Chapter 1: Introduction
Cattles are raised chiefly for meat and dairy merchandises in Mauritius. Cattle genteelness are an indispensable constituent of modern agribusiness. Harmonizing to norms, safe nutrient of carnal beginning must be free from pathogens and contaminations. There is a demand to cut down the hazard and if possible, extinguish it at the ‘on the farm phase ‘ . Cattle disease via media animate being public assistance, cut down productiveness and can besides infect human existences. Sanitary conditions and perceptual experiences in cowss engendering farms are really of import to guarantee a better wellness of the cowss and consumers of the merchandises. The chief ground for disease bar and direction for breeders is the addition in productiveness. Sanitary conditions are really important in the disease bar and direction.
The wellness of the cow and its environment, improperly cleaned and sanitized milk managing equipment, and workers who milk cattles and come in contact with milk due to a figure of grounds could function as beginnings of microbic taint of milk ( Yirsaw A.W,2004 ) . Contaminants in the signifier of chemical residues are besides of concern to public. Controling the safety of nutrient of animate being beginning at the primary production phase therefore involves all the steps ( implemented at the farm or production unit degree ) necessary to guarantee that these contaminations do non stop up in animate being merchandises, or, if they do, that their degrees do non transcend the maximal allowable degrees, notably the maximal residue bounds and microbiological standards set by Codex Alimentarius Commission ( OIE, 2008 ) . Many factors influence milk composing and therefore the nature and copiousness of the microbic burden. The conditions of natural milk production, in peculiar the hygienic patterns of husbandmans ( e.g lavation of milking equipment and pre and station milking udder readying ) , determine the contents in utile merchandises and spoilage micro-organisms ( lafarge V et Al, 2004 ) .
Henceforth, this instance survey of dairy cowss breeders, aid in run intoing the following aims of the undertaking.
The chief aim of the survey is to measure healthful patterns and perceptual experiences in dairy cowss engendering farms.
The specific aims are:
- To measure the healthful milking patterns in dairy cowss engendering farm through pre-milking nipple disinfection, foremilk rejection and post-milking nipple disinfection.
- To look into on sanitation patterns in dairy cowss engendering farm through patterns of cleansing and sanitising milking equipment.
- To measure degree of consciousness on mastitis and healthful conditions at husbandmans working topographic point.
- To measure responses based on study questionnaire on healthful patterns and perceptual experiences on dairy cowss engendering farms.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
Development of dairy cowss engendering
Mauritius is categorized as a net nutrient importing state. The dairy production contributes negligibly to the state ‘s economic system with merely 2 % local milk production ( AREU, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Milliken ( 1986 ) , there were about 22,000 milch cowss in 1914, stand foring a little more than 50 % of the entire cattle herd at this clip ( Heera MK, 2008 ) . However the figure of cattle caput and husbandmans has been steadily worsening over the old ages, taking to the current state of affairs of merely 7150 caputs for 1758 breeders ( CSO, 2008 ) . Traditionally, the dairy industry in Mauritius was dominated by backyard manufacturers, largely adult females. But many of them abandoned farming in the 1980 ‘s to take higher paid occupations in the fabric and vesture fabrication industry ( Ackbarally N, 2009 ) . Simultaneously the healthful jobs ( figure of ailments due to miss of sanitation ) and diseases, hapless direction besides accounts for the diminution.
Food crisis in relation to dairy cowss rise uping
The nutrient crisis which has hit with dismaying velocity and coerce the planet over the past recent old ages has showed how vulnerable net importation states, like Mauritius, are against such state of affairs. The milk ( UHT and powdered ) import measure has increased from Rs 975 M in 2001 to Rs 1.8 billion in 2007, stand foring a 85 per cent rise, while the import volume has remained unchanged ( around 17,500 metric tons ) ( Anon, 2009a ) . Since the early 1980s milk ingestion has grown more than 3 per centum per twelvemonth in developing states and is projected to turn even faster through 2020. Meat ingestion has been turning about 5 per centum per twelvemonth and is expected to turn 2.7 % per twelvemonth through 2020 compared to a low 0.6 % per twelvemonth in rich states ( Zessin K.H, 2002 ) . Hence in response to the planetary rise nutrient monetary values and deficits, the authorities is implementing steps to further local production of milk and meat to extenuate, in short and average term, the dependence of the state on imported nutrient trade goods. To excite dairy production, the authorities has introduced a battery of grants and loans to buy equipment, import improved familial strains and get land for croping ( Ackbarally N, 2009 ) .
Importance of Sanitation in dairy cowss engendering farm
‘Sanitary status ‘ is defined as the province of sanitation whereby sanitation is the preparation and application of steps designed to protect public wellness ( wikipedia ) . The cowss genteelness are frequently viewed as a moneymaking chance. There are however a series of complications which may originate during such an event if proper hygiene and sanitation is non maintained. When it comes to sanitation at farm, it is closely linked with “ Food safety ” which is now universally recognized as a public wellness precedence. There are a series of safeguard that can be taken by husbandmans, right at the first phase of the nutrient concatenation, to optimize the nutrient safety control of merchandises of animate being beginning ( OIE, 2006 ) . This necessarily means commanding the wellness position of the animate beings from which nutrient merchandises are derived.
World organisation for carnal wellness ( OIE )
In this age of globalization, guaranting healthy, hazard-free nutrient is one of the cardinal issues for international administrations working in this field. To this terminal, the World Organisation for Animal Health ( OIE ) , the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO ) , the World Health Organization ( WHO ) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission ( CAC ) work closely together, each in its country of competency ( OIE, 2008 ) . Since 2002, the OIE has had duty for “ carnal production nutrient safety ” . The renewed importance conferred by the Sanitary and Phytosanitary steps ( SPS Agreement ) to the OIE and to WHO/FAO has spurred the involvement of states around the Earth ( Zessin K.H, 2002 ) .
Preliminary Environmental study
Cattle rise uping bashs have certain direct and indirect impacts on the environment which require particular attending while puting up a farm. Those impacts are largely associated with solid and liquid waste arising from the farm such as ; effluent from cleaning activities, piss, and manure. Other jobs such odour nuisance and flies nuisance are non to be omitted. In instance the farm is near residential countries, audience with neighbors and all other organic structures who are likely to be affected by the farm is mandatory. Harmonizing to Environmental Protection Act 2002, livestock rise uping on a graduated table of up to 20 caputs require a Preliminary Environmental Report in which all the environmental and socio-economic parametric quantities are addressed and their impacts are identified and taken into history in the undertaking design ( Anon, 2009b ) .
Dairy cowss engendering
There are chiefly three types of farms in Mauritius. These are:
Small Scale farms
Locally cattle genteelness are more of a household concern. Cattle rise uping are carried out in a traditional mode in the backyard as a portion clip activity. The little cowss breeders besides known as cowkeepers largely live in the state side and they own on mean two to three breastfeeding cattles that are kept in enclosed shed ( RATES, 2004 ) . The degree of inputs and direction vary greatly among the husbandmans and they are by and large low because of limited installations and deficiency of fiscal resources.
Medium Scale farms
Medium graduated table farm is rather similar to little scale farm. However they have somewhat better direction patterns in footings of inputs ( e.g. better feeding system ) and modern techniques are applied e.g. usage of milking machine ( Ackbarally N, 2009 ) .
Large Scale farms
Soon there are two private farms viz. Golden Cream Dairy farm ltd at Salazie and SKC Surat Co Ltd at Rose-Belle who are runing at big graduated table for commercial milk production. Another type of big graduated table farms which have about ceased to be is the Government Dairy farm. In the yesteryear there were three Government dairy farms that would maintain around 200 caput of cowss. Richelieu Livestock Breeding Station ( RLPU ) has been converted into a quarantine station and late the Palmar Livestock Breeding Station has been closed. Soon there exists merely the Curepipe farm animal Research station where other species of farm animal are besides reared with the chief aim to transport out research and development activities in farm animal production and preparation for the benefit of husbandmans.
Steering aim for good dairy agriculture pattern
The guiding aim for good dairy agriculture pattern is that milk should be bring forth on-farm from healthy animate beings under by and large accepted conditions. This is achieved by using good agricultural pattern in the five countries.
Cattles that produce milk need to be healthy and an effectual wellness attention programme should be in topographic point. Animal wellness attention includes different veterinary interventions given to the animate beings for early sensing of diseases, bar of disease spread among healthy animate beings, bar of transmittal of zoonotic diseases and to guarantee traceability ( FAO/IDF, 2004 ) . It is of import to hold rigorous control of any carnal debuts to forestall the motion of the infective diseases onto the farm. Ill animate beings are apt to be a major beginning of disease to healthy animate beings and therefore necessitate to be segregated to cut down the opportunities of diseases distributing. In instance where animate beings are imported or brought from other local farms, they need to be kept in isolation from the bing herd for about 30 yearss. This is done once more to forestall taint of bing herds by parasites and pathogens ( AREU, 2004 ) . Other activities such as inoculation and deworming agendas, hoof direction and everyday wellness appraisal signifier portion of a good Health Management.
Guidelines to be followed for effectual lodging of cattles
Dairy lodging systems have a significant impact on the overall wellness and length of service of dairy cowss ( Barberg A.E et Al, 2007 ) . In add-on to maintaining animate beings healthy, a critical portion of farming is besides to do certain they are kept visibly clean. It is of peculiar importance, to cut down the possibility of taint of the nutrient, for milking animate beings and for animate beings destined for slaughter non to hold soiled outer coats. A major influence on the cleanliness of the animate beings is the type of lodging, the stuff used as bedclothes and the underfoot conditions if the animate beings are kept outside ( A M Johnston, 2000 ) . Where cattles are unbroken indoors it is of import that suited and equal edifices be provided if the cattles are to be to the full productive. Good dairy farm edifices are highly of import in sing any of the hygienic facets of milk handling ( WHO, 1962 ) . The design of the lodging system is besides of import so that there is equal infinite and installations to optimise eating, aggregation of manure, cleansing, rinsing, unreal insemination.
The lodging system can be either loose or trussed system with equal infinite and installations to optimise eating, aggregation of manure, cleansing, rinsing, unreal insemination and milking ( AREU, 2007 ) .
The general layout of a dairy farm should be harmonizing to the figure and class of animate beings to be housed. The cowbarn is a specialised edifice which should be carefully designed and constructed so as to supply comfy and healthy lodging for the cattles and at the same clip to enable them to be milked in clean conditions. Housing must be managed hygienically to avoid soilure of animate being. A standing of 1.5m long has been found most suited to enable cattles to lie clean, but with the smaller strains of cow 1.4m or less may be sufficient ( WHO, 1962 ) . Furthermore it should be free of obstructor and jeopardies ; dead terminals, and steep and slippy tracts should be avoided. It should be immune to adverse conditions conditions and effects thereof particularly cyclones, unseasonal alteration doing cold or heat emphasis ( FAO/IDF, 2004 ) . The Windowss should be fitted with hinged shutters to be used in instance of cyclonal conditions.
The floor should be non-slippery to minimise slipping and bruising due to rough uneven floors. Unsuitable floors may suppress mounting or take to hurts during coupling. The floor should be sooner inclining 10 centimeter above environing land to enable drainage of piss in a canal leading to a suited point of disposal as required by the Sanitary Authority ( AREU, 2007 ) .
Plastering of the wall to a tallness of at least 1.5m is recommended to forestall accretion of soil, disease sources and to ease cleansing ( WHO, 1962 ) . Cowshed should be provided with at least two doors, one gap on the feeding transition and the other 1 on the manure semen milking transition.
Ventilation and lighting
The regular reclamation of the air in a cowbarn is indispensable for the care of the wellness of the cattles and bar of taint of milk ( WHO, 1962 ) . The cowbarn should hold sufficient gaps to let natural airing and equal sunshine. This will enable proper supply of fresh air to take humidness, let heat dissipation and prevent build-up of gases such as C dioxide, ammonium hydroxide or slurry gases ( FAO/IDF, 2004 ) . Direct sunshine helps to maintain the caducous prohibitionist and would move as a germ slayer.
Water supply plays an at hand function in keeping a proper healthful balance in engendering farms. Besides being used for imbibing intent, efficient H2O supply helps in cleansing and other activities taking to portion of proper sanitation. The cow needs a batch of H2O ( up to 50L daily ) to be able to bring forth spit for contemplation and milk production. It is best to let the animate being uninterrupted entree to ample fresh and clean H2O ( AREU, 2004 ) . Water is an obvious possible beginning of pathogens because it can incorporate foods from provender or manure and be contaminated with pathogens, thereby functioning as a vehicle to pollute or infect animate beings on ingestion ( CAST, 2004 ) . E. coli 0157: H7 is found normally in H2O troughs on farms and feedlots and persists in these environments for every bit long as four months ( Lejeune J.T et Al, 2001 ) . Water supplies should be clear and free of body waste ( FAO/IDF, 2004 ) .
For healthy life and proper growing, reproduction and milk production, dairy cowss require a day-to-day balanced diet. The provender contains alimentary viz. carbohydrates, fat, proteins, minerals ( e.g. Ca, P ) and vitamins ( A, D, E, K ) . Furthermore, groceries which are fed to animate beings must be free from both pathogens and unwanted residues. Since Mauritius is chiefly based on a zero-grazing system, breeders have to do proviso for eatage based on a cut-and-carry fresh fish system. The beginning of eatages varies among breeders ; they are collected from Sugar Cane Estates or along waysides, fallow lands, riversides, and province lands or vegetable Fieldss ( Heera M.K, 2008 ) . Withholding periods should be applied to scrounge harvests if they have been treated with agricultural chemical, prior to utilize as provender.
Control storage conditions of provender
The different control steps in relation to feedstuffs and its storage are as follows:
- Feeds intended for different species should be separated. No carnal stuff should be included in dairy cowss feed rations.
- Appropriate storage conditions should be ensured to avoid provender taint. It should be ensured that animate beings are non able to come into contact with contaminations in countries where these provender merchandises are stored and assorted.
- Hay and dry provenders should be protected from a moist environment, silage and other fermented harvests should be kept under hermetically sealed conditions ( AREU,2004 )
- Moldy provender should be rejected ( FAO/IDF, 2004 ) ; feeding of any mouldy stock provender to milking cattles should be avoided. Particular attention should be taken with wheat bran, silage, hay, bagasse, cotton seed cake as these contain toxicant fungal toxins that can be transferred to milk.
- Fungal mycotoxins may besides be present in grazing land. In New Zealand, the consumption of saprophytic fungus incorporating the toxin, sporidesmin, causes the disease facial eczema with impaired liver map, radiosensitivity, decreased milk production and sometimes decease ( Ferraud C, 1995 ) . Although the disease is uncommon in other temperate states, it is of import to recognize that increased eatage usage carries the hazard of an increased incidence of grazing land borne mycotoxicoses.
Milk plays an of import function in our day-to-day diet. Cows ‘ milk contains a broad array of cardinal foods that help back up human wellness. It is an first-class beginning of protein, Ca, K and P. Apart from being a nutritionary nutrient, milk has a high H2O activity, moderate pH of 6.4 to 6.6 and ample supply of foods, doing for an first-class medium for microbic growing. There is broad spectrum of bacteriums present in nature which can pollute milk rendering it insecure for human ingestion or unfit for farther processing.
Human pathogens known or likely to pollute natural milk
Microorganisms are widely present in animate beings and in their environment. Disease in animate beings is inevitable on farms, no affair how good the farming ( Johnston, 2000 ) . The diseases that form the greatest menace to animate beings are caused by micro-organisms that invade the organic structure. Diseases could be infective ( of viral or bacterial beginning ) , non-infectious ( caused by parasites ) or metabolic ( caused by unbalanced diet ) . Specific infective diseases are by and large restricted to the big farms and metabolic diseases are more normally seen in cowss belonging to little breeders ( Sibartie D, 2001 ) . Healthy dairy cowss are considered a reservoir for several of the most of import nutrient borne human disease pathogens ( Tauxe, 1997 ) . NontyphoidalSalmonella spp.andCampylobacter jejuniare considered of import dainties to nutrient safety because of the tremendous figure of unwellness they cause. Cattles have been shown to transport Salmonella at rates every bit high as 64 % ( CAST, 2004 ) .Listeria monocytogenesandEscherichia coli0157: H7 are precedence pathogens because of the badness of symptoms associated with infection and because of the figure of deceases that occur in septic people. All of these pathogens are shed in cattle fecal matters and can pollute dairy farm premises including unpasteurized majority armored combat vehicle milk ( Ruegg P.L, 2003 ) .
Milk borne diseases
Human-health menaces from farm animal come in two basic signifiers: ( I ) zoonotic diseases, and ( two ) food-borne unwellnesss. Zoonotic diseases are those that arise in animate beings but can be transmitted to worlds. Potentially pandemic viruses, such as grippe, are the most newsworthy, but many others exist, including hydrophobias, undulant fever and splenic fever ( FAO 2009 ) .
A joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee ( 1970 ) on milk hygiene classified milk-borne diseases:
infections of animate beings that can be transmitted to adult male:
Primary importance: Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, Streptoccocal infections, ; Staphyloccocal enterotoxin toxic condition, Salmonellosis, Q febrility.
Lesser importance ; vaccinia, Foot and mouth disease, Anthrax, Leptospirosis and Tick-borne phrenitis
infections primary to adult male that can be transmitted through milk:
Typhoid and paratyphoid febrilities, Shigellosis, Cholera, Enteropathogenic Escherchia coli, Non-diarrhoeal diseases, Streptococcal infections, Staphylococcal nutrient toxic condition, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Enteroviruses and Viral hepatitis ( Kamalam S, 2005 )
Outbreaks associated to milk
Warnings to consumers about the hazards of imbibing natural milk have been stepped up over recent old ages because wellness professionals are seeking to protect wellness and have seen a revival in milkborne diseases that had dropped dramatically with pasteurisation, as natural milk has become voguish and its selling has increased ( Szwarc S, 2009 ) .
Worldwide, mastitis is the most common disease in dairy cowss ( Tan et al, 2009 ) . Mastitis is defined as an infection of the bag, caused by bacteriums come ining the one-fourth through the teat terminal. Harmonizing to the US national mastitis council ( 1996 ) ; mastitis is an redness of the mammary secretory organ in response to injury for the intent of destructing and neutralizing the infective agents and to fix the manner for mending and return to normal map ( Fadlelmoula A.A, 2007 ) . This consequences in physical, chemical and microbic alterations in the milk. It can be caused by a assortment of bacteriums or even Fungis, the most common in Mauritius being Staphylococcus epidermidis ( Sibartie D, 2001 ) .
Mastitis in dairy cowss represents a disease job which is hard to forestall or command efficaciously, since so many different workers have pointed out particular cases which indicate that the susceptibleness to mastitis manifested by related animate beings might hold familial footing: assorted surveies have given heritability estimations for mastitis opposition runing from 0.05 to 0.38 ( Warwick E J et Al, 1979 ) .
Principles of mastitis control
Worldwide, husbandmans have achieved enormous success in cut downing the incidence of contagious mastitis by following five basic rules of mastitis control ( Ruegg P.L, 2003 ) :
- Postmilking nipple disinfection
- Universal dry cow antibiotic therapy
- Appropriate intervention of clinical instances
- Culling of inveterate septic cattles
- Regular milking machine care
Beginnings of taint of natural milk
There are several chief beginnings of taint of milk. From the clip the milk leaves the bag, until it is dispersed into containers, everything with which it comes into contact is a possible beginning of more micro-organisms.
Within the bag
For many old ages, it was believed that milk drawn straight from the bag of a healthy cow was a unfertile fluid, that is, it contained no life micro-organisms ( Yirsaw A.W, 2004 ) . In healthy cattles, many micro-organisms resides in the nipple cistern, teat canal and nipple vertex. Natural vegetation within the bag of healthy animate beings is non considered to lend significantly to the entire Numberss of micro-organisms in the majority milk, nor the possible addition in bacterial Numberss during refrigerated storage ( Murphy S.C et Al, 2000 ) . The first few watercourses of milk from each nipple should be collected, separated, discarded. This flushes out the beings that entered the nipple through the nipple gap ( FSA, 2006 ) .
In cattles holding mastitis, the septic bags can cast tonss of micro-organisms into the milk. Selim and Culor ( 1997 ) found thatStreptococcusand coliforms are the most dominant stray bacteriums from milk followed byStaphylococcus spp( Yagoub S.O et Al, 2005 ; Murphy S.C et Al, 2000 ) .
Exterior of the bag
Normally the micro-organism from the tegument of the animate beings and the micro-organism from the environment where the cow is kept and milked cause taint to the outside of the bag. Common organisms associated with the bedclothes stuffs arestaphylococcus, streptococcus, coliforms, spore formers, and other Gram-negative beings ( Murphy et al, 2000 ; Elmoslemany A.M, 2009 ) .
Surface of milk handling and storage equipment
The most of import factor impacting the entire majority milk bacterium count is the cleanliness of the milking system. Utensils and equipment are known to be the greatest beginnings of contaminations. They may account for every bit much as 100,000 to billion beings per millilitre ( Murphy S.C et Al, 2000 ) . Pails, strainers, milking machines, tins, pipes bottles, and other equipment used for the handling of milk are sometimes non decently washed and sanitized. Organisms survive in the clefts, corners, crannies, dents, abrasions and other abnormalities of the utensils. Such neglect affords ideal conditions for the growing of micro-organisms before the utensils are being used once more. Refrigeration is besides indispensable to forestall or decelerate the growing of bacteriums in natural milk.
The consumers are today good witting about nutrient hygiene and they demand high criterions of milk quality. Hence it is cardinal that breeders respect the quality standards of their merchandise to fulfill the demand and to stay in competition. Milking performed under rigorous hygienic conditions, with rigorous attending to healthful patterns, will cut down the entry of micro-organisms into the milk. Naturally the fewer the beings that get into the milk, the fewer have a opportunity to turn.
Personal hygiene of milk animal trainer
At all phases hygiene is necessary to forestall taint of milk. This starts from the individual foremost managing the milk that is the dairy cattle and all throughout its handling. It is the duty of the dairy cattle to follow rigorous degree of personal hygiene to forestall direct taint of the milk.
Personal hygiene of milk animal trainer includes the followers ( CAC, 2004 ) :
- The dairy cattle should be in good wellness ; those with an unfastened lesion or enduring from any skin disease or any other contagious disease should non come in contact with the milk. Any hurt on custodies or forearms must be covered with a water-repellent patch.
- He should possess a valid nutrient animal trainer certification issued by Sanitary Authority
- Effective lavation of custodies and weaponries with proper agencies ; equal clean H2O, soap, nail coppice, and thenceforth drying custodies and weaponries with a clean fabric or disposable paper towel.
- He should decently pare nails and must non have on pealing or any other jewellery so as non to wound the bag or nipples.
- Neat visual aspect ; have oning clean apparels, hair cap to cover hair.
- Smoke is non permitted in countries for milking, and milk storage ( FSA, 2006 ) .
A good milking technique is indispensable for the production of safe natural milk. Cleaning of nipples before milking is of import to take both seeable soilure ( e.g. fecal matters, bedclothes, clay, residuary station milking germicide ) and bacteriums which could pollute the milk. Washing with H2O gives the cleanest bag, nipple and wing. The H2O should be between 200C to 400C. Long hairs from the wing and bag should be removed on a regular basis. The wet bag should be dried with paper towel which should be used merely one time to forestall the spread of bacteriums and other pathogens to other cattles. If paper towels are non available, sterilized fabric can be used but should be replaced on a regular basis. Thorough lavation and drying may be followed by handling with germicide ( e.g. Na hypochlorite solution or Dipal ) , an sanctioned pre-dip solution which must be efficaciously removed before manus milking or bunch fond regard. The usage of predipping utilizing I has demonstrated to cut down standard home base count and coliform counts in natural milk by five- and sextuple severally as compared to other methods of premilking udder readying ( Galton et al, 1986 ) . The overall decrease of microbic tonss in natural milk through the usage of predipping should ensue in decreased Numberss of zoonotic pathogens. Predipping has been shown to cut down the hazard of listeria monocytogenes in milk filters by about quadruple ( Ruegg, 2003 ) .
Before the existent milking can get down each one-fourth should be inspected for physical/chemical/organoleptic abnormalcies by look intoing the colostrum. The first milk should be spread on a dark surface, a foremilk cup or a dark tile. Abnormal milk shows stain, flakes, scintillas, coagulums, blood musca volitanss and/or muddiness ( Bonnier et al, 2004 ) . If the milk shows such warning marks so the milk should be kept aside because of the hazards to worlds. The scrutiny of milk must besides be done before attaching milking units. Fore-milking aids early sensing of mastitis removes potentially contaminated milk from the nipple canal and stimulates milk allow down. Cattles with septic bag ( mastitis ) and those under intervention with antibiotics should be milked last and the contaminated milk disposed of decently ( FSA, 2006 ) .
After fore-milking the dairy cattle will be cognizant if milk quality is satisfactory or non. If milk is free from warning marks, milking of the healthy bag can transport out for human ingestion. To milk the cow clean, dry manus must be used and the whole manus should be used alternatively of merely pollex and index because the latter clasp is considered bad for udder wellness and flow rate ( Bonnier et al, 2004 ) .
Equipment used during milking
Equally shortly as milk comes out from the bag it gets into contact with the surface of the recipient vas for illustration bucket/pail or aluminum can. Surfaces are normally metal, unstained steel, tinned steel or plastic and they should all be kept in good hygienic conditions. Nowadays Stainless Steel is used as the stuff of building for Dairy and Food processing equipments universe over to accomplish the most exact demands for easy care, sanitation, merchandise saving, corrosion opposition and to avoid wellness risky effects of aluminum and plastic ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.busiverse.com/dairyproducts ) . The design of milking equipment, where used, and tins, should guarantee there are no crannies or deferrals that can interfere with proper cleansing ( CAC, 2004 ) .
Chapter 3: Methodology
Data aggregation was done by transporting out a questionnaire based study. The questionnaire assessed the assorted healthful patterns and perceptual experiences on the dairy farms. Desk survey of recent studies on cowss engendering sector was besides conducted to acquire relevant information on the subject. Furthermore cardinal sources like the Agricultural Research Extension Unit situated at St Pierre and the Veterinary Service Division at Reduit were approached. An assignment was fixed through contacts by electronic mail and phone call. After questioning the concerned party, an thought of the current state of affairs as concerned the cowss genteelness of the farm animal sector was obtained. The names, contact Numberss and references of the dairy cattle breeders around the island were obtained. Statistical information was obtained from the authorities web site of cardinal statistic division.
The survey was based on questionnaire study among the dairy cattle breeders. While planing the questionnaire, the informations collected was considered. The study covered both direction patterns used on the farm and it was besides composed of inquiries sing beliefs and sentiments about selected dairy engendering farm issues. The questionnaire consisted of different parts viz. the healthful status of the cowshed, Pre-milking patterns, station milking patterns, and carnal wellness. The types of inquiries used were chiefly near ended type and merely a few unfastened ended.
The trying population was the dairy cattle breeders in Mauritius. It is obvious that the whole population can non be surveyed, therefore a sum of 26 breeders were indiscriminately selected utilizing random Numberss from a sampling frame that included references of all dairy cowss breeders registered by AREU. The herds were stratified into three classs based on the figure of animate beings: little graduated table farm ( = 5 wet cattles ) , average graduated table degree Fahrenheit arm ( 6 to 25 breastfeeding cow ) and big graduated table farm ( & gt ; 25 breastfeeding cow ) . The questionnaires were filled personally by me by sing all the sites and the inquiries were translated in Creole to the breeders for better response.
Chapter 4: Consequences and Analysis
General information of the farms surveyed
There were more respondents from medium graduated table than from the big graduated table farm. The per centums of respondents for little, medium and big graduated table genteelness farm were 38.5 % , 50 % and 11.5 % severally.
Beginning of cow
16 % of the respondents reported that they imported their animate beings. The beginning of animate beings in the farms could be related with the type of farm. The medium and big graduated table farms merely imported the cow compared to zero per centum from little graduated table genteelness.
The frequence of milking
All the respondents milk the cattles twice per twenty-four hours with the exclusion of merely one Medium graduated table farm where the cow was milked merely one time.
Response for milking wholly the bag
The bulk of respondents ( 64 % ) reported that they milk the cattles wholly compared to 35 % who did non milk the cattles wholly. However those who did non milk the cattles wholly were largely from the little graduated table farm.
Sanitary status of cowbarns
Most of the respondents reported that the cowbarn was made up of concrete ( 35 % ) and blocks ( 32 % ) and the 3rd highest used stuff was iron sheets with 22 % respondents.
Floor of cowbarn
Merely 2 % of the respondents had cowshed with slicked wall 1m above floor. 45 % of respondents had cowshed with unsmooth concrete floor. This can be related with inquiry 18 ( three ) , inquiry on how the cowbarn was being cleaned. The bulk of respondents reported that they clean the floor merely by replacing the bedclothes with clean straw. Furthermore a bulk of 45 % reported that the cowshed had unsmooth concrete floor.
Merely 7 % of the respondents accounted for sloppy floor with drain to enable drainage of piss in a canal while 5 % of respondents reported for floor imperviable to H2O and piss.
All respondents rely on natural airing to take heat and humidness from the animate beings ‘ environment. The bulk of respondents did non hold the fly-proof gaps as shown in figure 4.6. The lone manner for them to command flies were the usage of insect powders viz. Barricade. Whatever be the agencies of control, all respondents reported that flies were ever present in all three types of farms.
Handiness of H2O
73 % of respondents reported that the H2O has to be changed from clip to clip and the 81 % respondents reported that the H2O beginning was non shared with other cowss.
The big herd is more at hazard in instance of trough H2O taint, followed by the medium graduated table farm with a ratio of 2:3 and 1:6 severally. This may be due to the fact that for a larger herd it is more hard to alter H2O for each single animate being.
Cleaning of cowshed floor before milking
All respondents affirm that the milking topographic point was cleaned either by grating the dirty bedclothes stuff and replacing them by fresh bedding stuff or by mechanical cleansing ( rinsing with H2O ) which was chiefly done by big herd breeders.
Pre-milking disinfection of bag and nipples.
All respondents report that the bag was cleaned before milking. However non all respondents were practising nipples disinfection followed by cleaning. 47 % of respondents were utilizing cold H2O followed by 21 % respondents who were utilizing chlorinated H2O for nipple disinfection. In this study 39 % of respondents are still non practising bag and nipples disinfection.
The bulk of respondents who does non reject colostrum are from the little and average herd. The entire per centum of respondents who do non reject colostrum was 73 % .
Post milking patterns
Type of container used for milk aggregation
The bulk utilizing milking machine was from big graduated table and medium graduated table farms. 10 out of 13 respondents from the medium herd and 100 % from the big herd usage milking machine. The bulk of little herd usage pail for milk aggregation ( 9 out of 10 ) .
Cleaning of utensils
The consequences of this survey showed that merely the little breeders used detergent and hot H2O for cleaning milk equipment without any germicide ( sanitizer ) while the bulk of the medium graduated table uses cold H2O, 69 % with germicide and the staying 31 % without germicide. . In contrary most of the little graduated table dairy cow proprietors 90 % cleaned milk equipment without germicide after each use.
The bulk of respondents do non pattern station milking nipples disinfection. Harmonizing to the survey 100 % of little graduated table breeders do non disinfect the cow nipples after milking. Among the respondents from medium graduated table and big graduated table farms merely 5 out of 13 and 2 out of 3, severally studies for nipples disinfection after milking.
From the survey, merely 7 respondents out of 26 were unaware of the mastitis disease. The degree of unknowingness is higher in little graduated table dairy farm as compared to medium scale farm with a ratio of 5:5 and 2:11 for little and average graduated table farms severally. Harmonizing to the survey the degree of consciousness is 100 % in the big graduated table farm. 50 % of the little herds were incognizant of the udder disease.
Most of the respondents irrespective of its farm graduated table reported that they do non divide the ill animate beings from the healthy 1. 9 out of 10 little breeders, 11 out of 13 medium herd proprietors and 2 out of 3 big herd proprietors reported for non dividing the diseased/injured animate being from the healthy one.
From the survey it can be seen that for both medium and big graduated table farm, the figure of respondents describing that their animate beings are examined for regular cheque up was higher than those stating their animate beings were non examined on a regular basis. Most of the little breeders ( 6 out of 10 ) reported that their animate beings are non examined routinely by veterinary officer alternatively they are being examined merely if they are ill.
Separation of the calves from the older animate beings
All the little breeders are of the sentiment that the calves need non be separated with the older animate beings. However this is non the instance for big and average graduated table farms. 9 out of 13 medium herds think that separation of the calves from the older animate beings is of import while 100 % of big graduated table in the survey is of the same sentiment.
Milk of animate beings under antimicrobic intervention
The pattern of non milking the cattles during intervention was related to the respondent ‘s sentiment on ingestion of milk of animate beings under antibiotic intervention. There is a considerable sum of respondents that do non halt milking after giving vitamins or drugs to cattles and who is of the sentiment that milk of animate being under antibiotic intervention can be consumed. This is non a hygienic pattern because milk of animate beings under antimicrobic intervention is non safe for ingestion.
Percept of Sanitary conditions among breeders
Most of respondents were either partially or to the full cognizant of the healthful conditions to be maintained at their on the job topographic point. However a bulk 16 out of 26 respondents had a full impression on healthful conditions.
From the study it was seen in bulk of farms manure was placed in heap in unfastened air. The big graduated table farm were doing compost out of the droppings and soiled bedding stuff, which were sold to husbandmans shacking near the small town. However in most instances disposal of manure poses a hard job and tends to do flies and bad smells. No plague control
Chapter 5: Discussion
Sanitation and healthful patterns are of extreme importance in engendering farms. Lack of proper healthful conditions may take to assorted bad lucks such as proliferation of certain infections such as splenic fever etc ( Kaplan M.M, 1962 ) . Assorted surveies have reported assorted menaces to wellness that has been posed following unhygienic patterns in farms. Such a survey was nevertheless missing in Mauritius. Hence the current survey attempted to measure healthful patterns and perceptual experiences in farms.
Harmonizing to the study it was observed that little graduated table breeders leave the calves feed on their ain from the cow. By this pattern the bag was non milked wholly. Harmonizing to ordinances for a sound wellness of calves, cow ‘s udder demand to be washed and dried before nursing or milking to forestall bacterial taint ( AREU, 2007 ) .
Construction stuffs greatly influence sanitation and hygienic conditions. The building stuffs used have to be good selected. Harmonizing to the study 33 % still used Fe sheet, metal and wooden constructions, which is against the ordinance of AREU. This can be a beginning of unhygienic patterns. Such constructions usually harbor bacteriums and can do their proliferation, which may impact the quality of milk being produced. Therefore, the healthful status as respects to wellness of animate beings is non followed wholly.
Although cowbarns were holding concrete wall, the fact it was non slicked gives indicant that the cowbarn was non maintained decently because concrete wall that are non plastered accumulates dirt and disease sources. Cleaning cowshed by grating the dirty bedclothes stuff and replacing them by fresh bedding stuff does non forestall extra droppings, slurry from roll uping due to improper urine drainage. Hence merely grating soiled bedding stuff will by no agencies take any soil constellating on the wall.
Dairy cowss lodging has a big impact on the wellness of pess and legs of the dairy cattles. Housing systems including concrete flooring, uncomfortable freestalls, or both increased the incidence of limping and Rhine wine lesions ( Barberg A.E, 2007 ) . $ 5 % respondents reported for unsmooth concrete floor. The concrete surface must be smooth so that the animate being ‘s hoofs are non damaged by unsmooth borders or scratchs, and it must hold channels to forestall cattles from stealing and losing their terms. Furthermore, the low response for sloppy floor with drain gives an indicant that the floor was non decently designed and proviso for liquid waste ( urine and washing H2O ) mercantile establishment was non made. This can give rise to insanitary conditions in the cowbarn if non decently maintained daily.
Harmonizing to the survey conducted, there was observation of flies in the cowbarns and their presence in itself proves to be a major wellness jeopardy to the animate beings. The lone biting fly of common happening in Mauritius is Stomoxys nigger. Proper means of fly control was of concern to the respondents but the solution was far to be obtained. They complain that usage of insect powder besides was non of 100 % efficiency. There were no other agencies of pest control on farms investigated. A deficiency of all such patterns explains that the animate beings are non being housed in the proper mode and hence they may hold a direct reverberation on the quality of milk being produced.
Share H2O beginning with other animate beings, is a hazardous factor, in the event that one of the animate beings is ill or even enduring from certain disease etc. This may be the instance with animate beings imported. Furthermore the frequence of altering H2O is another of import facet. Harmonizing to norms, H2O through demand to be cleaned on a regular basis and animate beings has to avoid utilizing the same through ( FAO/IDF, 2004 ; Boyles S ) . However in the current survey, such pattern was non observed. This may be viewed as a limit from the established norm and besides a beginning of taint to the animate beings, and therefore to the population in general.
One of the major guidelines is to guarantee appropriate udder readying for milking ( AREU, 2007 ) . Many farms that are presently utilizing hygienic milking patterns and the effectual usage of predipping with I and forestripping ( foremilk rejection ) have been shown to heighten milk safety ( Ruegg P.L, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to this study 39 % of respondents are non practising nipples disinfection prior to milking and a bulk of 73 % did non reject colostrum. Such disregards do non guarantee safe and choice milk production and ingestion of milk produced under such fortunes without being decently pasteurised can take to serious wellness jobs.
Cleanliness of equipment is of import to forestall milk taint ( Yirsaw A.W,2004 ) . From the study it was observed that 90 % of little breeders were non utilizing germicide while rinsing utensils and the type of container used for aggregation of milk was either a bucket/pail or milking machine. In both instances the milk was emptied intermittently into a storage can of bigger volume after the collection container was about filled. The fact that more than one container was used increases the hazard of milk taint by increasing the surface country to which milk is being exposed particularly if the containers are non cleaned with germicide. Hence milking pattern in little genteelness farm was really hapless and had a higher chance of taint.
Milk from mastitis cow is extremely colonized by bacteriums and harmonizing to guidelines it should be rejected and disposed off from healthy animate beings to forestall taint ( AREU, 2007 ) . The survey reveals that little breeders were incognizant of mastitis and were more likely to milk their cow in instance of unhealthy bag. Such pattern is non safe since it increases the hazard of majority milk taint and its ingestion poses a serious job for human wellness.
Established guidelines show that disease animate beings should be separated from the healthy 1. This is an of import biosecurity step in instance of infective disease and besides to place the disease animate being at milking clip so that the septic animate being is milked individually. However the consequences of the study indicate that 85 % respondents were non dividing the ill animate beings from the healthy 1. In instance of contagious mastitis which is spread through contact with septic cowss instead than from the environment, such pattern will do infection in the whole herd.
“ Precaution is better than remedy ” , this adage applies good on farm. Harmonizing to guidelines it is important to hold a wellness attention plan on farm. It is necessary to on a regular basis look into animate beings for marks of disease in order to forestall spread of disease among animate beings. The survey indicates that in the little graduated table farms there are no proper animate being wellness attention because the animate beings are less likely to be visited on a regular basis by veterinaries. In carnal production it is excessively late to set about actions foremost when clinical marks of disease have developed. Therefore, wellness control strategy should be established and command steps used that continuously aim at disease bar in order to avoid wellness jobs ( Zessin K.H, 2002 ) .
Waste direction in farm is an of import point to be considered. At present, the cow droppings is left inside the shed, piled up on the land and left to decompose, pulling flies, cockroaches and other varmint and fouling the floor. In some instances the cow droppings is washed out and left prohibitionist in the backyard making a most unhealthy state of affairs ( GEF, 2006 ) . Such pattern on farms is a existent nuisance and can be deleterious to public wellness.
The isolation of calves and bred heifers from contact with mature animate beings is an of import direction pattern that helps cut down the spread of infective disease among age groups ( Ruegg P.L, 2006 ) . The survey show that the medium and big graduated table breeders do non comprehend the importance of dividing calves from older animate beings. Almost all respondents reported that the present figure of animate beings was same as the figure of animate beings that the cow shed can suit. There were no separate pregnancy pens or calf pens in the little graduated table genteelness farm and the calves were kept together with the older animate beings. This besides implies that the calves are exposed to manure from grownup cowss. Hence this can do infections with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in calves, taking to incurable diarrhoea and lessening in weight.
Chapter 6: Recommendations
- Veterinary services play a cardinal function in guaranting that animate beings are kept under hygienic conditions and in early sensing, surveillance and intervention of animate being diseases, including conditions of public wellness significance. This can be achieved through consciousness run, educational plans and preparation. Veterinary services may besides supply farm animal manufacturers with information, advice and preparation on how to avoid, extinguish or command nutrient safety jeopardies, illustration drug and pesticide residues, mycotoxins, environmental contaminations, in primary production, including through animate being provender. Manufacturers ‘ organisations, peculiarly those with veterinary advisers, can supply consciousness and preparation as they are in regular contact with husbandmans and understand their precedences.
- Quality production can be achieved merely if husbandmans are compelled to make so. In order to be competitory and to derive market value for merchandises, it is obvious that husbandmans need to pay particular attending and use hygienic patterns to bring forth safe and quality merchandises. This can be achieved through announcement of Torahs that contribute on an effectual nutrient regulative authorization and that enables it to publish and implement criterions and other regulative demands for nutrient and agricultural merchandises
- Fiscal AIDSs will certainly promote smallholders to purchase equipments and to better build the cowbarns so that they can supply the necessary conditions, comfortss and installations in the farm. Therefore enabling the breeders to pattern farming in a better environment and with better installations.
- However, to avoid the failure of these advancing steps, a coincident measure would be to implement a system of milk payment linked to its hygienic quality. To be sustainable, this system should be just and extended to all milks delivered by husbandmans.
Chapter 7: Decision
This survey confirms that healthful conditions in little genteelness farm are hapless and they do non profit to the full from the veterinary services. Data clearly indicate that milk quality with respects to milking patterns, under current conditions in dairy cowss engendering farms, can be linked to the type of engendering farm, and it is affected by milking patterns. All together, these consequences show that pressing steps are needed to guarantee safe milk at farm degree, by the publicity of good hygiene patterns. These would sooner concentrate on efficient cleansing of vass, custodies, bag and the whole edifice installations with appropriate detergents and H2O. These steps should be applied massively because this standard remains really hapless in the bulk of dairy genteelness farms.
- Ackbarally N, 2009, White “ Gold ” , Technical Centre for Agricultural and rural cooperation ( CTA ) .http: //spore.cta.int/index.php? option=com_content & A ; task=view & A ; id=1067 & A ; catid=12 [ Accessed on 5 Nov 2009 ]
- Ananthanarayan R, Paniker C K J, 2000, Textbook of Microbiology, 6th edition, Orient Longman Ltd, Chennai.
- Anon, 2009a, Strategic Plan 2008-2011, Food Security Fund Committee, Ministry of Agro Industry, Food Production and Security.http: //www.gov.mu/portal//goc/moa/file/straplan.pdf [ Accessed on 13 Nov 2009 ]
- Anon, 2009b, A advocate ‘s usher to Preliminary Environmental Report ( PER ) Department of environment, Ministry of Environment and Natioanl development Unit. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gov.mu/portal/goc/menv/files/propguidePER % 20011009.pdf )
- AREU, 2007a, Guidelines to Cowkeeeping
- AREU, 2007b, Strategic Options in Crop Diversification and farm animal Sector ( 2007-2015 ) Publication – Livestock 2005. Ministry of Agro Industry and piscaries. Pg 68-69. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.areu.mu/files/pub/areunssp.pdf )
- Barberg A.E, Endres M.I, Salfer J.A, Reneau J.K, 2007. Performance and public assistance of dairy Cows in an Alternative Housing System in Minnesota. J. Dairy Sci, 90 ( 3 ) , 1575-1583. hypertext transfer protocol: //jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/90/3/1575.pdf
- Boyles S, Livestock and H2O, Ohio State University Extension.Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //beef.osu.edu/library/water.html
- Christiansson A, Bertilsson J, Svensson B,1999, Bacillus Cereus Spores in Raw Milk: Factors Affecting the Contamination of Milk During the Grazing Period, J Dairy Sci, 82, 305-314. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dairy-science.org/cgi/reprint/82/2/305
- Codex Alimentarius Commission ( CAC ) , 2004, Code of hygienic pattern for milk and milk merchandises. www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/ … /CXP_057e.pdf
- Compton C.W.R, Rhodes M.F, McDougall S, 2008, Consideration of on farm commissariats for natural milk production. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nzfsa.govt.nz/dairy/publications/reports/mcdougall-report.pdf
- Council for Agricultural Science and Technology ( CAST ) , 2004, Intervention Strategies for the Microbiological Safety of Foods of Animal Origin, Issue paper No25. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cast-science.org/websiteUploads/publicationPDFs/interventionstrategies.pdf
- CSO, 2009, Digest of Agricultural Statistics 2008, Central Statistic Office, Ministry of Finance and Economic Empowerment. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gov.mu/portal/goc/cso/report/natacc/agri08/agri08.pdf )
- Definition of sanitation. Online dictionary hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thefreedictionary.com/sanitation
- Ellis-Iversen J, Smith R.P, Winden S.V, Paiba G.A, Watson E, Snow L.C, Cook A. J.C,2007, Farm patterns to command E. coli O157 in immature cowss – A randomized controlled test, Vet.Res, 39 ( 1 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.vetres.org/index.php? option=article & A ; access=standard & A ; Itemid=129 & A ; url=/articles/vetres/pdf/2008/01/v07154.pdf
- Fadlelmoula A.A. , Anacker G. , Fahr R.D. and Swalve H.H. , 2007, The Management Practices Associated With Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Large Scale Dairy Farms in Thuringia, Germany, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 ( 4 ) , 751-755. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.insipub.com/ajbas/751-755.pdf
- FAO, 2009, The province of nutrient and agribusiness 2009, farm animal in the balance, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.http: //www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0680e/i0680e00.htm
- FAO/IDF, 2004, Guide to good dairy agriculture pattern, Rome. file transfer protocol: //ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y5224e/y5224e00.pdf
- Ferraud C,1995, Recent developments in the nutrition of herbivores, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on the nutrition of Herbivores, France, Pg 11-15
- Food Standard Agency ( FSA ) , 2006, Milk hygiene on the dairy farm, A Practical Guide for Milk Producers. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/animalhealth/publications/Dairy/GuideSpring06.pdf
- Gallic Buiatrics Association ( EBF ) , 2009, European Buiatrics Forum, Palais du Pharo, Marseille. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buiatricsforum.com/proceedings09.pdf
- Galton, D. M. , L. G. Petersson, and W. G. Merrill. 1986. Effectss of premilking udder readying patterns on bacterial counts in milk and on nipples. J. Dairy Sci. 69, 260-266. hypertext transfer protocol: //jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/69/1/260
- GEF,2006, Biogas Production for the Ecological and Economic Treatment of Cattle Waste, hypertext transfer protocol: //sgp.undp.org/web/projects/10442/biogas_production_for_the_ecological_and_economic_treatment_of_cattle_waste.html
- Heera M.K,2008, An appraisal of cardinal traits lending to the productiveness of a small-scale dairy farm in Mauritius, BSc Dissertation, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius
- Johnston A M, 2000, Animal wellness and nutrient safety, British Medical Bulletin, 56 ( 1 ) , 51-61. hypertext transfer protocol: //bmb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/56/1/51.pdf
- Kamalam S, 2005, Esssentials in community Health Nursing Practice, 1rst erectile dysfunction. New Delhi, India, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd.http: //books.google.mu
- Kaplan M.M, Abdussalam M, Bijlenja G, 1962, Diseases transmitted through milk, Food and Agriculture Organisation and World Health Organisation, Switzerland. hypertext transfer protocol: //whqlibdoc.who.int/monograph/WHO_MONO_48_ % 28p11 % 29.pdf
- Lafarge V, Ogier J.C, Girard V, Maladen V, Leveau J.Y, Gruss A, Delacroix-Buchet A, 2004, Raw Cow Milk Bacterial Population Shifts Attributable to Refrigeration, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70 ( 9 ) , 5644-5650 hypertext transfer protocol: //aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/70/9/5644
- Lejeune J.T, Besser T.E, Hancock D, 2001, Cattle Water Troughs as Reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 67 ( 7 ) ,3053-3057. hypertext transfer protocol: //aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/67/7/3053? maxtoshow= & A ; hits=10 & A ; RESULTFORMAT= & A ; fulltext=cfu & A ; searchid=1 & A ; FIRSTINDEX=1940 & A ; resourcetype=HWFIG
- Murphy S.C. and Boor, K.J. ; 2000. Trouble-shooting beginnings and causes of high bacteriums counts in milk. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. , 20: 606-611. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.extension.org/pages/Sources_and_Causes_of_High_Bacteria_Counts_in_Raw_Milk: _An_Abbreviated_Review
- OIE, 2006, Guide to good agriculture patterns for carnal production nutrient safety, Rev.sci. tech. Off.int.Epiz, 25 ( 2 ) , 823-836. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eau.ee/~viltrop/VPH_GFP.pdf )
- OIE, 2008, Food safety.http: //www.oie.int/ENG/ressources/Food_EN_final.pdf
- Ratess, 2004, Review of the Dairy Industry in Mauritius, Regional Agricultural Trade Expansion Support Program, Final Report. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dairyafrica.com/documents/Mauritius % 20Dairy % 20Sector % 20Study % 20Final % 20Report % 20- % 20June % 202004.pdf
- Ruegg P.L, Hoe F.G.H, 2006, Opinions and Practices of Wisconsin Dairy Producers About Biosecurity and Animal Well-Being, J.Dairy Sci, 89 ( 6 ) , 2297-2308.http: //jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/89/6/2297.pdf
- Ruegg P.L,2003, Practical Food Safety Interventions for Dairy Production, J.Dairy Sci, Vol.86.http: //jds.fass.org/cgi/content/full/86/13_suppl/E1 # SEC3
- Sibartie D, 2001, Infectious diseases of the farm animal in Mauritius, unpub. hypertext transfer protocol: //mva.intnet.mu/articles.htm
- Szwarc S, 2009, The natural milk argument – assisting parents wade through the milk scientific discipline. hypertext transfer protocol: //junkfoodscience.blogspot.com/2009/01/raw-milk-debate-helping-parents-wade.html
- TAN X, JIANG Y, HUANG Y, HU S, 2009. Continuity of Garamycin residues in milk after the intramammary intervention of breastfeeding cattles for mastitis. J Zhejiang Univ Sci, 10 ( 4 ) , 280-284. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666204/pdf/JZUSB10-0280.pdf
- Tauxe, R. V. 1997. Emerging foodborne diseases: an germinating public wellness challenge. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:425-434. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640074/pdf/9366593.pdf
- Warwick E J, Legates T.E, 1979, Breeding and betterment of farm animate beings, TMH edition, McGraw-Hill.
- WHO, 1962, Milk Hygiene, World Health Organisation, Monograph Series, No48. hypertext transfer protocol: //whqlibdoc.who.int/monograph/WHO_MONO_48.pdf
- Yirsaw A.W,2004, Bacteriological Quality of bovine milk in little holder dairy farms in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University, MSc Thesis. hypertext transfer protocol: //etd.aau.edu.et/dspace/bitstream/123456789/472/1/ALEHEGNE % 20WUBETE % 20YIRSAW.pdf
- Zessin K.H, 2002, Implications of globalization on hygienic steps in carnal disease control, Keynote paper, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tropentag.de/2002/abstracts/full/304.pdf
- Bonnier P, Maas A, Rijks J, 2004, Agrodok 14 Dairy Cattle Husbandry, 2nd erectile dysfunction, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.journeytoforever.org/farm_library/AD14.pdf
- Petersson-Wolfe C.S, Mullarly I.K, Jones G.M, Virginia, Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis: Cause, sensing, and control. Polytechnic Institute and State University. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.extension.org/pages/Staphylococcus_aureus_Mastitis: _Cause, _Detection, _and_Control
- Elmoslemany A.M, Keefe G.P, Dohoo I.R, Jayarao B.M, 2009, Risk Factors for bacteriological quality of majority armored combat vehicle milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part2: Bacteria count-specific hazard factors, J.Dairy Sci, 92 ( 6 ) , 2644-2652. hypertext transfer protocol: //jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/92/6/2644
- Yagoub S.O, Awadalla N.E, El Zubeir I E.M, 2005, Incidence of Some Potential Pathogens in Raw Milk in Khartoum North ( Sudan ) and Their Susceptibility to Antimicrobial Agents, Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4 ( 3 ) , 341-344. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/java/2005/341-344.pdf
- Krishna industries, Manufacturer and exporter of dairy equipments. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.busiverse.com/dairyproducts/