Differences between the Bible and its Ancient Near Eastern Parallels

The creative activity narrative in the Bible Begins with God as the Godhead and is ageless, without a beginning or terminal, His being is ageless, God is the Godhead of this existence. There are many similar narratives of creative activity presented in the Genesis and in enuma elish that believes that creative activity involves the so goddess Tiamat. Harmonizing to the Bible The creative activity started and was completed in seven yearss as besides depicted by the Genesis. The Bible nowadayss that God created the Eden and Earth on twenty-four hours one, the Earth was merely darkness, God created light and detached visible radiation from darkness to call it twenty-four hours and dark. This is in analogue to the survey of Genesis in which some similarities are shown as the creative activity narrative in enuma elish is presented, it states that, there is godly spirit that created the existence, so came the creative activity of H2O, The Hebrews called it Deep and the Babylonians called it Tiamat which means deep, so came the creative activity of dry land, so the creative activity of adult male and last the Godhead spirit rested after making adult male both, Genesis version and the Babylonian versions of creative activity are similar and parallel to that mentioned in the Bible. Harmonizing to the Bible God is the shaper and Godhead of the existence, as written in the Genesis first God created heaven and earth, twenty-four hours and dark ( Gen.1:1-5 ) , He caused the universe out of nil, so He made twenty-four hours and dark on the 2nd twenty-four hours, ( Gen:1:6-8 ) , on the 3rd twenty-four hours He separated the H2O and dry land and ordered trees and fruits to turn, ( Gen.1:9-13 ) , yearss, old ages, and seasons flushing and forenoon were made on the 4th twenty-four hours. ( Gen.1:14-19 ) , besides sun Moon and stars were made, animals started looking on the 5th twenty-four hours, ( Gen.20-23 ) , along with all sorts of animals God made male and female, He made adult male out of dust and breathed life in him through his anterior nariss and adult male became a life being. ( Gen.2:7 ) in all the analogues the adult male is the last creative activity, this is the 6th twenty-four hours of creative activity on the 7th twenty-four hours God takes a remainder from all the work, He blessed the 7th twenty-four hours the completion of creative activity. ( Gen.2:1-3 ) .this survey is a parallel to the Bible as it tells the same narrative. The Genesis and Bible are monotheistic and Babylonian version is polytheistic this is an of import difference.

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The chief difference between the Bible and its Ancient Near Eastern Parallels, harmonizing to narratives is that Bible says adult male was made from clay and is dominant on all life animals. The Babylonian say that adult male was made from the blood of Gods so adult male can function Gods and do their work. The Sumerian version says adult male springs out of the Earth and is made of clay, the Mesopotamians believe that homo was conceived by a Godhead male parent harmonizing to Bible and Genesis, it says God created merely one human brace and all human existences are descended from the brace, there is a difference in the ancient analogues as to the work of adult male, they believe adult male was created to make Gods work so they can rest whereas Bible relates otherwise, it says adult male was created to rule all living existences The chief focal point of the Bible is on the narrative of Noah and Exodus the book after the Genesis is about the remotion of Hebrew people from Egypt. The Bible besides says that Moses was the right adult male in God & A ; rsquo ; s eyes and Moses is chosen to take the Hebrew people out of subjugation in Egypt. The Exodus narrates the narratives from the Egyptian, Assyrian, Canaanites and Babylonian civilizations.

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One of the most common inundation narratives is the Biblical inundation, the narrative of Noah & A ; rsquo ; s Ark and in another similar inundation narrative is the Epic of Gilgamesh, in both the narratives the ground for making inundation was to penalize world. Bible and its Ancient Eastern Parallels show similarity the Bible and Koran both have inundation narratives and these are known by the whole universe, The difference in this analogues is that in Koran, Noah asked God to deluge the Earth, in the Bible God told Noah about his program to deluge the Earth because of adult male & A ; rsquo ; s corruptnesss and wickednesss.

In Gilgamesh the inundation is seen in a dream by Utnapishtim and he is told that the universe will be flooded because of adult male & A ; rsquo ; s wickednesss. The narratives of these civilizations are the Near Eastern Parallels to the Bible, in all these the Godhead power destroys adult male, the secret is told to a hero and he takes his household and life animals with him and the boat rests on a mountain, a bird is sent out.

Narratives of creative activity and the inundations are stated in the cultural heritage of Ancient Near East, there are similarities and differences in the foundation narratives told in the Egyptian, Iranian, Greek, and Hebrew Cultures, the physical construction of the existence as outlined in the Genesis analogues to the Near Eastern civilization and the Bible reflects many facets of the Mesopotamian civilization. The other country of Near East is Arabia which has a great influence on the Bible, the fable of the Garden of Eden depicts the desert oasis with rivers fluxing out of nowhere and emptying in the desert sands.In the Bible the Prophetss frequently refer to the mobile life of their people.The Bible has many characters who are like the Arabs, for case Jephthal is more an Arab than an Israelite, his forfeit of his girl is parallel to the Arabian Custom. This analogue shows that Arabia had a batch of influence on the Bible and it is the back land of Hebrew faith.

The basic one subject is that God is the Creator and shaper of all that is in the Universe, in the Genesis chapter one it is said all flesh is non the same, work forces have one sort of flesh, animate beings have another and birds have another and fish have another, God has given organic structure to all and has given different flesh to all. God is the starting motor of clip, infinite, life of adult male and animate beings, God & A ; rsquo ; s sovereignty is over all things, birds relate to the universe in different mode than do the workss, adult male reacts otherwise to God than do the animate beings. This is the Biblical difference that is core of all that is made by the creator.The Bible is the Truth that we all

accept it. The Bible relates all that God does or orders to be done these are the analogues of Near Eastern cultures. The Hebrew Bible has strong parallel to the Ancient Near East civilizations. Mesopotamian civilization is present in the Bible, evidences show that cultural thoughts and imposts are present in the Bible and literature of the Bible is dependent on the literatures of the dominant civilizations this is apparent to Old Testament imposts and traditions, Bible has been dependent on disclosures and inspirations therefore there are many similarities and differences that are seen in the Bible and the Near Eastern analogues. The survey of literature

of the Near East is necessary in order to do the cultural values, the Bible is influenced by these civilizations. The civilization of the Near East is parallel to the Biblical civilization.

Mesopotamian civilization is depicted in the Bible, as texts were added to the Bible it was full of Hagiographas, the thoughts were echt and parallel to the old testament as it were from the Mesopotamian origin.The Bible is besides influenced by the Assyriology, and Egyptology as both are the Near East civilizations.

Exodus is the book of Pentateuch harmonizing to the Hebrew Bible, it is continuance of Genesis, it was written by Mosss, Israel was in Egypt during that period, the book starts with Mosss, his life, his work, Mosses was a great leader, as God chooses him to take the Hebrew people off from the Egyptian people as they were treated severely and cruelly by them. Moses tries to acquire his people free from the Egyptians for making this he has to confront many adversities and forfeits. His religion is tested many times and God was ever at that place to assist him and God helped Mosss with miracles, this narrative is parallel to the Near East stories.The

Pentateuch is written by Mosses, and it is accepted as the & A ; lsquo ; truth & A ; rsquo ; , the narrative of Mosses is a parallel to the Biblical narrative, God says to Mosses to assist the Hebrew people and God asked him to idolize him on the mountain he was standing on and God said he was at that place to assist him, these narratives are similar to the narratives mentioned in different Near Eastern civilizations.

Moses lived in Midian, he a was a simple adult male, shepherd in Midian now he was given a undertaking

By God, which he had to carry through, Mosses was called by God and given the undertaking, this is in analogue to Bible as God ever calls people. The narratives of Jesus in the Gospels are based on the Gilgamesh Epic, and the passion of Christ was based on Marduk, these narratives are parallel to the Near Eastern narratives. In Babylonian civilization a myth ical adult male named Adapa is found, which is similar to the narrative of the fallen adult male Adam of the Biblical literature. Both Adam and Adapa had gained cognition of power that was Godhead and this cognition caused Adapa to interrupt the wings of the air current and, Adam and Eve were tempted by this cognition, to go like God, cognizing approximately good and evil, by eating from the out fruit, both were punished for disobeying.Adapa fell really ill and suffered from diseases, Adam was to labor and see Eve endure the hurting of kid birth. These narratives are parallel to the Biblical narratives. Therefore, the survey of the Near Eastern cultures assist us to happen the differences and similarities to understand Bible.


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Durant.Will, The Story of Civilization Our Oriental Heritage ( 1942 )

Published by Simon and Schuster ( pg. 294-349 ) .

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