes, which means host or invitee. Hospitality has come to intend run intoing the demands of invitees with kindness and good will. The cordial reception and touristry industry ( H & A ; T industry ) meets the demands of people with kindness and good will while they are off from their places. The H & A ; T industry is broken into four service sectors: nutrient and drink, housing, diversion, and travel and touristry.
Assorted theories and methods are used in researching the touristry and cordial reception fields the most of import and effectual in all them are the critical research theory, qualitative research method and quantitative research method.
The chief undertaking of critical research is seen as being one of societal review, whereby the restrictive and estranging conditions of the position quo are brought to visible radiation. Critical research focuses on the resistances, struggles and contradictions in modern-day society, and seeks to be emancipatory i.e. it should assist to extinguish the causes of disaffection and domination.
“ criticalness is a contested thought, one with a assortment of significances each claimed by different groups for really different intents. How the term critical is used necessarily reflects the political orientation and worldview of the user ”
One of the best known advocates of modern-day critical societal theory is Jurgen Habermas, who is regarded by many as one of the taking philosophers of the 20th century. Habermas was a member of the Frankfurt School, which included figures such as Adorno, Horkheimer, Lukacs, and Marcuse. Examples of a critical attack to qualitative research includeA Ngwenyama and Lee ‘s ( 1997 ) A andA Hirschheim and Klein ‘s ( 1994 ) A work.A A Myers and Klein ( 2011 ) A suggest a set of rules for the behavior of critical research.
Qualitative research is used to research and understand people ‘s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behavior and interactions. It generates non- numerical informations, e.g. a patient ‘s description of their hurting instead than a step of hurting. In wellness attention, qualitative techniques have been normally used in research documenting the experience of chronic unwellness and in surveies about the operation of administrations. Qualitative research techniques such as focal point groups and in-depth interviews have been used in one-off undertakings commissioned by guideline development groups to happen out more about the positions and experiences of patients and carers.
Quantitative research generates numerical informations or informations that can be converted into Numberss, for illustration clinical tests or the National Census, which counts people and families.
A comprehensive analysis of 1274 articles published in the top two American sociology diaries between 1935 and 2005 found that approximately two tierces of these articles used quantitative methods.
The development of mass touristry finishs: New attacks beyond deterministic theoretical accounts in Benidorm ( Spain )
Josep A. Ivars I Baidala, A 1, A , A
Isabel Rodriguez Sanchezb, A , A , A
Jose Fernando Vera Rebollob, A 2, A
aA Instituto Valenciano de Tecnologias Turisticas ( INVAT.TUR ) Conselleria de Turismo Paseo Tolls, 2 Benidorm, Spain
bA Instituto Universitario de Investigaciones Turisticas, Universidad de Alicante, Edificio de Institutos, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig signal-to-noise ratio, Ap. 99 E-03080, Spain
Received 26 November 2011. Accepted 29 April 2012. Available on-line 2 June 2012.
hypertext transfer protocol: //dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.04.009, A How to Cite or Link Using DOI
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Although deterministic theoretical accounts of the development of mass touristry coastal resorts predict an about inevitable diminution over clip, theoretical models of the development and reconstituting policies of mature finishs should be revised to reflect the complex and dynamic manner in which these finishs evolve and interact with the touristry market and planetary socio-economic environment. The present survey examines Benidorm because its urban and touristry theoretical account and large-scale touristry supply and demand make it one of the most alone finishs on the Mediterranean seashore. The probe reveals the demand to follow theories and theoretical accounts that are non strictly deterministic. The dialectic interplay between external factors and the internal factors built-in in this finish at the same time reveals a complex and diverse phase of adulthood and the ability of finishs to make their ain hereafter.
a-? Analysis of external and internal kineticss in the development of a tourer finish. a-? Cross-analysis between planetary factors and local responses. a-? Mature tourer finishs dynamism entail an undeniable complexness. a-? Finishs can act upon their ain hereafter development. a-? Long term fight depends on the local version capacity to alterations.
Life rhythm ; A
Development of mature tourer finishs ; A
Restructuring ; A
Internal and external factors ; A
This paper assesses theories of the life rhythm and restructuring of tourer finishs in visible radiation of the recent development of Benidorm, a paradigmatic coastal finish on the Mediterranean ( seeA Fig.A 1 ) , and analyses different stages of its development, which reflect the planetary factors and local procedures that affect touristry. The probe revealed that the deterministic nature of Butler ‘s Tourism Area Life Cycle theoretical account ( Cooper, 2006 ) and Miossec ‘s modelA ( 1977 ) A did non use to the development of Benidorm, which has adapted to different market fortunes and possesses characteristics that guarantee its fight in the modern-day touristry scene. Therefore, this survey presented a new attack to the evolutionary analysis of coastal resorts that complements traditional theoretical theoretical accounts.
Fig.A 1.A Location of Benidorm on the Mediterranean seashore.
Benidorm is a typical illustration of the resorts that emerged along the Mediterranean seashore in the 1960s during the mass touristry roar that catered chiefly to foreign tourers through big international circuit operators that controlled the market. However, its alone urban development theoretical account is important for understanding the kineticss of this vacation resort. Originally a little fishing small town, Benidorm is the consequence of a local planning theoretical account based on a public enterprise that was ab initio approved in 1956 and partly modified in 1963. Within this model, the governments planned the classs of land usage and edifices and defined growing countries, in peculiar an country of urban enlargement adjacent to the Levante beach which led to Benidorm ‘s typical image of high-density urban development and tower block edifices.
Benidorm is one of the most of import tourer finishs on the Mediterranean seashore. The 2010 nose count identified 74,000 registered dwellers, 37 % of whom are aliens. In regulated adjustments ( hotels, flats and campgrounds ) , Benidorm provides more than 68,000 beds and there are 18,000 2nd places. Hotels entirely yearly register about 10 million nightlong corsets, with foreign ( chiefly British ) tourists accounting for half of these visits. Throughout its development as a tourer finish, this vacation resort has had a high mean length of stay for tourers and high hotel tenancy rates throughout the twelvemonth due to limited seasonality. However, new tendencies in the touristry market have raised uncertainties about the hereafter of this finish.
The first subdivision of this paper provides a elaborate analysis of the recent development of this finish, the specific local impact of external planetary factors and the internal factors related to the kineticss of territorial and touristry characteristics that are alone to this finish. The end of the analysis was to find the extent to which the recent development of this finish was influenced by the interaction of external forces or planetary factors with local steps designed to restitute the finish and keep its fight. The 2nd subdivision focuses on the sentiments of localA stakeholdersA who have influenced the development of the finish and whose actions will mostly find Benidorm ‘s hereafter.
The analysis of mature finishs is of involvement from academic, political and touristry direction positions. Academic approaches focal point on the relationship of mature finishs with sustainable development and market variegation ( Bramwell, 2004 ) , the development of long-tail schemes ( Lew, 2008 ) , and the function of mature finishs within a planetary scenario affected by structural alterations in the touristry market ( Duhamel & A ; Violier, 2009 ; A Shaw & A ; Coles, 2007 ) . From the political and institutional point of position, the Spanish Ministry of Tourism is presently developing theA Coastal Tourism Plan for the 21st centuryin coaction with regional authoritiess, which will revise touristry schemes to bring forth higher degrees of sustainability, invention and distinction. The end is to alter the prevalent economic and touristry theoretical account for the Mediterranean seashore and the Canary and Balearic Islands from the current theoretical account, which is based on the residential building that has been brought to a standstill due to the economic crisis. The program provides a national enterprise to increase the value of mature tourer finishs and is consistent with public steps to advance the redevelopment of mature finishs that began in the 1990s.
Analyzing the recent development of Benidorm is peculiarly relevant in visible radiation of both structural alterations in the touristry market and the current economic crisis. In contrast to touristry theoretical accounts based on urban conurbation, which have resulted in spread colonies in coastal countries ( European Environment Agency, 2006 ) , Benidorm offers an urban denseness theoretical account that is more environmentally efficient in respect to energy, H2O and land usage, is less dependent on private conveyance and is more attractive to tourers year-round ( Iribas, 2000 ) . As a consequence, it is widely acknowledged as a hereafter theoretical account for coastal finishs that seek to be holiday hubs ( MVRDV, 2000 ; A Thomson Holidays, 2010 ) .
To find the extent to which modern-day mature finishs can germinate into future vacation hubs, it is critical to analyze how finishs like Benidorm have addressed issues such as the negative image of a mass touristry finish ; dependance on the British and Spanish market sections ; re-intermediation processes in touristry distribution and alterations in circuit operator processes such as on-line travel agents, internet distribution systems, andA dynamic packaging ; alterations in consumer penchants and behavior forms due to generational alterations, the increasing diverseness of travel motives and decreases in the mean length of stay ; and limited concern net income borders. These new worlds suggest a new attack to amalgamate finishs that does non back up the prevalent theoretical claim of inevitable diminution.
2. Theoretical model
Although there were noteworthy case in points ( Christaller, 1963 ; A Gilbert, 1939 ) , the analysis of the development of tourer finishs emerged as a research involvement with the rise of international touristry as a mass phenomenon. During the 1970s, several critical surveies ( Miossec, 1977 ; A Plog, 1973 ; A Thurot, 1973 ; A Turner & A ; Ash, 1975 ) identified mass touristry as the concluding phase in the development of finishs, a phase that would finally take finishs to lose their original attraction.
Butler ‘s ( 1980 ) A Tourism Area Life Cycle ( TALC ) , which is the most cited work in touristry geographics ( Gibson, 2008 ) , emerged during the passage from quantitative geographics to critical geographics ( Coles, 2006 ) and became a mention theoretical account that explained the development of tourer finishs ( seeA Fig. 2 ) . As the theoretical account was applied to diverse finishs and different attacks ( Butler, 2006a, A 2006b ) , the initial theory became more comprehensive, although many theoretical parts and instance surveies besides identified the theoretical account ‘s restrictions ( Vera & A ; Banos, 2010 ) .
Fig.A 2.A The touristry country life rhythm theoretical account ( Butler, 1980 ) .
The TALC theoretical account acquired particular relevancy for both the direction of coastal finishs and research on these finishs due to the demand to place the phase of adulthood and turn to the issue of possible hereafter diminution ( Agarwal, 2002, A 2005 ) . Based on this theory, A Knowles and Curtis ( 1999 ) A argued that the second-generation Spanish Sun and sand finishs that appeared in the sixtiess, which are presently mature finishs, faced an irreversible diminution because of the finishs ‘ loss of attraction, which was caused by alterations in consumer motives, the outgrowth of rival finishs and a autumn in domestic demand due to the increasing popularity of travel to foreign states. These writers flatly claimed that public and private proposals would merely prorogue the irreversible diminution. However, their deterministic claim was based on the premises of a qualitative prospective survey, and although these premises were based on existent kineticss, they could non be verified. In contrast, A Aguilo , Alegre, and Sard ( 2005 ) A has argued that the addition in Numberss of tourer reachings and satisfaction degrees supported the endurance of the Sun and sand theoretical account and the efficiency of the redevelopment enterprises carried out in the Balearic Islands. Similarly, A Claver, Molina, and Pereira ( 2007 ) A found that Benidorm hotels maintained a competitory place based on the figure of nightlong corsets, per room tenancy rates, application of quality direction systems and profitableness degrees.
Because the interaction between resorts and the market is complex, the symptoms of diminution must be diagnosed and responded to proactively. As a consequence, the European Commission promoted a survey to place worsening tourer finishs, which were defined as tradition touristry suppliers that exhibited negative tendencies, such as a lessening in the flow of tourers, impairment in the quality of the finish, trouble in vouching sustainable touristry or the influence of exogenic factors ( TNO Inro, 2002 ) . This definition is excessively generic and obscure because these indexs do non ever reflect a structural diminution, and the definition does non place the threshold at which a diminution has occurred. However, because this position did non restrict diminution to sector facets but addressed the sustainability of development, this attack supported the claim that an environmental jobs could besides take to a touristry crisis by bring forthing an imbalanced economic and societal development for tourer finishs. However, A Agarwal ( 2005 ) A noted that the definition ‘s standards for diminution were the effects of it and that the key was to place the causes instead than the symptoms of diminution.
The construct of the TALC exhibits analogues to theories of productive restructuring. Both attacks agree on the demand to prosecute in disciplinary steps to avoid the effects of diminution. Within the model of productive restructuring theory, A Agarwal ( 2002, A 2005 ) A viewed the diminution of finishs as due to the interaction between internal forces that reduced the fight of a finish and external factors that intensified competition. The global-local interaction procedure proposed by this writer highlighted the importance of local conditions and actions to modify the effects of regional or planetary developments, in conformity with the ‘glocal ‘ nature of touristry development processes ( Milne & A ; Ateljevic, 2001 ) . Deterministic attacks were frequently set aside in favor of local planning to keep the fight of different coastal finishs through diverse restructuring schemes. For illustration, A Bramwell ( 2004 ) summarised the schemes employed by assorted finishs in the Mediterranean Basin ; A Anton ( 2011 ) classified coastal finishs in Spain as reactive, originative or transitive depending on the restructuring policies adopted ; A Priestley and Mundet ( 1998 ) A analysed the post-stagnation stage of assorted finishs on the seashore of Catalonia, Spain, part whichA Garay and Canoves ( 2011 ) A late analysed by using the TALC and ordinance theory ; andA Oreja, Parra, and Yanes ( 2008 ) A integrated teleological positions with the TALC to analyze Tenerife in the Canary Islands in Spain.
The recent development of finishs has besides been explained in footings of a passage from Fordism to post-Fordism.A Urry ( 1990 ) A argued that cultural alterations associated with post-modernism were the primary footing for the loss of attraction experienced by British coastal finishs since the 1970s.A Poon ‘s ( 1993 ) history has emphasised alterations in demand and technological inventions, whileA Agarwal ‘s ( 2002 ) A has emphasised flexible production systems. However, non all writers accept histories based on a additive passage from Fordism to post-Fordism. Certain writers ( Agarwal & A ; Shaw, 2007 ; A Debbage & A ; Ioannides, 1998 ; A Torres, 2002 ) have argued that post-Fordist and neo-Fordist state of affairss coexist in specific tourer finishs ; for case, the behavior of international tourer operators exhibits new signifiers of mass production that coexist with customised travel and the variegation of tourer motives.
In contrast, new forms of international mobility ( Sheller & A ; Urry, 2004 ; A Williams & A ; Hall, 2002 ) affect established finishs with foreign occupants which presently absorb impermanent and lasting labor flows, every bit good as flows of short stay tourers due to the addition in low-priced air hoses, which make air travel more accessible ( Vera & A ; Ivars, 2009 ) . These flow additions have influenced existent estate demand and favoured existent estate touristry, which in bend has increased adjustment capacity and the municipal demographic range.A Gonzalez ( 2008 ) A confirmed that the most of import tourer finishs on the Spanish Mediterranean coastline were pulling dwellers, investings, services and substructure.
Based on the above considerations, an analysis of established finishs must see the consequence of tourer activity on territorial construction and urban functions.A Knafou ( 2006 ) A stressed that the urban and demographic growing attach toing the development of tourer finishs tended to increase their complexness. This is an indispensable characteristic of ‘tourist urban sprawls ‘ such as the Cote d’Azur, the Belgian seashore, the Costa Brava and Florida, where urban development has acquired a new dimension that can no longer be viewed entirely in footings of touristry. On a local graduated table, these kineticss have been examined for finishs such as Rimini ( Conti & A ; Perelli, 2005 ) .
An analytical position that considers the importance of the economic maps of finishs and the extent of their centrality within a district has been insufficiently developed in traditional touristry research, which has chiefly focused on the development of touristry demand and ignored the territorial kineticss that arise from the development of tourer finishs. As a consequence, the most recent surveies look intoing Butler ‘s life rhythm theory have emphasised the demand to analyze the spacial dimensions of the theory in greater deepness ( Hall & A ; Page, 2009 ) .
In drumhead, the dynamic and complex nature of tourer finishs precludes the application of pre-established theoretical theoretical accounts in favor of diverse theoretical attacks. The dialectical interplay between external and internal factors underlies the uneven development of tourer finishs, which are non needfully fated to worsen. Tourist finishs are able to accommodate to fortunes and can act upon their hereafter evolution.A Walton ( 2000 ) A highlighted the resiliency of British coastal finishs despite jobs during the latter portion of the twentieth century. These finishs did non endure terminal diminution but experienced a function displacement ( Shaw & A ; Coles, 2007 ) . Despite the ‘fascination ‘ with diminution, most coastal touristry finishs still attract visitants as some have or more than 200 old ages ( Duhamel & A ; Violier, 2009 ) . Therefore, the key to survival prevarications in the ability to accommodate to ever-changing fortunes.
Harmonizing to the theoretical model adopted in this paper, statistical information for the 1988 to 2010 period were analysed to place the different stages of adulthood of Benidorm based on variables associating to the finish itself and to the touristry environment, in peculiar touristry policies implemented during the period. To bring forth the development curve for the finish, nightlong hotel corsets were selected as the key variable because they are representative for finishs like Benidorm and the official statistics obtained from the monthly census-based study of hotel constitutions in Benidorm were reliableA Tourism Survey of the Valencian Tourism Agency. The tourer nightlong hotel stay variable was chosen because it was based on a monthly study of the hotels in Benidorm and was available for a longer clip period ( 1988-2010 ) . This variable measured the inflow of tourers busying the about 40,000 available beds in regulated adjustment. Furthermore, usage of the hotel study made it possible to cross-index other variables such as the average business, seasonality and alterations in markets of beginning during the survey period.
Although the entire figure of tourers sing the finish was the most theoretically relevant variable, it could non be measured through empirical observation because gauging nightlong corsets in flats and at bivouacing sites presented methodological jobs and this information was merely available for a shorter clip period. In add-on, although supply statistics – chiefly the alteration in the figure of beds – were analysed, the behavior of these variables was more inactive and did non explicate the cyclical demand constituent. As a consequence, these indexs were regarded as accessory to the demand variables.
The distinction of stages within the adulthood period was complemented by qualitative research on internal factors in local touristry policy and direction reflected in the sentiments of differentA stakeholders. This attack regards the finish as an unfastened system with private and public interdependent agents, in which the actions of one party affect other parties ( Pulido, 2010 ) . The 23A stakeholdersA selected were representative of the local touristry industry ; interviews were held with persons who managed and owned the most of import independent hotels or hotel groups, representatives of touristry industry associations with a multisector remit ( flats, bivouacing sites, leisure industry, etc. ) and political leaders and council functionaries who were responsible for touristry and related countries such as urban and environmental planning. Persons were interviewed from January through June of 2010. The interviews were analysed utilizing theA Atlas.tisoftware plan, which is based onA Strauss and Corbin ‘s ( 1990 ) A grounded theory technique.
4. The complex development of Benidorm: different stages of adulthood
The analysis of factors related to the planetary touristry environment, such as the development of the touristry market, economic rhythms, sociopolitical contexts, and the public and private actions that formed the local responses describe four distinguishable phases for alterations in the figure of nightlong corsets at this finish ( seeFig. 3 ) :
Phase 1. International recession and supply-demand instabilities ( 1988-1993 )
Phase 2. A new expansive stage ( 1994-2001 )
Phase 3. The stabilization phase ( 2002-2007 )
Phase 4. Effectss of the international economic crisis ( 2007-2009 )
Fig.A 3.A Recent development stages and factors impacting on the touristry and territorial kineticss of Benidorm ( 1988-2010 ) .
4.1. Phase 1. International recession and supply-demand instabilities ( 1988-1993 )
Phase 1 occurred after a period of economic enlargement in Spain and the Valencia part, and the figure of nightlong corsets reached a upper limit between 1986 and 1987. In 1988, jobs in accommodating the touristry supply to alterations in international touristry demand, such as alterations in travel penchants, reeling of vacations, more complex and diverse travel motives, and increasing competition from more alien tourer countries created a clime of uncertainness. Within a twelvemonth, a touristry crisis both at the national and at the local degree was by and large acknowledged. There was a important decrease in nightlong corsets and a little lessening in reachings of visitants due to factors such as the grasp of the peseta and the Spanish rising prices derived function. The recession led to oppugning of the traditional Sun and sand theoretical account and the thought that successful touristry meant a quantitative growing in demand, taking to proposals for variegation of touristry offerings and markets.
In 1990, other international factors, such as the Gulf War in the Middle East, ended the sustained growing and enlargement of international travel. In Spain, the crisis was widespread and the 1990 season was considered the worst of the decennary. The tendency observed in the old twelvemonth was magnified and the figure of visitants – in peculiar, British visitants – continued to diminish. This was partly attributed to the rise in the exchange rate of the peseta with regard to other currencies, rising prices and economic recession in of import tourist-generating states, such as Great Britain.
The state of affairs improved in 1991, and exogenic factors, such as the decreased popularity of other finishs such as Greece and Turkey, were associated with an addition in the figure of visitants and nightlong hotel corsets. In 1992 and 1993, the touristry industry in Spain improved ; fewer Spaniards travelled abroad and favorable exchange rate following the devaluation of the peseta made Spain more competitory as a finish by increasing the disbursement capacity of foreign tourers.
This tendency was besides observed in Benidorm, where there was a passage from a positive to a negative dynamic, peculiarly for the primary international ( British, Belgian and Dutch ) markets ; this contrasted with the behavior of the national market, which was more unvarying. During this stage, the hotel capacity in Benidorm was comparatively stable. At the beginning of this stage, 31,370 beds were available ( 42.8 % of the entire hotel beds in the Valencian part in 1988 ) . In 1994, at the terminal of this stage, there were 32,238 beds – an addition of merely 2.8 % . It should be noted that at the beginning of this stage, most of the chiefly 2- and 3-star hotels in Benidorm had been built between 1960 and 1970 during the tourer roar, and hotel engagements were chiefly made through circuit operators, which created fewer fluctuations in demand compared to finishs that depended on occasional tourers.
At this clip, Benidorm had much more to offer in respect to recreational and leisure installations than environing finishs. A in private financed H2O park was merely one of the attractive forces that targeted visitants of all ages. During this phase, Benidorm besides became the base for twenty-four hours trips to nearby small towns, which were requested by international circuit operators and organised by local business communities. Integrating these elements added value to the Sun and sand bundle vacations ( Vera & A ; Banos, 2010 ) . During this phase, public enterprises focused on urban planning and bettering environmental quality to heighten fight with rival Sun and sand finishs, and a strategic selling program ( 1991 ) was developed to present new ways to advance the town.
In l’Aiguera, portion of the river bottom that cut through the town was used to make an extended populace park with unfastened infinites, landscaping countries and locales for unfastened air shows. The undertaking, which was designed by the designer Ricardo Bofill, integrated the infinite into the town, which added value to the immediate milieus. The Levante beach seafront promenade – a undertaking designed by another celebrated designer, Oriol Bohigas – was besides constructed during this period and made the beach, which was the location most frequented by visitants, much more attractive and accessible.
Because a famine of well-trained staff was by and large considered to hold contributed to the Spanish touristry crisis, regional governments created a Tourism Training Centre in Benidorm to better the makings of touristry professionals. This Centre was the first in a web of regional Centres.
4.2. Phase 2. A new expansive stage ( 1994-2001 )
With the betterment in the economic system in Western Europe and the devaluation of the peseta, a period of recovery began in 1994. Both nationally and regionally, this stage was characterised by turning grosss, more nightlong corsets and increased tourer disbursement. Locally, the recovery was reflected in the figure of nightlong corsets of foreign visitants, peculiarly British tourers, which exhibited an addition of 58 % by 2001, although the entire figure of nightlong corsets increased by merely 15 % due to the lessening in the figure of nightlong corsets of Spanish visitants. This period was characterised by tenancy rates of about 95 % in 2000 and 2001.
The entire figure of hotel beds remained stable. However, there was a progressive decrease in the figure of lower rated constitutions, and companies began to put in upgrading the categorization of their hotels. This tendency was favoured at the regional degree by a new ordinance that introduced a categorization system based on fulfillment of specific proficient demands. The regulative purpose was to do the construction of the sector more crystalline and diminish the figure of little guesthouses either by shuting them or reclassifying them into different classs.
Tourism policies during this period were characterised by new public works undertakings to make urban landmarks and better public infinites that reinforced the image of a quality Sun and sand finish. A major investing during this stage was the state-financed redevelopment of the seafront promenade along the Levante beach, which was completed in 1996.
However, a extremist alteration in policy besides occurred during the 1990s, which involved the creative activity of an urban leisure and diversion country that was separate from the town itself. Therefore, the regional authorities financed a major subject park that opened in 2000. The park was described as a redevelopment of the tourer finish intended to pull new demand sections to Benidorm and the environing country. The new park was located outside the town of Benidorm, associated with beaches and urban infinites, and generated a separate urban growing procedure. Apart from the inquiry of belongings guess, the determination to construct outside preexistent constructions was influenced by the thought that subject Parkss made tourer finishs more competitory, and the building of the new park was viewed as the drive force for a new stage in the development of Benidorm. Therefore, the Particular Master Plan for Uses and Infrastructures ‘Theme Park Area ‘ Benidorm-Finestrat approved in 1998 by the Regional Department of Public Works, Urban Planning and Transport non merely created a macrostructure that focused on themed leisure but besides at the same time introduced new activities, such as golf, and favoured the building of hotel and residential adjustment. Although after a decennary, the result was dissatisfactory, the park contributed to the development of a new leisure country and residential places outside of the town ( Vera & A ; Banos, 2010 ) .
However, regional touristry policies that supported the modernization of touristry constitutions and governments ‘ attempts to better beach installations and services had a more positive consequence on touristry in Benidorm during this period. In bend, the local concern sector non merely contributed to the development of new recreational merchandises but besides constructed new hotels and increasingly modernised bing constitutions to run into visitants ‘ turning demand for quality.
4.3. Phase 3. The stabilization phase ( 2002-2007 )
Phase 3 was marked by the convergence of planetary tendencies that significantly affected the touristry market: the growing of low-cost air hoses, which bit by bit replaced charter traffic ; the addition in on-line gross revenues ; alterations in circuit operators schemes ; and the growing of rival finishs that provided an alternate to traditional Sun and sand finishs. From the position of the planetary economic system, this phase of stabilization was ab initio influenced by the loss of assurance in air travel created by the 9/11 onslaughts in the United States in 2001 every bit good as negative factors in 2003, such as the Iraq struggle, the weak economic systems of European tourist-generating states, and the progressively strong euro.
The new market moral force produced alterations in international touristry, chiefly in the British demand, which was channelled through low-cost air hoses and affected coastal countries such as Benidorm, the Costa Brava in Catalonia and the Costa del Sol in Andalucia ( Ivars & A ; Menor, 2008, pp. 89-104 ; A Martinez, Prats, & A ; Barcelo , 2004 ) . The length of stay and the figure of travelers on bundle Tourss remaining at hotels decreased, although the addition in airport reachings had a positive impact on hotel tenancy in absolute footings. However, the addition in non-hotel adjustments and addition in the figure of hotel beds decreased hotel tenancy rates.
With respect to hotel supply, the last important investings in making new hotels occurred between 2001 and 2007. The favorable economic state of affairs in Spain and consolidation of the touristry industry encouraged the concern sector to open new constitutions, taking to an 11.4 % addition in the figure of hotel beds available. This period was besides characterised by a existent estate market roar, which led to the creative activity of a big figure of non-hotel beds due to the growing of residential touristry.
In respect to tourism policies and concern schemes during this phase, it should be noted that attempts to accomplish variegation with the building of the subject park did non ensue in the coveted economic growing or the expected addition in the figure of visitants. One ground for this failure was that the substructure, which was intended to suit 3 million visitants, really received merely 2 million visitants in 2001 and 1.1 million in 2008. Paradoxically, despite this failure, the park did hold a positive consequence on the redevelopment of first-generation recreational substructures, which increased the attraction of the finish. However, the impact on household touristry and the mean length of stay was less than expected. The themed leisure construct was extended through two extra installings – a nature park and a H2O park. Despite this recreational supply, Benidorm failed to make a true leisure-based merchandise based on a combination of different leisure and adjustment options, integrated and marketed as a individual bundle. With the building of two new golf classs and higher-category hotels near the subject park, this finish redevelopment was linked to the debut of new leisure merchandises, such as golf in 2005. Unfortunately, to day of the month the consequences have non been every bit successful as predicted.
The hotel sector contributed to the variegation of the finish during this period with the gap of constitutions in energetic countries that catered to new demand sections in add-on to the Sun and sand merchandise. The building of 4- and 5-star hotels with installations for hosting events, conferences and conventions targeted sectors with greater buying power, every bit good as households and the wellness and beauty market. The first two 5-star constitutions in the municipality were erected during this phase. In 2006, the golf, spa andA businessA resorts were ab initio managed by theA Starwood Hotel and ResortsA international group, which ran it under itsA WestinA luxury trade name until late in 2007 when the group stopped pull offing the constitution due to dissensions with the proprietors. The resort has experienced serious fiscal troubles since so and filed for bankruptcy in 2010. Despite fiscal jobs, the two hotels remain unfastened. The 2nd constitution was constructed in 2008 and marked the reappearance of an international Spanish hotel concatenation with a merchandise aiming a luxury patronage ; from the beginning, this constitution distanced its merchandise trade name from the Benidorm image.
During this stage, considerable redevelopment and modernization of bing constitutions occurred, which coincided with the positive, stable economic state of affairs for touristry. However, few disused constitutions were demolished or wholly remodelled ; in most instances, bing edifices were rehabilitated on a little graduated table.
4.4. Phase 4. The effects of the international economic crisis ( 2007-2009 )
During this stage, the universe economic system experienced a terrible recession of historic proportions, which was characterised by uncertainness, high market volatility and loss of consumer assurance. Despite the fact that touristry withstood the international economic crisis better than other sectors, informations on hotel tenancy and profitableness reflected the economic downswing. For Benidorm, this state of affairs was aggravated by the province of the British economic system and the grasp of the euro relation to the lb, which merely started to retrieve its value relation to the euro in 2010. Datas from the grosss per room available ( RevPAR ) indicated a widespread bead in Spanish hotel grosss due to a monetary value war in which rates were significantly reduced to hike gross revenues. However, this index recovered in 2010 and the chances for 2011 were favorable ( Exceltur, 2011 ) .
During this period, nightlong corsets in Benidorm decreased and reached degrees similar to those observed in 1996, when there was an 11.9 % diminution between 2006 and 2009 due to a dramatic 31 % lessening in the nightlong corsets of British travelers. As in the earlier period, the national market offset the international downswing because more Spanish travelers took shorter trips within Spain, and at that place was a rise in the figure of nightlong corsets in 2010. Furthermore, in 2009, a progressive decrease in the one-year tenancy rate led to the lowest tenancy rate for all of the old ages studied. This degree was lower than the 75.2 % rate for 1990 that occurred at the tallness of the earlier recession. Similarly, more hotels closed during the winter. Although this is common pattern in many coastal finishs, it was less frequent for Benidorm, where tourer activity is less seasonally based.
With respect to the supply of adjustment, monetary values were increasingly reduced during this stage due to the extremely competitory market, with serious reverberations for concern profitableness, which antecedently had been characterised by an efficient quality-price ratio and adjusted net income borders. In 2009, Benidorm hotel grosss were negative, with a fluctuation rate from January to December ofA a?’9.4 % in the accrued one-year RevPAR compared to the same period in the old twelvemonth ( Exceltur, 2011 ) . In 2009, the accrued RevPAR from January to December for 3- , 4- , and 5-star vacation hotels in Benidorm was a‚¬37.90 compared to the Spanish norm of a‚¬45. However, the Spanish norm remained a‚¬44.80, and the RevPar for Benidorm hotels rose to a‚¬40.50 in 2010.
In respect to tourism policies and concern schemes, the redevelopment of the seafront promenade along the Poniente beach was completed in 2009. The redevelopment was expected to add value to one of Benidorm ‘s symbolic beaches and revitalize touristry by pulling new investings and concern theoretical accounts and heightening betterments to constitutions. This urban development enterprise, which was financed by the regional authorities, was portion of a scheme to heighten seafront countries and was intended to function as a modern architectural landmark and symbol of avant-gardism. Public investing besides focused on the creative activity of new strategic substructures designed to advance new signifiers of touristry linked to civilization and concern, such as the Cultural Centre presently under building. Another undertaking envisaged the building of a athleticss country in a public park for domestic professional athleticss touristry or for winter preparation Sessionss of European professional jocks. Extra attempts to diversify merchandises and demand sections included hosting athleticss events outside the tourer season and organizing musical events to pull immature visitants to the finish during the summer. In respect to substructure related to touristry, the regional authorities selected Benidorm as the central office for the Valencian Institute of Tourism Technologies. This Centre, which specialises in R & A ; D & A ; I in touristry opened in 2009, being dependant on the regional authorities with the coaction of the Town Council of Benidorm and the prima touristry associations in the Valencian Region.
Although there were no marks of urban decay – which was non the instance for other finishs that developed during the early yearss of the Spanish Sun and sand touristry model – it would be worthwhile to reconstruct Benidorm ‘s urban cloth to do urban development a competitory characteristic of this tourer finish one time more. There have been few genuinely advanced proposals, apart from recent enterprises for the pedestrianisation and redevelopment of the traditional Centre to increase the attraction of the milieus and atmosphere – one of this leisure town ‘s greatest assets.
However, because high debt degrees reduced the ability of the town council to put in redevelopment, these activities would be dependent on external funding. It should be noted that external beginnings – either the regional or cardinal authorities – financed most of the recent redevelopment of urban public infinites.
Sing touristry direction in the municipality, this stage saw the incorporation of an advanced direction construction that aimed to further closer coaction between the local governments and touristry enterprisers in advancing the finish and revitalizing the metropolis ‘s tourer image. The creative activity of the Benidorm Tourism Foundation was similar to many towns ‘ acceptance of new direction expression making assorted entities in which both municipal governments and the concern sector managed and promoted finishs. One of the initial undertakings undertaken by the Foundation was to bring forth a Tourism Selling Plan in 2011 to accommodate the town ‘s image and selling scheme to new market tendencies.
5. Benidorm ‘s recent development and future chances: local stakeholders ‘ sentiments
From the position of public and concern policy, it is of import to obtain the sentiments of different local involvement groups orA stakeholders, A which are important for understanding the procedures that have contributed to the development of this tourer finish because the hereafter of the finish depends on their activities. Stakeholders were recruited from the concern sector and public direction and discussed the undermentioned issues:
Evolution stage of the tourer finish
With the stages of Butler ‘s life rhythm theoretical account as a mention, interviewees were ab initio asked to place the current stage of Benidorm ‘s development because their judgement would bespeak a positive or negative position of the current state of affairs and status the perceptual experience of the finish ‘s future development. Based on the responses, a bulk of the concern sector regarded Benidorm as holding entered a stage of stagnancy. However, a broad assortment of sentiments were expressed. The more pessimistic respondents believed that the finish was presently in diminution while others believed that Benidorm was sing a procedure of greening due to the new attractive forces ( themed leisure and golf ) integrated into the finish and substructure betterments ( the seafront promenade along Poniente beach ) , which were regarded as cogent evidence of dynamism every bit good as greening capacity. It should besides be noted that some sentiments reflected a political footing.
The touristry industry theoretical account and facets linked to new market tendencies
Harmonizing to the enterpriser interviewed, the predomination of local enterprisers and concern proprietors in Benidorm has positively influenced this finish because private ownership motivates investings that promote hereafter endurance to a greater extent compared to leasing or franchise-based direction: “ Since this is a really competitory market with little net income borders, a company that operates but does non have a hotel may see it as a feasible concern, but believe that it does non bring forth sufficient net incomes or cash-flow to put in redevelopment. However, an owner-operator of aA hotel will be willing to give net incomes and cash-flow to put in the quality of the hotel ‘s installations ” ( hotel group director ) . Furthermore, the enterprisers who invested in their ain concern were more likely to maximize disbursement efficiency and cost decrease seeking the best possible value for money: “ It is really hard for a little concern to obtain the financess necessary to restitute. It ‘s easier for a concatenation. However, a household concern is willing to do greater attempts to restitute and takes more involvement in the inside informations than a hotel concatenation. Furthermore, it ‘s possible to salvage money on the redevelopment because the proprietor looks for the best merchandise at the best monetary value ” A ( hotel group director ) . In the enterprisers ‘ sentiment, this facet -the high quality delivered in relation to the monetary value paid for the service- was a positive factor that distinguished this finish because a important attempt was made to keep high quality service despite the serious jobs of diminishing fringy net incomes and progressive monetary value decreases: “ Benidorm is one of the resorts with the best price-quality ratio, concerns work hard and we prefer to take down monetary values to obtain more clientsaˆ¦ after all, people attract people ” A ( hotel proprietor ) .
Another characteristic characteristic of demand in the Benidorm touristry theoretical account was the coexistence of Spanish and British tourers within the vacation section. Harmonizing to the interviewees, the domestic market guaranteed a good summer tenancy rate when the British market was affected by economic recession. Although an attempt was being made to seek for new demand sectors, such as cheery touristry or singles, every bit good as sectors associated with new travel inducements, such as events, athleticss, and concern, these were still minor sections that had small impact on the planetary demand for this finish.
In respect to the hotel supply, new demand tendencies and circuit operators ‘ increased selling of finishs such as Turkey or Egypt, had bit by bit forced business communities to diversify their gross revenues channels. Direct gross revenues were a medium-term option that presently complemented tour operations and might go more of import in the hereafter: “ circuit operators are in diminution but that ‘s non a job for Benidorm, the job is alterations in the market: higher borders in other finishs, new engineering that straight affects traditional circuit operators every bit good as the influence of low cost air hoses. Now with the crisis, some people are traveling back to circuit operators, some clients know that a low cost air hose can go forth them stranded, and besides circuit operators are take downing their monetary values ” A ( hotel director ) . More late, circuit operators themselves were affected by the hard economic state of affairs, which led them to cut down monetary values farther. As a consequence, the concern sector has become progressively critical of the traditional theoretical account.
Investing in concern redevelopment and invention
The enterprisers that were interviewed agreed that the hotels in Benidorm had undergone uninterrupted renovation and care and that concern redevelopment policy had increasingly adapted to the new quality demands demanded by the market. Investing in redevelopment has accordingly maintained an upward tendency that was considered necessary to vouch concern endurance: “ a batch of investing is being made ; there is a large addition in the figure of hotels that are being renovated. Businessmens are cognizant that you have to restitute or decease ” A ( hotel industry association ) . Because local enterprisers are owner-operators, they might be given to put in redevelopment and these attempts would reflect their apprehension that redevelopment was a cardinal factor in staying competitory and lasting in the market.
However, there was less investing in invention as a scheme, although this aspect deserves greater accent. Few of the interviewees thought that these investings were increasing and the 1s made focused on new engineerings for commercialization that would bring forth more direct selling in the hereafter.
Levels of concern preparation and cooperation
Analysis of the cognition and developing degree of interviewees revealed divergent positions sing this issue. Most interviewees had a positive position of the concern preparation available due to the being of the Tourism Centres, which provided preparation adapted to the demands of the sector and assorted professional profiles. Some interviewees besides noted that alterations made to professionalize selling and direct attempts towards the terminal consumer instead than tour operators increased the importance of preparation. In contrast, there were negative appraisals of the grade to which directors and proprietors took advantage of the available preparation, and differences in preparation tended to be associated with generational differences between traditional business communities with a great trade of accrued experience and new professionals who were extremely trained and familiar with new thoughts.
With respect to concern cooperation, interview responses reflected the individuality characterizing the concern sector and low degrees of cooperation between single business communities, although enterprisers felt that they were represented by a ‘strong and powerful ‘ association.
The future development of the finish and proposals for keeping fight
Most of the interviewees – and business communities, in peculiar – were optimistic about the hereafter of Benidorm. In their position, the finish ‘s long history and experience with touristry guaranteed future fight. The professionalism characterizing the sector, which created high degrees of client satisfaction, together with the creative activity of a touristry direction organic structure uniting public and private engagement, exerted a positive influence on their vision of the hereafter. Merely a few interviewees believed that the favorable development of this finish depended on increased concern cooperation or invention.
Finally, concern sector proposals to vouch the future fight of Benidorm focused on the demand to increase public investing to regenerate the attraction of an urban scene that exhibited obsolescence in certain countries. In add-on, many interviewees believed that greater attempts to better selling schemes and heighten the Benidorm image were needed due to negative intensions associated with mass touristry and the senior citizen section. There were besides proposals to optimize bing touristry resources by diversifying the types of tourers sing Benidorm and presenting new merchandises such as athleticss or events touristry. Other relevant proposals suggested a higher grade of coordination between the variousstakeholdersA every bit good as more internal cooperation within the concern sector. Public direction interviewees agreed with some concern proposals such as the demand for variegation, although political considerations prevented them from discoursing negative characteristics identified by the concern sector.
Based on these proposals, interviewees believed that Benidorm ‘s future redevelopment needed to be both touchable and intangible – focusing on image, coordination, cooperation, and version to new tendencies – with an accent on shifting the finish through schemes that diversified merchandises and attracted new demand sections.
6. Evaluation of touristry and territorial kineticss in Benidorm: a sum-up
In drumhead, the present survey of the stages of the development of this finish identified several cardinal facets of the life rhythm of finishs and the interactions between planetary factors and local theoretical accounts. During the period under analysis, singular planetary structural transmutations occurred that markedly changed the operation of conventional tourer finishs. Online engagement, the enlargement of low-cost air hoses, the redistribution of tourer flows to medium- and long-distance finishs, the growing of independent touristry and the increased usage of non-hotel adjustment were merely a few of the factors that influenced touristry. Since 2008, these factors operated within the context of an international economic recession, which has affected tourer reachings and concern profitableness, although there were marks of recovery in 2010. For any tourer finish, including Benidorm, these fortunes reflect a new dialectical destination-environment moral force, in which a planetary context nowadayss both menaces and chances for the continued development of finishs.
From the point of position of demand, the statistical information for the period examined exhibited positive tendencies in respect to the outstanding tenancy rate and the figure of nightlong corsets, which continued to be important ( see quadrant 1 ofA Fig.A 5 ) . However, some facets, such as concern profitableness, necessitate farther probe. Businesss with progressively little net income borders go more vulnerable to economic crises and the episodic menaces that affect finishs, which might finally restrict their ability to restitute their constitutions. The present survey indicated that the hotel theoretical account – unlike the stray resort or enclave theoretical accounts – was a cardinal factor in the tourer town redevelopment procedure because it was portion of a concentrated urban construction that was based on constitutions owned and operated by local enterprisers who were committed to the finish and had theA know-howA to offer a high quality for the monetary value. Despite ongoing troubles, the hotel concern in Benidorm proved to be more immune to the crisis than other tourist finishs that relied onA urban sprawlA processes or a residential theoretical account based on non-hotel adjustment. Furthermore, hotels exhibited greater economic dynamism and were less affected by seasonality than tourer places.
Fig.A 4.A Tourism and territorial kineticss in Benidorm.
Fig.A 5.A Assessment of the development of touristry in Benidorm harmonizing to cardinal supply and demand variables.
Another cardinal component act uponing demand was the consequence of dependance on specific markets. In the instance of Benidorm, the recession phases in the period under analysis chiefly corresponded to crises in the British economic system because of the dependance on the British market and the unfavorable exchange rate of the lb with regard to the peseta or euro. However, when the British market experienced a recession, domestic demand contributed to the overall figure of nightlong corsets and countervail the effects of dramatic beads in British touristry ( see quadrant 2 ofA Fig.A 5 ) . The dependance on the British market became apparent when the volume of tourers coming from other foreign markets was analysed ( see quadrant 3 ofA Fig.A 5 ) . Benelux ( Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg ) was Benidorm ‘s 2nd most of import market, followed by states such as France, Italy and Germany, which accounted for a increasingly smaller per centum of nightlong corsets during the period studied. It should be noted that although these markets bit by bit became less of import, no new states – apart from Portugal – compensated for the loss. Portugal was foremost included in the official statistics in 1999 with a higher figure of nightlong corsets than the last states mentioned, although the figure has remained stable with no important growing over the old ages.
The present survey revealed the consequence of new selling methods due to new signifiers of international travel that emerged during the last decennary, in peculiar, the outgrowth ofA low costA air travel, which increase connexions with the most of import tourer bring forthing countries and opened new markets. Furthermore, the presence of foreign occupants populating in the tourer finish on a regular footing was another factor lending to the demographic and economic kineticss every bit good as the image of the tourer finish.
Following restructuring theories, the high repetition visit rates found in the present survey revealed that Benidorm had a figure of features, such as the relationship between the urban constellation theoretical account and the touristry dynamic, that enabled the finish to go on to fulfill demand. The part of well-known comparative advantages ( clime comfort, beach quality, and adjustment critical mass ) , the first-class value for money offered by Benidorm and theA know-howA of local houses ensured the finish ‘s fight and endurance. These finish characteristics were reinforced by local enterprises from private concerns and public bureaus. Rather than modifying planetary procedures, these enterprises confronted challenges by accommodating to the altering state of affairs. Similarly, restructuring of the finish extended beyond the bounds of the municipality. Benidorm ‘s function as a major tourer finish has made it the most of import urban Centre within a touristry territory that provides services run intoing the highest criterions where companies and public organic structures interact in the tourer industry.
Benidorm, which foremost emerged as a major Sun and sand finish when mass touristry spread to the shores of the Mediterranean, has a long tradition of touristry. One of the critical facets in its development was the redevelopment of hotels and of the finish as a whole in the 1990s to accommodate the traditional touristry supply in Spanish coastal finishs to the new tendencies in European demand. The hotels in Benidorm renovated to revitalize the finish and have continued to make so to keep fight. During this period, hotels in Benidorm were bit by bit up-graded and higher-category constitutions appeared on the market, while the per centum of lower-category hotels decreased ( see quadrant 4 ofA Fig.A 5 ) . The redevelopment of the hotel supply due to the transmutation of bing constitutions and the building of new medium-high-category hotels improved the image and moral force of the finish. Although some earlier public investings, such as the building of the subject park, did small to better the competitory place of Benidorm in the market, redevelopment of both the hotels and the finish as a whole should go on. Renovations such as bettering different constituents of the urban scene, adding new substructure, and protecting certain countries should be undertaken but will be more hard in the hereafter because these steps require public investing and there have presently been terrible budget cuts.
The mid-1990s policy of utilizing public financess to finance new tourist-urban development strategies separated from the town itself ( seeA Fig.A 4 ) raised the possibility of advancing two distinguishable trade names for the Benidorm finish: one for the general market and the other for theA Premium labelA section with higher buying power. Although certain concern groups have defended the policy of destinationA rebrandingA – which sought to revitalize the image of Benidorm as a mass touristry finish – this policy might hold undermined Benidorm ‘s success as a resort for center and lower middle-class visitants. Furthermore, few hotels aiming the higher income section have enjoyed success and the high-end merchandise offerings do non look to hold created a new merchandise or a distinguishable trade name.
Finally, sustainability is an of import standard for measuring this phase of the development of this tourer finish every bit good as a scheme to guarantee fight that might better its economic, societal and environmental moral force. The overcrowding of coastal finishs due to touristry has ever had a annihilating consequence on the local environment. However, new proposals have noted that lower environmental costs are associated with concentrated high-density urban theoretical accounts, and publication of a survey commissioned by Thomson Holidays, the most of import circuit operator working with Benidorm, has motivated several proposals that are presently under treatment in the media and academic and proficient forums. The survey identified the ‘Benidorm consequence ‘ as a paradigm for touristry sustainability based on C emanations informations ( distance from breathing countries and airdromes ) and the denseness of the urban theoretical account, which resulted in lower costs for substructure, reduced land usage and lower H2O ingestion. For case, H2O ingestion in Benidorm is about 200A L per individual per twenty-four hours, which is well less than the H2O ingestion of nearby residential touristry theoretical accounts, which is about 400 or 500A L per individual per twenty-four hours. Furthermore, a significant portion of the H2O consumed in Benidorm is treated and re-used for urban and agricultural intents. Furthermore, the policy of protecting ecologically valuable countries has led to an country on the outskirts of the town being declared a natural park. The environment and landscape of this country, which includes a coastal mountain scope, a few little islands and environing coastal Waterss busying a entire surface country of 5654.97A hour angle, are in blunt contrast with a part that has characteristically shown extended anthropisation. Furthermore, because the wealth of fish and works species on the sea floor make it one of the most valuable submerged countries in the Western Mediterranean, it has been classified as a Topographic point of Community Interest with Areas of Special Protection for Birds and signifiers portion of theA Natura 2000A Network. An attack focused on environmental preservation provides the chance to make a merchandise associated with nature, broadens the scope of recreational possibilities, and favours an image that is non entirely identified with the leisure town and its beaches. However, this attack would demand a alteration in enterprises and schemes developed by public and private touristry professionals, who continue to prioritize conventional merchandises and traditional markets.
Although theories and theoretical accounts allow us to construe the kineticss and stages that tourist finishs ‘ go through they can non wholly explicate the complexness of local touristry systems and their interaction with the market. The trouble increases when analyzing the alone finish of Benidorm, which presents internal factors derived from the local context which play a cardinal function in understanding its urban and touristry theoretical account. Benidorm ‘s development illustrated non-deterministic characteristics of evolutionary theoretical accounts that reinforced neo-Fordism and identified the importance of the local ability to prosecute in productive restructuring procedures. However, the influence of the economic rhythm on touristry demand must be distinguished from the effec