Tourism is one of the most of import growing industries in the universe. This industry is looked upon as the most promising one to the development states because of its numeral economic benefits. “ Tourism is an progressively widespread and complex activity, which requires sophisticated direction to recognize its full potency as a positive and sustainable, economic, environmental, societal and cultural force ” [ Lawton & A ; Weaver 2006 P: 2 ] . “ The size and economic significance of travel and touristry have attracted the attending of many developed and developing states in actively advancing touristry as a manner to excite their economic systems, and in the procedure many have been successful in pulling big figure of international tourers ” [ WTTC 2003 ] . As an industry, touristry is a high precedence one in footings of employability, exchange net incomes and ecofriendliness. It is a concern of supplying and amusement for tourers.

Tourism industry occupies an of import topographic point in the state ‘s economic system. It is the fastest sector of an economic system these yearss and is expected to bring forth more income and employment in an economic system every bit good as earn necessary foreign exchange besides. Tourism can be loosely categorized into international touristry and interregional touristry. Both types hold better chances and contribute towards the economic development of a peculiar nation/ part. Tourism is the universe ‘s largest export industry which, harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) , generated about US $ 856 billion in 2007 by some 903 million tourers worldwide [ WTO 2008 ] .

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Tourism has been defined in assorted ways but may be thought of as the relationships and phenomena originating out of the journeys and impermanent corsets of people going chiefly for leisure and recreational intents. [ Pearce, 1981 ] Tourism is a extremely diversified phenomenon. The word ‘Tourism ‘ became current early in the nineteenth century as a same what disdainful equivalent word for traveller, but it is now used in the societal scientific disciplines without coloring material, to depict any individual whose motions fulfill two conditions that first, absence from place is comparatively short and 2nd, that money spent during absence is money derived from place and non earned from the topographic points visited [ Narayana, Raghavalu, Ramu, 2007 ] .

Tourism is one of the largest and fast turning industry that makes a major part to the economic systems of most developed and developing states. Tourism activities have been spread outing quickly over the past few decennaries worldwide and farther growing is expected in the hereafter. The tourer originated when big Numberss of in-between category people began to fall in blue travelers. India is a state of rich cultural heritage. Within India, after the mid 1990 ‘s, one province that performed unusually good in touristry is Kerala. Many sites and topographic points in Kerala pull more tourers and aliens. However, these sites and topographic points of tourers have an impact to the economic system. This impact could perchance veto or positive, will explicate subsequently on thesis. Furthermore, touristry possesses some societal deduction to the development of the industry.

Purpose of the survey

Tourism is one of the most of import escalating industries in the universe. This industry shows possible to the development states because of its legion economic benefits. Generation of foreign exchange, creative activity of income, coevals of employment, part to province gross and its associated regional development can be cited as the major economic benefits of touristry. The betterments in the quality of life of the host population and protection and saving of the natural and reinforced resources including biodiversity are the other perceptible developments of touristry development. [ Kumar, Sudheer 2007 ]

As one of the universe ‘s largest industries, touristry has the capacity to better the material life of communities that have lost traditional industries as trade barriers have fallen. However, touristry can besides hold terrible negative impacts such as imbibing, gaming, harlotry etc which has been bring forthing offense rates on a community, outweighing any economic and cultural benefits. Historic territories tend to amplify these negative effects, as deeply rooted occupants in a restricted physical environment live with touristry on a day-to-day footing. The intent of this survey is to analyze how the finish selling would be successful in Kerala, India by advancing niche touristry merchandises in order to get the better of some of these negative impacts. Tourism is a major phenomenon of the modern society with important socio-economic effects. Harmonizing to the World Travel and Tourism Council ( WTTC ) , Tourism is the universe ‘s most quickly turning industry and by the twelvemonth 2005, the part of touristry to the universe economic system was more than doubled from the basal degree of 1994.

For developing states, the World Tourism Organisation [ WTO, 1998 ] has recognised the nascent of touristry sector for the intent of poorness relief by increased occupation creative activity. Consequently many developing states are bettering their touristry planning and development attacks [ Hall 2000 ; Elliot 1997 ] . One tendency projected is the increasing portion of international touristry into South East Asiatic part, and India as a taking finish in this part is surely balanced to work this leaning, which it missed in 1880ss and 1890ss [ WTO 1998 ] .

Tourism can raise the profile of a finish, pulling the involvement of investors and visitants likewise. It is non merely the instance that many states turn to tourism out of despair, but because it affords their population a better criterion of life. There are a figure of benefits that may be derived from touristry provided that it is managed decently. These have, of class, been good documented in touristry literature and might include the creative activity of employment, the reception of foreign exchange, the enlargement of other economic sectors, and infrastructural developments. In environmental and socio-cultural footings, touristry development can supply a stimulation and support for preservation, and the saving of cultural heritage and traditions. Some of the more intangible benefits may include the reclamation of cultural pride, the resurgence of imposts and traditions, and chances for cross-cultural exchange and integrating. Again, these are more hard to mensurate, but can be perceptible within local communities.

Harmonizing to the surveies by the Government of Kerala, after mid 1890ss one province that performed unusually good in touristry is Kerala. Throughout this period, the province achieved growing in touristry higher than the national norm, and has now emerged as a taking sector of the economic system, with its impact increasing in footings of economic growing and employment generated. The province authorities recognises touristry as one of the few options available to develop the economic system, particularly in the surroundings of limited chances of the fabrication sector, jobs in the agricultural and traditional sectors, and the uncertainnesss confronting the expatriate employment in the Gulf [ GOK, 2006a ] .

The touristry industry in Kerala witnessed significant growing during 1890ss and beyond and is expected to turn further in the hereafter. This growing peculiarly occurred in the background of the opening up of the Indian economic system and the general planetary tendency of increasing touristry activity seen across the states in the Asiatic part. Nonetheless it is besides the conjunct attempts of the authorities and industry that made Kerala one of the best performing touristry provinces in India [ Edward, Koshy 2007 ] .

This survey focuses on the recent developments and issues in Homestay Tourism in Kerala, how the Homestay, rural and CBT [ community based touristry ] are related and the overall satisfaction of Homestay touristry from an proprietor ‘s position. Homestay touristry is the new section of the touristry industry because there is a tendency towards an increased specialisation among tourers and an increasing concern about the environment. [ Phonwiset, Yomsatharn, Chusakul 2008 cited on: ] . Homestay is one type of touristry that promotes interaction between visitants and host households. There are few aims besides defined to accomplish the chief purpose of the research. They are:

To measure the recent developments of Tourism in India/ Kerala

To analyze the major challenges in Kerala touristry

To critically measure the economic, societal, cultural and environmental challenges and advantages of Homestay touristry from the proprietor ‘s position and for the local community

To explicate recommendations on the hereafter development of Homestay touristry.

Why research in this subject?

The research worker has chosen thisA topicA because of the involvement in making a survey related to an upcomingA and challengingA sector of touristry. Kerala is theA nativeA topographic point of the research worker. Some of the research worker ‘s relations and friend are running place corsets and resorts in Kerala and that would assist toA collectA the relevant information ‘s andA information ‘s about the chosen subject.

Significance of the survey

Tourism is one of the mostA prestigiousA turning industries in the universe. Tourism has an educational significance. It has a good consequence which is brought about through contact between people of different races and nationalities. Tourism involves cultural alterations and consequences in cultural enrichment of those who travel every bit good as of those at the having terminal [ Ghosh ] . Another significance of touristry is the economic benefit. Because of its assorted economic benefits, this industry seems to be the most promising sector to the developing states. It is aA low-costA operation and anA additionalA income bring forthing activity that providesA employmentA to the organized every bit good as unorganised labour.

Tourism encompasses so many activities that areA indispensableA but unseeable links. Honnappa and Ramakrishna [ 2006 ] defined touristry as “ the amount of operation chiefly economic in nature, which straight related to the entry, stay and motion of alien, inside and outside a state, metropolis or part. “ A The most commonA definitionA given by the World Tourism organisation [ WTO, 2001A -cited on ] is “ A tourer is a individual who travelA to a placeA other than his usual topographic point of abode andA stays at hotels, orA other adjustment or constitution run on a commercial footing for the continuance of non less than 24 hours and non more than 6 months at a clip for pleasance, pilgrim’s journey, survey, wellness, meetings and concerns. Tourism is a undertaking with exceptionally pronounced strong backward and forward linkages. The travellers spent money to bask a assortment of goods, services and experiences.

Definition of Footings

Homestay Tourism refers to one form of touristry with accent on ecotourism and community based touristry, in which tourers will remain over dark with the host in the small towns. The hosts have to back up visitants like a member of the household and affect them in all sorts of activities and shared experiences. These activities have the aim of larning about locals ‘ life manner and support of occupants in the community [ Phonwiset, Yomsatharn, Chusakul 2008 cited on: ] .


There are a figure of industries that play a polar function in the development of states. Tourism being one such industry that has emerged as the largest planetary industry in the twentieth century and is projected to turn even faster during the current century. Tourism when taken in its true sense has following features ;

Resource based industry and consumes resources

Creates waste

Specific substructure demands

All the characters are linked to the societal cloth of the host community. It has societal, cultural and environmental impacts with a possibility of over ingestion. The conceptual construction of the undertaking aims to look into the jobs and advantages of place stay touristry in Kerala, from an proprietor ‘s position. In this subdivision the research worker efforts to research the countries such as ;

History of Indian touristry

Background of Kerala

Definition of touristry

Sustainable touristry

Community based touristry

Homestay touristry

Tourist satisfaction

History of Indian Tourism

India is a Centre of two ancient civilisations of the worldA called theA Indus vale civilisation, A andA theA AryanA civilization.A Tourism development in India started in the early 1960ss. By that clip most of the other states have achieved a singular advancement in thisA areaA and has exploited to maximum possible extent. The best manner to present India as a tourer finish to aliens is that ‘India is a state of all seasons and all reasons’.A India ‘s touristry resources have ever been considered immense. The geographical characteristics are diverse, colourful and varied. As such the resource potency is so much that it can provide to all sorts and gustatory sensations of tourers.

India has an ancient tradition of touristry. It existed as an industry in the informal sector in ancient times and was indulged in by all categories of people. Mark Twain competently remarked about India on ‘India ‘ [ National Tourism Policy 2002 ] that “ India is one state that is endowed with an imperishable involvement for foreign prince and foreign provincial, for the knowing and the ignorant, the wise and the sap, the rich and the hapless, the bonded and the free – one land that all work forces desire to see and one time seen, by even a glance, would non give theA glance for allA the shows of all the remainder of theA Earth combined. “ A The integrity of India lies in its diverseness – people bound together by centuries of common traditions, religion and doctrine [ Pran Nath, Sushma 1993 ] .

The Indian touristry industry has recorded a phenomenal growing particularly from 1990s in footings of both international and domestic tourers reachings [ Honnappa, Ramakrishna 2006 ] . TheA ministryA of Indian touristry has launched a new programme called ‘Athithi Devo Bhavah ‘ which meansA guestA is god. The inspiration behind this look is toA respectA because ; regard has ever been an indispensable portion of Indian psyche. Tourism, which is the 3rd largest foreign exchange earner in India, has started gainingA prominenceA to the publicA agendaA merely in recent old ages. Many states in the universe are trusting on touristry as one of the fastest turning sectors. In the Chief Ministers ‘ conference held on October 2001 [ National Tourism Policy 2002 ] the Prime Minister of India, Shri. Atal Bihari Vajpayee had stated that “ Tourism is a major phenomenon of economic growing in major parts of the world.A Many states have transformed their economic systems utilizing the touristry potential the fullestaˆ¦aˆ¦tourism has theA potentialA to make different types of employment in assorted sectors – from the most specialised to the unskilledA and what India needs is theA generationA ofA massiveA productiveA employment chances “ .

Tourism in India has a strong relevancy to economic development and employment coevals. It creates immense employment chances, provides just distribution of wealth, helps to get the much needed foreign exchange, brings out a speedy development and betterment of infrastructural installations. Developing states have given a particular importance for the development of touristry, for it is the chief beginning of gaining foreign exchange, thereby the economic position of the state goes up [ Honnappa, Ramakrishna 2006 ] .A noticeable alteration in theA holidayingA trendA wasA reportedA both the international and domestic tourers showed anA inclinationA towards adventure athleticss. India is easy but certainly rousing to its touristry potency. The result of many surveies hat has been done about touristry, states that India is a state with huge touristry resources and has suited for all sorts of touristries like eco-tourism, adventure touristry, religious touristry, athleticss touristry, cultural touristry and rural touristry. With little states like Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand areA allA readyA majorA tourist finishs ; India has toA struggleA toA promoteA itself to the universe touristsA [ Revathy 2008 ] .

Tourism in Kerala

Kerala, one of the smallest provinces lies in the southern seashore of India, is one of the leadingA proponentsA of touristry in assorted sectors.A Kerala has aA vastA and vibrantA sphere, where play unfolds in theA formA ofA spellA jumping heritage citesA station, A unA -spoilt beaches, picturesque hill, roaringA waterA falls, oldA templeA towns, alien wild life, A hustling metropoliss, surrounded with back Waterss, A variedA adventure athleticss and aA vibrantA manner of life.A Kerala is one of India ‘s most advanced societies with about full literate people and first-class quality of life. [ Kumar, Sudheer 2007 ] .

On its manner to going south, Kerala is one of the provinces that attract a big figure of tourers in South India.A In order toA tapA the tourer possible ofA so much history and such aA assortment of natural gifts, the Kerala authorities is taking a figure of stairss to better theA province ‘s infrastructure’sA likeA air, route and rail links. TheA stateA is germinating new schemes, making dynamic bluish prints and guaranting meticulousA executionA will do certain that theA stateA willA emergeA on top.A Developing universe category touristry merchandises needs heightening substructure, watercourse liningA disposal, strategicA allianceA and selling will guarantee that tourismA bringA sustainable growing and prosperity to Kerala besides known as “ Gods on Country ” [ Honnappa, Ramakrishna 2006 ] .A

Definition of Tourism

Tourism has been defined as the “ activities of individuals going to and remaining in topographic points outside of their usual environment for non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents ” [ WTO 1998 ] . There are different words and significances for touristry such as Domestic Tourism: – that involves occupants of the given state going merely within the state. Inbound Tourism: – involves occupants going in the given state. Outbound Tourism: – means occupants going in another state. International Tourism: – consists of inbound and outward touristry [ WTO 1998 ] .

Definitions of Homestay Tourism

“ It is comparable to bed and breakfasts, but even less formal. A place stay belongings is a non commercialized, private abode that accommodates paying guest ( s ) who enjoy remaining in the comfort and security of a household place. These invitees frequently reside in the household place for an drawn-out period of clip, normally months instead than yearss. It is a safe, low-cost agencies of lodging popular amongst international pupils, housemans, going professionals and grownup visitants from other states, who are looking to see and larn approximately local life style and civilization ” [ cited on: ]

“ Homestay is one type of touristry that promotes interaction between host households and tourers ” [ cited on: ]

“ Homestay touristry refers to one form of touristry with accent on ecotourism and community based touristry, in which tourers will remain over dark with the host in the small towns. The hosts have to back up visitants like a member of the household and affect them in all sorts of activities and shared experiences. These activities have the aim of larning about locals ‘ life manner and support of occupants in the community ” [ Phonwiset, Yomsatharn, Chusakul 2008 cited on:

Sustainable Tourism

There is no widely accepted definition of sustainable touristry. It could, of class, be suggested that sustainable touristry should merely be about using the Brundtland Report definition of sustainability to touristry. This could take to a definition such as: “ Forms of touristry which meet the demands of tourers, the touristry industry, and host communities today without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ” . There is another definition of sustainable touristry emphasizes the environmental, societal and economic elements of the touristry system. This definition “ means touristry which is economically feasible, but does non destruct the resources on which the hereafter of touristry will depend, notably the physical environment and the societal cloth of the host community ” [ Swarbrooke 1999 ] .

Sustainable touristry is the touristry development that protects of import ecological and biological qualities and the procedure consequences in increased economic chance for local occupants and involves them in decision- devising, and respects the unity of cultural norms and traditions. Sustainable touristry development is based on the aim that it meets the demands of present tourers and host parts while protecting and heightening chances for the hereafter. It is envisaged as taking to direction of all resources in such a manner that economic, societal and aesthetic demands can be fulfilled while keeping cultural unity, indispensable ecological procedures, biological diverseness and life support system [ Ashraf, Fazili 2004 ] . For the development of touristry, the section has decided to develop policies, schemes and programs for sustainable touristry.

The touristry program or policy is a gaming that will decidedly hold victors or also-rans that make the populace sector touristry policy a political issue. Tourism has powerful vested involvements that will seek to act upon the political procedure such as conveyance operators and hotelkeepers. Such sort of groups may besides oppose steps to do touristry more sustainable. Rather than giving importance to the virtues of touristry position point, the authorities and local communities are taking the touristry determinations for political grounds [ Swarbrooke 1999 ] . The construct of sustainability clearly embraces the environment, people and economic systems. Therefore sustainable touristry is based on ; societal advancement reflecting the demands for everyone, effectual protection of environment, prudent usage of natural resources, care of high and stable degrees of economic growing and employment.

Harmonizing to Swarbrooke 1999, there are figure of obstructions that will restrict the function of the populace sector in touristry, planning and development. They are ;

Tourism is merely a low precedence for the populace sector and at that place seems to be a deficiency of political will to develop sustainable touristry.

The construct of public sector planning and ordinance are out of manner

Many public sector organic structures lack the fiscal resources required to play a major function in touristry planning and development.

There is deficiency of staff expertness in touristry in most public sector organisations around the universe.

The series of election affects the willingness of politicians to do the sort of long term determinations on which sustainable touristry depends.

Public sector is merely a minor participant in the touristry industry with least control over touristry merchandises.

Sustainable touristry is lead by motivations like spirit of question, love of beauty, hunt for cognition and regard for nature. It aims at quality touristry which creates least harm to the natural, societal and cultural environment. The sustainable touristry hinges upon the overall direction as a feasible method in sustainable tourer activities. The overall quality attack renders the direction of merchandises particularly of tourer countries, highly sensitive to the penchants and outlooks of consumers. The private and public profitableness of a tourer finish will depend on the client sanitation, since they will return more frequently and remain longer and will convey a positive image of their vacation experience to others. However, as these penchants and outlooks include the demand for good scenes and consumer satisfaction, the profitableness of a tourer topographic point, will name for the development of schemes for sustainable development [ Honnappa, Ramakrishna 2006 ]

Community Based Tourism

Tourism can convey both benefits and jobs to an country. If good planned, developed and managed, touristry generates local occupations and income and provides chances for local enterprisers to set up touristry endeavors that lead to better the life criterions of occupants [ WTO 1998 ] . Community based touristry includes a scope of activities, services and comfortss provided by the rural people to pull tourer to their country in order to bring forth excess income. It is frequently considered ideal and inherently sustainable as it attracts manageable figure of visitants, does non necessitate much infrastructural development, does non devour excessively much of already scarce resources, does non necessitate high sum of skill base, and provides a beginning of income to locals besides continuing the local civilization and its traditions.

One of the chief attractive forces of CBT is the extremely personal interactions between the host and the invitee where both parties can portion knowledge, thoughts and experience and as a effect addition the net incomes of local community with minimum investings. Events like, a dark out with the locals at their places, engagement in the lesser known small town spiritual or cultural events, an chance to take part in local activities like agribusiness, fishing or even populating with locals and sharing their nutrient, their lives and their business could supply the much needed bonus for community based touristry [ Mello 2008 ] .

Tourism can convey both benefits and jobs to the local society and its cultural forms. Although more hard to mensurate than economic or environmental impacts, socio -cultural impacts are major considerations in developing touristry in any topographic point. These impacts can be particularly critical in states that still have strongly traditional economic systems and societies. Despite the fact that touristry can bring forth socio -cultural impacts, it is obvious that any sort of new development brings alterations. Tourism is one of the of import beginnings that can convey alterations in a society. A well planned, developed and managed touristry in a socially responsible mode can convey some sorts of socio -cultural benefits such as

Improves the life criterions of people and helps pay for betterments to community installations and services, if the economic benefits of touristry are good distributed.

Conserves the cultural heritage of an country which otherwise might be lost as a consequence of general development taking topographic point. Conservation of archaeological and historic sites was referred to under environmental impacts. In some topographic points touristry can be the drift for regenerating cultural forms which might be vanishing.

Reinforces or even renews a sense of pride of occupants I their civilization, when they observe tourers appreciating it.

Helps develop and keep museums, theaters and other cultural installations supported by touristry but the occupants can besides bask it.

Tourism provides an chance for transverse civilization exchange between tourers and occupants who learn about, and come to esteem one another ‘s civilization. This exchange can be best be achieved through certain signifiers of touristry – educational and other types of particular involvement Tourss, village touristry and place visit programmes whereby tourer can set up to see local households.



Research is a common phrasing that refers to a hunt for knowledge. “ More than a set of accomplishments, research is a manner of thought: examining critically the assorted facets of twenty-four hours -to-day professional work ; understanding and explicating steering rules that govern a peculiar process ; and developing and proving new theories for the sweetening of your pattern ” [ Kumar 2005:2 ] . Harmonizing to Kothari [ 1985:1 ] , research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a proficient usage. Redman and Mory [ 1923 ] define research as a “ systemized attempt to derive cognition ” [ cited by Kothari 1985 ] . In this chapter the research worker will specify the techniques that were used to accomplish the mark.

Statement of methodological analysis

Both primary and secondary informations have been used in this research work. Assorted beginnings of secondary informations used in this research. They are from books, newspapers, magazines, diaries, publications of the cardinal, province and local authoritiess, related web sites and studies of assorted links that related to the subject, studies prepared by research bookmans, universities, public records and statistics. Much attention has to be taken while roll uping the secondary informations. The dependability, suitableness and adequateness are some of the of import features of secondary informations.

Harmonizing to Kothari [ 1985:138 ] , the dependability can be tested by happening out such things about the said informations:

“ A ] who collected the information? B ] What were the beginnings of informations? C ] Were they collected by utilizing proper methods? D ] At what clip they were collected? E ] Was there any prejudice of the compiler? F ] What degree of truth was desired? G ] Was it achieved? ”

Kumar [ 2005: 156 ] , has defined the significance of dependability as if a research tool is consistent and stable, and therefore, predictable and accurate, it is said to be dependable. The greater the grade of consistence and stableness in an instrument, the greater is its dependability.

In the suitableness context, the research worker must be really carefully scrutinized the definition of assorted footings and units of aggregation used at the clip of roll uping the information from primary beginning originally. At the same clip, the object, range and nature of the original question must besides be studied.

Adequacy of informations is the degree of truth achieved in informations found inadequate for the intent of the present question, they will be considered as unequal and should non be used by the research worker. The information will besides be considered unequal, if they are related to an country which may be either narrower or wider than the country of present question [ Kothari 1985 ]

On the other manus, there would be a hazard factor in utilizing the already available informations as it should be used merely by the research worker finds them dependable, suited and equal.

There are several methods that can be used to roll up primary informations. Since there is non that much academic research have taken topographic point in the current subject, the research worker has to research assorted facets of Homestay touristry, its benefits and issues from the proprietor ‘s position point. In this model here, telephonic interviews utilizing structured questionnaires were used to garner the relevant information from the respondent ( Owner ) . The telephonic interviews are the method of roll uping information from respondents through telephone ( Kothari, 1985 ) . This method has non been widely used but plays a critical portion in industrial studies. From Kothari [ 1985 ] ‘s position point the virtues of telephonic interviews are ; a ] more flexible in comparing to get offing method, B ] faster and a speedy manner of obtaining information, degree Celsius ] should be cheaper, 500 ] rate of response is higher, 500 ] no staff required.

However, there are some demerits for this system. They are, a ] the clip cross given to respondents for considered reply is less, B ] interviews are restricted to respondents who have telephone installations, c ] possibility of the prejudice of the interviewer is comparatively more.

On the other manus, questionnaires are one other manner to roll up information from the participants. Kumar [ 2005 ] , clearly points out the interview agenda and a questionnaire. The lone difference is that in the former it is the interviewer who ask the inquiries and records the respondent ‘s answers on an interview agenda, and in the latter answers are recorded by the respondent ‘s themselves. This differentiation is of import in accounting for the several strengths and failings of the two methods. The questionnaires are of two types, structured and unstructured. Structured questionnaires are those questionnaires in which there are definite, concrete and pre determined inquiries. The inquiries are presented with precisely the same diction and in the same order to all respondents. The signifier of the inquiries may be either closed i.e. , yes/no or unfastened i.e. ask foring free response, but should be stated in progress and non constructed during oppugning [ Kothari 1985:125 ] .

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