Tourism depends extremely on the environment which consists of both natural and semisynthetic environment. The natural environment consists of beaches, seas, mountains, lakes and woods whereas the semisynthetic environment consists of historic metropoliss, heritage edifices, memorials and so on. The primary touristry resource base consists of the natural and semisynthetic environments which are indispensable for the touristry merchandise and if the environment degrades touristry will extremely worsen.
Tourism consists of both international and domestic tourers. Tourists look after attractive environment, recreational and clean resources and civilization but they require other resources such as adjustment, conveyance installations, stores, eating houses and other services which bring physical alterations to the finish and it includes the enlargement of the built environment.
Domestic touristry histories for about 80 per cent of all tourer activity therefore many states tend to prioritise international touristry.
Harmonizing to Pancic, Kombol ( 2000 ) touristry resources are defined as the agencies which can be utilized for the touristry sector in a given country. The primary touristry resources are possible and existent touristry attractive forces.
Djukic ( 1999 ) stated that ‘Natural touristry resources consist of all natural elements and factors that possess a high grade of attraction and that reflect their geographical environment and can be valorised for touristry intents ‘
Most surveies have highlighted the fact that most tourist travel for the 3 S that is sun, sea and sand and that finishs focus on marketing the 3s ‘ in order to pull more tourers for illustration Barbados and St. Lucia are finishs where the traditional sun-sea-sand touristry is typical. There are sea activities like rowing, rafting, and fishing, kayaking and canoeing which attract tourers to finishs.
However there are other activities such as mountain climbing, stone mounting, paragliding, eco-tourism, spelaeology which are developing quickly. Nevertheless there are other signifiers of touristry which are turning quickly such as winter mountain touristry, ecotourism, nature-based mass touristry and heritage touristry.
Coastal countries offer broad scopes of landscapes, utilizations and activities. Harmonizing to Dragicevic, Klaric and Kusen ( 1997 ) coasts account for most touristry activities therefore are the most of import resources of nautical parts. Beachs link the land to the sea and are the chief factor which attracts tourer every bit good as locals to coastal countries ; hence beaches play an of import function in pulling people to a finish. Beachs can be classified into the undermentioned classs: sandy beaches, pebble beaches, rock slab beaches and beaches covered in grass. Sandy beaches which are situated in lagunas are extremely valued in the touristry sector.
Seawater is an of import natural resource in footings of touristry. Its ‘ temperature, salt every bit good as its transparence are the belongingss both physical and chemical which determines the value of saltwater as a touristry resource. There are other belongingss of saltwater which have an impact on invitee behaviour, those belongingss are moving ridges and tides and if the H2O is clean all these belongingss will be valorized.
The function of ocean floor which is a natural resource is turning bit by bit as it is linked to plunging and submerged activities of the touristry industry.
Islands are of import resources for nautical touristry, they are extremely valued environmentally and are preserved countries and harmonizing to Mikacic ( 1995 ) they represent the strategic potency of the touristry trade.
Tourism can hold both negative and positive impacts on the environment. Tourism activities can do environmental debasement but it can besides lend to an bing state of affairs which has been caused by the local population.
The chief negative environmental impacts of touristry have been identified as doing force per unit area on natural resources, pollution and bring forthing a batch of waste and damaging the ecosystem.
Pollution is extremely present and it is largely a consequence of waste disposal. The impact on pollution of touristry trade and marine vas is increasing while that of production industries is diminishing.
Tourism every bit good as the substructures that it requires can hold negative impacts on the Marine, coastal, tellurian ecosystem and drinkable H2O resources. Most of the impacts are generated by improper direction of liquid, solid waste and waste H2O.
The touristry sector has an impact on the environment in footings of solid waste coevals, physical harm to corals from frogmans and from boat ground tackles, every bit good as sand compression from the heavy use of beaches by tourers and vehicles. The touristry industry generates significant sums of solid waste and this has direct and indirect impacts on the environment. Ship-generated refuse besides forms portion of the solid waste which is generated by the touristry industry. Plastics play a great function in the decease and maiming of Marine animate beings and other impairment in the Marine and coastal environments. Beachs are polluted and there are broken glass or bottles every bit good as tins improperly disposed on beaches which injure tourers every bit good as local occupants.
Liquid waste is one of the chief impacts on the environment generated from the touristry industry. Liquid waste is disposed in the sea and the touristry industry generates a big sum of untreated liquid waste from hotels, eating houses, sloping of oil in the sea from sail ships and weedkillers, pesticides and fertilisers from resort landscape gardening and golf class. For illustration in Barbados, hotels situated on the seashore have contributed extremely to the debasement of the environment.
Pollution of the sea besides includes the debut of pathogens in the H2O which can hold a negative impact on the wellness of tourers and occupants which uses the coastal recreational resources. The bacterium can besides assail corals therefore suppressing their growing.
The gasoline used in recreational vehicles and the effects of the decomposition of Sns and bottles are really harmful to aquatic workss every bit good as the wildlife. The building of touristry installations on the seashore leads to the coevals of dust and particulate affairs which may hold a negative impact on the marine environment and may besides do noise pollution.
Wilkinson ( 1989 ) stated that ‘The concentration of big substructure and resort composites along delicate coastlines has destroyed Rhizophora mangles and beaches and caused laguna pollution from sand excavation, dredging, and sewerage dumping ‘ . There are besides deforestation, trees are being cut down for the development of hotels or marinas.
Pollution of beaches has led to the closing of many beaches in recent old ages for illustration in the 1980s more than 80 million dozenss of refuse was gathered during the one-year beach clean-ups.
The chief environmental impacts of touristry on the beach and the sea are generated by congestion, pollution and eroding. As mentioned earlier pollution every bit good as eroding can raise by touristry activities but they are n’t the exclusive effect of the touristry industry.
Congestion and beach overcrowding can take to sand compression which can hold negative impacts on Marine animals every bit good as beach visible radiations which act as pollution. Beach sand compression can be caused by recreational vehicles.
Coral reefs are of import touristry resources for plunging and they provide protection for the shoreline during storms. Therefore coral reefs can be physically damaged by boat ground tackles and frogmans.
Erosion is a consequence of abuse of beaches both by tourer and local occupants. Beach nutriment is to put sand on an gnawing beach and it costs between $ 1 million and
$ 10 million to set sand on one stat mi of beach. Sand which is taken from tidal recesss
can increase eroding. There are some beaches which have been restored with hapless
quality deposit dwelling of clay, stone, and interrupt shell fragments. In some beaches the seashore value is worsening in footings of being a resource in the touristry industry as the sand is vanishing due to urban development of the seashore.
Most of the impacts of touristry on coastlines have been negative due to inadequate planning and this includes sand-mining for building, coastal eroding from coastal technology plants and the building and care of breakwaters, inguens, wharfs and piers, dredging and spoil disposal.
Some positive impacts generated by touristry:
The preservation of natural countries every bit good as biodiversity through Nature heritage touristry.
Development and execution new engineerings which can minimise touristry ‘s impact on the environment and widen the preservation of natural resources.
Constitution of direction ordinances and certificate organic structures in order to pull off touristry environmental issues
Therefore there should be a proper planning to pull off environmental impacts of touristry and keep the beaches decently in order to go on to pull tourers on the long term.