This assignment is centred on a 3 twelvemonth old male child, Martin who is exhibiting behaviors unacceptable to his chief carer. The individualities of the household and other personal inside informations have been changed for the intent of this assignment to keep namelessness. This assignment will show how to set up and farther develop a loving and nurturing relationship. It will clearly place the importance of the positive relationships for all kids within their first old ages of life and how these are formed through bonding and fond regard. This piece of work will discourse the principals of humanistic psychological science and depict the societal acquisition theory, it will demo how Martin`s behaviours relate to these theories. It will place the importance of the professional/parent relationships and barriers which may impact these relationships. The assignment will place what a holistic appraisal is, its relevancy and importance, and will place the possible grounds for Martin`s behavior. Schemes will be examined to back up his female parent to implement positive parenting manners, measuring these manners, and the demand for consistence to promote positive behaviors.

The procedure of attachment develops between two people and is enhanced by reciprocality. It is a societal relationship which develops between kid and grownup as portion of the security cementing the feelings of security towards each other. Lorenz ( 1950 ) investigated why babe animate beings bonded with their female parents so rapidly after birth, he found that freshly hatched ducklings imprint on the first thing they see and follow that figure as if it were their female parent, ” Lorenz suggested that there was a sensitive period during a goslings life where it would `fix` on any moving figure ” . This sensitive period was instantly after the birth. Bowlby ( 1969 ) further developed this theory, his decisions lead to the theory that there is besides a sensitive period in a humans life, and if bonding and attachment doesn`t take topographic point within the first old ages so the kid will happen trouble organizing relationships in ulterior life. He stated that, even good mothering is about useless if delayed until after the age of two and a half old ages ( Bowlby 1969 ) . Bowlby argued against Lorenz ‘s theory in that worlds have a demand for a two manner fond regard, different from that of ducks but “ … there was a sort of human imprinting, ” ( Lunt and Sylva,1995 p.33 ) a sensitive period and a demand to repair on one individual and remain fixed. Bowlby ( 1969 ) besides discovered that human babes are “ attracted to the sight and sound of worlds instead than other objects and noises ” ( Lunt and Sylva,1995 p.45 ) . He besides stated that an fond regard can non be formed after the age of two old ages six months nevertheless Tizard ( 1977 ) argued that kids could organize fond regards in subsequently childhood but resulted in aggressive, perchance juvenile delinquency in adolescent old ages and early maturity.

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In the survey by Anna Freud ( 1950 ) of the orphaned Bull Dog Banks kids she concluded that kids can develop fond regards without a female parent or male parent figure and even without a consistent grownup “ The kids faired laudably by protecting and caring for each other ” ( Lunt and Sylva 1995 p.14 ) . These kids grew strong fond regards with each other and became to a great extent reliant on each other for security. However no information is known about any earlier bonding or fond regard with birth parents, which is a defect in this research. Later in life they did get down to organize fond regards with grownups. This research was inconclusive as no farther grounds was available in the kids ‘s later lives to turn out once and for all that the absence of a female parent fond regard is important for ulterior emotional stableness. Harlow ( 1958 ) in his survey of the Rhesus Monkeys argued that if the initial bond and, comfort, reassurance, touch, stableness and reciprotical love is non present so socialisation with others is hard, as is copulating, and mothering of their ain progeny later in life. Shafer and Emerson ( 1962 ) found that most babies formed fond regards to several people, related through blood ties or non, and by the age of 18 months babies have formed many fond regards. These fond regards are based on the quality of the interaction. “ Babies whose female parents play a batch with them, and give them plentifulness of stimulation and undivided attending, develop stronger fond regards… ( Lunt and Sylva,1995 p.49 ) .

An attachment develops for endurance intents, the forming of this attachment possibly hard for a assortment of grounds including, prematureness, birth troubles, depression, or hapless childhood experiences. The fond regard of an baby can be judged by the babes ‘ reaction to being separated from the grownup. Ainsworth ( 1978 ) suggested that separation shows in different signifiers, the kid may be avoidant, ambivalent or disorganised and disorientated, she suggested that this may attest and demo that fond regards are either secure or insecure with the chief health professional. Each kid reacts otherwise to being separated from their parents but all follow a form of protest, desperation and so withdrawal, this reflects a kid with a positive strong fond regard.

Adhering takes topographic point instantly after or within hours of birth, this bond iniates a procedure called fond regard which so starts to develop. This bond is established between a parent and baby, it encompasses the strong feelings of love and attention that a female parent or male parent feels toward a kid ( Andrews, Murray, 2005.p.2 ) . This early bond is important for babes and is seen as indispensable for them to be able to develop positive fond regards later in life ( Beresford, 2010. p. 4 ) . Infant massage meets the of import elements that support attachment it involves high degrees of oculus contact, skin contact, voicing, babe cues and “ The `dance `of acquisition closely about one another ” ( McClure, 2004. p.50 ) . Infant massage allows parent and kid to be in sync with one another. If bonding or the oncoming of fond regard has been delayed due to separation of the parent and kid, massage can assist to set up fond regard which McClure ( 2004 ) grounds is ne’er excessively late. An insecure fond regard leads to troubles in maturity, managing feelings good, and these can be passed on when a parent finds it difficult to react adequately to their babes. Attachment is necessary for the model constitution of emotional security. The absence of this can take to low ego regard and an incapacity to cover with life`s challenges. ( Gerhardt 2004 p.24 )

St. martins parents were both portion of his early experiences in his early months and old ages. They were every bit antiphonal to Martin, with sensitiveness and consistence, run intoing his basic psychological demands every bit good as his emotional and developmental demands. Maslow ( 1954 ) Humanistic attack suggests that all worlds have complex demands that need to be met, get downing with physiological demands, the order is hierarchal and each degree needs to be met before a move can be made upward to self actualising ( see appendix 1 ) . This work was seen as “ … A unsmooth on the job generalization about most people in most state of affairss, but it is non truly adequate as an account of human motive ” ( Haynes, 1994 p.435 ) . Erikson ( 1968 ) states that “ All of life is a series of challenges that must be overcome in order for us to be at easiness with ourselves ” but non that each challenge would necessitate to be satisfied before undertaking another, nevertheless back uping Maslow trigon that everyone needs to make their possible. Rogers ( 1961 ) argues against Maslow and proposes that there are two cardinal human demands, positive respect, to be loved and respected by another, and secondly, self- realization. Both are basic demands, and these “ could non be left unrealized without psychological injury to a individual “ ( Haynes.1994 p.436 ) .

Social larning theory is an attack that is believed to back up kid develop through kids larning from other people around them, copying and patterning behaviors on others. Learning takes topographic point through our interactions with the environment. “ Feelingss do non do behavior, it is the environment and stimulation that do ” ( Beresford, 2010 p. 2 ) . Our experiences act upon how we are now and we will be in the hereafter. Everyone has familial sensitivities towards certain sorts of behavior, it is our experiences which will impact how those inclinations manifest themselves ” ( Haynes, 1994 p.728 ) . Imitation helps a kid gather information and learn whole forms of behavior. A Freudian theory is that a kid will place with the parent of the same sex as themselves a construct of “ designation, ” taking on that individual ‘s individuality and modeling from them, ” it is a elusive manner in which a immature kid absorbs or assimilates the features of another individual without any direct instruction or acquisition ” ( Lunt and Sylva, 1995 p181 ) . Children are driven by attending and wagess and will more readily copy person they see rewarded for a behavior or their actions ( Bandura 1969 ) . Children identify with others, they see some people as being like themselves and others as different, they may move in the same manner they see the other individual moving and so identifying with them, peculiarly people near to them.

As kids move through the phases of development ( see appendix 2 ) they develop an apprehension of how the head works, what they can and ca n’t make ( their restrictions ) and how the memory works. Children learn to construe other people ‘s behavior and predict what may be traveling on in person else ‘s head, this forms their determinations for their interactions with that individual, “ This type of societal knowledge is an of import acquisition mechanism for the kid as it learns to set its ain behavior to socially acceptable norms and values ” ( Haynes, 1994 p.729 ) . Bandura ( 1963 ) Bobo doll experiment found that kids who observed aggressive behavior, imitated the actions, “ These experiments have shown the power of acquisition by imitation ” ( Lunt and Sylva,1995 p.176 ) . Martin is showing he has learnt behaviors from his male parent, he has identified with him as a male function theoretical account, The effect of his behavior is that he receives his female parents attending, this he interprets as a wages.

A holistic appraisal is an information assemblage tool, it gives a full image of the whole household, and their set of fortunes ( see appendix 3 ) . The intent of an appraisal is to understand what has go oning within a household unit to utilize this as a usher for any future planning ( Brandon, 2008.p.240 ) . Parents are the experts of their ain kids, they are`in tune` with them. The holistic attack shows to the parent that they are valued and that the professionals ‘ personal values and opinions are non being used. This supports the mutual parent/professional relationship ( Fahlberg, 2008. p.228 ) . Taking inside informations of the past history may supply hints or place events in a child`s life that have some bearing on the presenting troubles within the household. In Martin`s household it identified that his male parent had been a function theoretical account of aggressive behavior and, there had been a recent household separation, taking to Martin losing one of his chief carers, one he had most attached to and identified with. A holistic appraisal will place how the parent perceives the kid, and frailty versa, the parents and child`s strengths every bit good as failings. Fahlberg ( 2008 ) states that “ … a good instance program makes usage of a child`s strengths to turn to demands and overcome failings ” ( Fahlberg 2008.p.227 ) . Martin ‘s holistic appraisal does non offer chance to discourse his positive properties ; it focuses on jobs and concerns and gives the feeling of overall negativeness. Fahlberg ( 2008 ) suggests that it is indispensable for a parent to experience optimistic and confident to alter behaviors to concentrate on the kid ‘s strengths. To obtain a full image of the household and fortunes all professionals working with or antecedently known to the household should be contacted. Brandon et Al ( 1999 ) suggests that without this information garnering detailing family/professional battle and services delivered an accurate appraisal can non be made ( Brandon et al 1999.p.177 ) .

Parents will prosecute with professionals they feel comfy with, those willing to offer clip and construct up a rapour and trust, be respectful and non judgemental. Knowing what to anticipate when nearing households can be really re-assuring to them ( Aldgate, Cleaver, Unwell 2009. p.102 ) . By successfully finishing an appraisal it will place an action program to work on to positively alter the troubles for the kid and carers. It will besides mend relationships, support ego regard and assurance edifice in the kid so back uping them to run into their possible, as Maslow ( 1969 ) suggests “ self actualise. “ A kid entirely does non do a job, person has to comprehend or see the actions as a job ” ( Beresford, 2010.p.1 ) . Martin`s female parent did comprehend his behavior as debatable, and needed schemes to use to work towards changes his behavior. A full household appraisal affecting farther multi bureau work and intercessions help to place other possible experiences that possibly indexs to Martin`s behavior ( O`Rouke, 2005 p.2 ) . These may include external environmental issues including, mental wellness, lodging, poorness or substance abuse. Without a deeper appraisal premises could be made but would be damaging. Aldgate et Al ( 2009 ) suggests “ Comprehensive and holistic appraisals which place equal accent on the kid, household and environment, are indispensable. ” ( Aldgate et Al, 2009.P.99 ) . However parents may be fearful of uncovering their jobs as it may take to punitory reactions by professionals, so may non give permission for revelation of information by other bureaus or may non be true ( Aldgate et Al, 2009.p.100 ) .

The ABC scheme of behaviour direction includes detecting the child`s behavior, placing the ancestors, which include where the kid is, who the kid is with, what clip of twenty-four hours the behavior occur, an accurate description of precisely what the behavior is, what is said or done, and to whom. Consequences of the behavior so necessitate to be observed, the events that instantly follow, the wagess given to the kid to excuse the behavior and reinforce ( see appendix 4 ) . The child`s single developmental cognitive ability demands to be considered when formulising a program, every bit good as the parents cognitive ability degree ( see appendix 5 ) . If these are non assessed and the parent non engaged in the procedure there will be no ownership and it is likely to neglect ( Phelan,2003.p.2-3 ) .

Skinner ( 1983 ) states that through “ Law of Effect ” acquisition occurs as a consequence of positive, or negative support. However Jenner ( 1999 ) provinces when you receive something you like after a behavior you are more likely to reiterate it, when something you like is withdrawn as a consequence of behavior you are less likely to make it once more ( Jenner, 1999.p.171 ) . Martin received attending from his female parent and, got his ain manner. The attending received may non hold been positive but the consequence was, in his position, a wages.

It is indispensable to affect parents, to go at their gait and be considerate to environmental and any physical prohibitors. The program should include clearly identified ends, be accomplishable, mensurable and clip limited, re-evaluation and flexibleness besides need to be taken into history, as fortunes and other factors may alter for the kid. Jenner ( 1999 ) states that consistence is important and, “ Accurate timing ensures that your impact on your child`s behavior is every bit powerful as possible ” ( Jenner. 1999 p.169 ) .

This assignment has set out the cardinal principals of adhering an fond regard and the importance of bonding and secure fond regards for kids. It has identified the acquisition that takes topographic point between babe and parent and how reacting to each other physiques an everlasting trusting relationship. It has identified the importance of this procedure to develop a secure fond regard and that without this a kid may non accomplish their possible. It has discussed the cardinal principals of humanistic psychological science and the societal acquisition theory. Highlighted with Martin copying his male parent taking to unwanted behavior. This assignment stresses the importance of a through holistic appraisal, farther professional communicating between bureaus, which so for allows the most effectual working partnerships between professionals and parents. The ABC theoretical account of behaviour direction has been discussed and has identified how it can be used with the parent ‘s battle to alter behaviors. Suzanne was portion of this procedure and she recognised who the function theoretical account and been for Martin, the ancestors and effects and was so able to implement alterations she felt necessary.

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