The negative environmental effects of fossil fuels and limited beginnings of crude oil supplies have sparked the hunt for renewable yet efficient transit biofuels. To be a feasible option, biodiesel being a renewable, biodegradable, and atoxic fuel has attracted extended consideration during the past decennary. The production and burning of biodiesel displaces greenhouse gas emanations by 41 % as compared to fossil fuels. Assorted methods have been developed for the production of biodiesel, amongst which the procedure of transesterification utilizing bases like NaOH or KOH gives high degrees of transition of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times. The procedure of transesterification is affected by a figure of alkalis factors like reaction status, molar ratio of intoxicant to oil, intoxicant type, type and sum of base, clip of reaction, pureness of reactants and temperature. In the present paper biodiesel has been successfully prepared with different types of non comestible oils and used comestible oils, both in batch graduated table and little pilot graduated table ( Batch Stirred Tank Bioreactor for Biodiesel with controlled temperature and agitation ) bring forthing about 5 L of biodiesel per tally. The production efficiencies of these oils have besides been studied and different trials such as viscousness, denseness, brassy point were carried out to look into the belongingss of biodiesel as fuels in Diesel engines. Consequences showed that biodiesel obtained from used mustard oil in two lavations is an first-class replacement for fossil fuels with a kinematic viscousness of 4.1 and a brassy point of 108°C.Tests on emanation, velocity and operation were besides carried out on a trial bench utilizing different blends of biodiesel and pure Diesel.

Soon the universe ‘s energy demands are met through non-renewable resources such as petrochemicals, natural gas and coal. Since the demand and cost of crude oil based fuel is increasing quickly, and if the present form of ingestion continues, these resources will be depleted in a few old ages. Hence, attempts are being made to research for alternate beginnings of energy. An alternate beginning of energy must be technically executable, environmentally acceptable, and readily available.1 Methyl esters obtained from the transesterification of vegetable oils are an attractive fuel and have gained much importance in the past few decennaries due to depletion of the universe crude oil militias. Further vegetable oil derived methyl esters are going a promising option to diesel fuel because they are renewable in nature and can be produced locally and are environmental friendly every bit good. They have practically no S content, offer no storage trouble, and they have first-class lubrication belongingss. Furthermore, vegetable oil giving trees absorb more carbon dioxide from the ambiance during their photosynthesis than they add to the ambiance on combustion. Hence, they basically help to relieve the increasing C dioxide content in the ambiance. 2

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In the present survey, biodiesel has been produced from vegetable oils by Tranesterification reaction. Vegetable oils like used comestible oils ( mustard and soya bean ) and non comestible oils ( karanja and Jatropha ) . Non comestible veggie oils are normally considered to be more important as fuels compared to edible vegetable oils. Edible oils are produced from harvests which either have a enormous demand as nutrient or have a high production cost. Therefore we have experimented on used comestible oils which are of no farther usage.


The procedure of Transesterification involves the reaction of a triglyceride with an intoxicant to organize esters and glycerin. 4 In A triglyceride has a glycerol molecule as its base and three long concatenation fatty acids attached to it. The nature of the fatty acids attached to the glycerol determines the features of the fat and the feature of the fat in bend is determined by the nature of the fatty acids. During the esterification procedure, the triglyceride is reacted with intoxicant in the presence of a accelerator, normally a strong alkaline like K hydrated oxide. The intoxicant reacts with the fatty acids to organize the mono-alkyl ester, or biodiesel and petroleum glycerin. In most production methyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol is the intoxicant used ( methanol produces methyl esters, ethanol produces ethyl esters ) and is basal catalyzed by either K or Na hydrated oxide. Potassium hydrated oxide has been found to be more suited for the ethyl ester biodiesel production, either base can be used for the methyl ester. 5

Most of the biodiesel is presently made from vegetable oils by utilizing the above procedure. Vegetable oil contains both comestible oils and assorted inexpensive non comestible oils. These oils are rich in free fatso acids which can be esterified into biodiesel. A successful transesterification reaction is signified by the separation of the ester and glycerin beds after the reaction clip. The heavier, co-product, glycerin settles out and may be sold as it is or it may be purified for usage in other industries, e.g. the pharmaceutical, cosmetics etc.


Consequence of reaction temperature and reaction clip: The transition rate additions with addition in the reaction clip. 5 The reaction clip chiefly depends on the measure and quality of oil taken. Transesterfication is besides temperature dependent procedure and influences the reaction rate and output of esters. Transesterfication can happen at different temperatures, depending on the oil used. In base catalyzed transesterification reaction the temperature normally varies from 50 – 70 A°C.

Catalyst type: Transesterification of triglycerides depends on the type of accelerator i.e whether the accelerator is an base, acid, enzyme or heterogenous accelerators. In most biodiesel production through esterification the reaction is basal catalyzed by either K or Na hydrated oxide. Potassium hydrated oxide has been found to be more suited for the methyl ester biodiesel production. 6

Blending strength: For the transesterfication reaction, commixture is an of import factor as oils or fats are non-miscible with potassium hydroxide-methanol solution. Once the two stages are assorted and the reaction is started, stirring is no longer needed. 6


Karanja: Karanja belongs to the household Leguminacae. It ‘s a medium sized glabrous tree that by and large attains a tallness of about 18m and a bole diameter of about 50cm. It can turn under a broad scope of agro climatic conditions and is a common sight around the coastal countries, riversides, tidal woods and waysides. Karanja is a native to humid and semitropical environments holding one-year rainfall between 500-2500 millimeter in its natural home ground, the maximal temperature ranges between 27-39i‚°C and minimal 1-16i‚°C. It can turn on moist dirt types runing from stony to sandy to clayey, including verticals. 7

2. Jatropha: Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas ) is a non-edible oil-bearing works of the Euphorbiaceae household. It produces a considerable sum of oil from its seeds. It is a drouth immune perennial tree and is extensively found in waterless, semi-arid and tropical parts of the universe. It can besides turn in fringy lands and can populate over 50 old ages. Jatropha tree has several valuable belongingss such as the latex from root is being used as pesticides and lesion healing, the natural root is being used as a tooth coppice, its foliage as provender for silkworms among other utilizations.9 Jatropha normally grows below 1400 metres of lift from sea degree and requires a minimal rainfall of 250mm, with an optimal rainfall between 900-1200mm.10

Soy: Soy grows good in warm and damp climes from sea degree to an lift of 3,000 m. Temperature of 15-32oC is optimal for sprouting. For growing and development, the optimal temperature is 30oC. Lower temperatures tend to detain the blossoming. It has been observed that low temperatures cut down the oil content, whereas higher temperatures during seed formation increase the oil content in seed. A comparative humidness of 70-75 % is optimal for cod formation. The harvest can non digest hoar and H2O logging. It is grown in countries of 40-75 cm one-year rainfall. Drought at blooming or merely before blooming consequences in flower and pod bead. 11

Mustard: Mustard belongs to the Brassica genera whose little mustard seeds are pressed to do mustard oil. The works has bristles on the roots and foliages. The root and foliages are swollen and are frequently used as green vegetables. The long cod fruits, which form after the xanthous flowers bloom, each enclose 10 to 12 black seeds. These seeds are pressed for oil extraction.12



Jatropha and Karanja seeds were collected from the local farms of Rayagada, Orissa. The meats were removed from the shell for oil extraction. These meats were so cold pressed and oil was extracted. These were the two non comestible oils used in the procedure of biodiesel readying. Refined Edible oils like Soybean and Mustard oil were purchased from the local market and after a individual usage were besides used for the same intents.

Batch Scale: All the oils were taken in several glass beakers and heated on the hot magnetic home base till the temperature of oil ranges upto 100i‚°C, the warmer is so switched off and the oil is cooled, back to 60i‚°C ( i.e. below the boiling point of methyl alcohol ) .The magnetic scaremonger is so switched on and a mixture incorporating 1 % KOH and 15 % Methanol is added to the beaker incorporating the petroleum oil. The procedure of stirring is continued for 2 hours. Now the mixture is allowed to settle down, for 24 hours. The mixture when settles down gets separated into two beds ; the lower bed is denser and contains the glycerin and the upper bed contains the biodiesel.

Pilot Scale: A little pilot graduated table “ Batch Stirred Tank Bioreactor “ with controlled temperature and agitation, designed by Delhi Engineering College bring forthing 5 L at soap of biodiesel per tally was used. In our survey 3 litres of the natural oil was inserted into the bioreactor to which 1 % KOH ( i.e. 30gm ) and 15 % Methanol ( i.e. 450ml ) is added. The scaremonger is so switched on and the temperature is maintained at 60i‚°C. The reactor is run for 6 hours. The mixture is so allowed to settle nightlong. The glycerin is so removed by an excess fond regard in the bioreactor and the oil is pumped out.


The natural biodiesel collected from the above procedures is taken in several beakers and to it 10 % warm H2O is added. The mixture is so stirred gently for 15 proceedingss and allowed to settle down, maintaining it nightlong. The mixture once more separates itself into two beds and the lighter bed which is the pure biodiesel can be collected by decantation. The biodiesel obtained is so heated to 100i‚°c for taking the wet.


The of import fuel belongingss of biodiesel prepared from different oils were determined by standard methods. The different belongingss considered are as follows:

Viscosity: It is the opposition offered to the flow of the fuel. It is measured with the aid of Red Wood Viscometer and is expressed in Centi stokes ( Cst ) . It plays a major function in the working of an engine. Higher viscousness consequences in low volatility and hapless atomisation of oil during injection in engine, that consequences in uncomplete burning and finally C sedimentations on injector nose every bit good as in the burning chamber.

Brassy point: Flash point is the lowest temperature at which the oil can zap to organize an burnable mixture in air. At the flash point, the vapor may discontinue to fire when the beginning of ignition is removed. In the current survey Cleveland Open Cup setup was used to happen the brassy point. In unfastened cup devices the sample is contained in an unfastened cup which is heated, and at intervals a fire is brought over the surface and at a sufficient tallness the fire will glow.

Iodine value: Is the step of the degree of unsaturation of a triglyceride ; the sum of I, in gms, taken up by 100 gms of the triglyceride. No Iodine is taken up by saturated oils, fats, and waxes ; hence they have zero iodine value ; but unsaturated oils, fats, and waxes take up I. ( Unsaturated compounds contain molecules with dual or ternary bonds, which are really reactive toward I ) .The Iodine Value is non determined by mensurating the stableness of the fuel, instead it is determined by mensurating the figure of dual bonds in the mixture of fatty acid ironss in the fuel by presenting I into 100 gms of the sample under trial and mensurating how many gms of that I are absorbed. Iodine soaking up occurs at dual bond places – therefore a higher iodine figure indicates a higher measure of dual bonds in the sample.12


In the present survey four oils ( two comestible and two non comestible ) were taken for biodiesel extraction and word picture. Biodiesel extraction was done both on batch graduated table and pilot graduated table and the end product is expressed in figure 1 and 2. From the consequences of both the pilot graduated table and the batch graduated table it is revealed that highest sum of biodiesel is produced from mustard oil.

Fig.1 Plot of Biodiesel obtained in batch graduated table.

Fig.2 Plot of Biodiesel obtained in pilot graduated table.

The fuel belongingss of the oils were besides tested as shown in figure 3 and 4. The kinematic viscousness of the biodiesel obtained from mustard oil was found to be least syrupy compared to the biodiesels obtained from other oils which is helpful for burning.

Fig.3 Plot of Viscosities of different oils and their corresponding biodiesels.

Fig.4 Plot of brassy point of different oils and their corresponding biodiesels.

The Flash points of the biodiesels obtained from different oils were besides studied and it was found that Karanja gave the highest flash point where as mustard gave the lowest. Higher brassy point of the methyl esters is advantageous for their transit as compared to fossil fuels.

Fig.5 Plot demoing comparing of the experimental and theoretical I value of different biodiesels.

The Iodine values of the oils were besides studied and comparings were made between the theoretical and experimental values. In this survey it was observed that as the viscousness of the oil decreases, the I value increases. It shows the figure of unsaturated fatty acerb nowadays in the biodiesel.


There are really few surveies that have reported the usage of waste comestible oils for the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel from comestible oils are ever considered to be dearly-won and much more expensive than from nonedible oils. Very few research workers have really thought about the waste comestible oil which is being thrown out by families after cooking or deep sauteing. The survey suggests that used mustard oil that is considered to be a family waste can now be used as a beginning of triglycerides in the industry of biodiesel by transesterification utilizing methyl alcohol and KOH as accelerator. Esterification of used mustard oil gave a high rate of transition and good sum of biodiesel could be extracted from this waste oil. The viscousness of the biodiesel extracted from waste mustard oil is besides acceptable. Therefore with a little more experimentation and research waste oils can one twenty-four hours certainly be used as a replacement of Diesel fuel. Other oils like Jatropha and soya bean which were a portion of the survey besides gave good consequences but non every bit optimal as mustard. But Karanja which is one of the cheapest nonedible oils and was a portion of the survey gave the highest brassy point turn outing that it can be one of the safest fuels for transit.

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