The first subdivision defines research design along-with its significance in set abouting a research. The 2nd subdivision focal points on specific research design methods employed in the aggregation of both primary and secondary informations. The information sing informations analysis, reading and certification is discussed in the last subdivision.

2.2 Research Design

Similar to foundation of a construction, research design represents foundation of a research. If foundation of a edifice is suitably designed, the construction will stay stable for longer period of clip. Similarly, if research design is explicitly elaborated, there will be good opportunities of completion of research without any ambiguity.

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IAR ( 2007 ) defines research design as:

“ a program sketching how information is to be gathered for an appraisal or rating that includes placing the informations assemblage method ( s ) , the instruments to be used/created, how the instruments will be administered, and how the information will be organized and analyzed.. ”

The specific research design is as follows:

Topic Selection

Choice of Case Study Area

Extensive Literature Survey

Secondary Data Acquisition

Primary Data Acquisition

Datas Analysis

Report Writing

2.3 Topic Choice

Before choosing the subject of research, particular attending was given to some basic parametric quantities such as, research worker ‘s personal involvement, handiness of literature, methods of researching, awaited clip period, and opportunities of completion within prescribed clip period. A checklist enlisting the hot town planning issues was prepared after holding a figure of treatments with research adviser. After integrating the indicated parametric quantities, the checklist was filled in with available information. Therefore, ‘Kerbside Parking Management in Lahore ‘ was eventually selected as a subject of research as it fulfilled the full demands for a valid research survey.

2.4 Choice of Case Study Area

General to specific attack is necessary to carry on a research survey in an efficient mode. Choice of instance survey country accommodating the demands of research is a hard undertaking. The topic under survey, as already described, selects Lahore City since it is considered to be most debatable among other metropoliss. The City District Government Lahore, as per degeneration program, is divided into nine towns viz. Ravi Town, Shalimar Town, Wagha Town, Aziz Bhatti Town, Data Ganj Baksh Town, Gulberg Town, Samanabad Town, Iqbal Town, and Nishtar Town.

Some parametric quantities were kept in head during the choice of instance survey town including auto ownership rate, figure of high-rise edifices, cardinal location with regard to other towns of Lahore, grade of traffic congestion, literacy rate, etc. In add-on to the prescribed parametric quantities, penchant was given to such town about which basic information was readily available. Therefore, sing these parametric quantities, Gulberg Town was eventually selected as a instance survey country.

2.5 Extensive Literature Survey

It is really strenuous and time-consuming constituent of a research survey. It is normally consulted at about each and every phase of research. In the context of present research, the literature implying construct of kerbside parking direction, different techniques to efficaciously pull off kerbside parking issues in position of international experiences have been extracted through several on-line beginnings. Methodological triangulation has besides been adopted to guarantee maximal dependability.

2.6 Secondary Data Acquisition

By and large, it included informations from different secondary beginnings such as books, authorities studies, encyclopaedias, booklets, magazines, articles, research diaries, newspapers, and online beginnings, etc. Specific secondary informations included:

List of authorised parking sites in Lahore

Map of City District Lahore

List of authorised parking sites in Gulberg Town

Facts and Figures about Gulberg Town

Map of Gulberg Town

2.7 Primary Data Collection

2.7.1 Reconnaissance study

At the oncoming of study stage, a reconnaissance or preliminary study was carried out in the instance survey countries for the general apprehension of the landuses and for going familiar with the country. In this connexion, the instance study country was studied in item and the salient characteristics were noted down with the purpose that no trouble will be faced during the subsequent stages of informations aggregation. Google Earth Software was used for in-house workings.

2.7.2 Profile & A ; mapping study

Upon the completion of reconnaissance study, profile and function study was carried out to place the location and to fix a descriptive profile of authorised parking sites situated in Gulberg Town. The bing geographic location of each authorized parking site was recorded on the base map in the presence of concerned parking inspectors. The information noted on base map was so verified utilizing Google Earth Software before reassigning it into digitized format. Sufficient Numberss of exposure were besides taken for each parking site. Whereas, information on the following specific facets was collected from parking contractors and through personal observation:

Parking Provision ( cars/ motorcycles /both )

Location ( service road/ route ) ,

Topology ( individual sided/ double sided )

Operating Timings

2.7.3 Criteria for choice of parking sites for elaborate study

Before carry oning the elaborate probe, specific parking sites were selected on the footing of random trying technique sing the undermentioned parametric quantities:

Geographic location ( central/non-central )

Degree of jobs ( less / more )

Parking proviso ( cars/bikes )

Regulative authorization ( CDGL/TMA )

Location ( service road/road )

Topology ( individual sided/double sided ) , etc

The premier purpose of this exercising was that kerbside parking in every possible signifier be covered under elaborate probe. As an acceptable representative of 39 parking sites, 9 parking sites were selected for elaborate probe ( which corresponds to a sample size of 23.07 % ) .

2.7.4 Traffic count study

The traffic count study was conducted in peak hr chiefly for selected parking sites located on the route with uni-directional flow of traffic. The chief intent of this study was to mensurate the influence of kerbside parking on smooth traffic flow. In concurrence with this study, a study was prepared to bespeak the size of parking site, carriageway breadth and way of traffic flow.

Measurement of traffic impact on route with uni-directional traffic flow

The traffic impact can be measured in this instance by ‘with ‘ and ‘without ‘ scenario.


Ten = clear breadth of carriageway ( in pess )

Y = Encroached breadth of parking ( in pess )

Z = traffic volume go throughing through the affected carriageway breadth ( X-Y )

Figure: 2.1: Traffic Flow in Presence of Kerbside Parking


Parking Site

Reduced Traffic flow

X – Yttrium



ZX/ ( X-Y ) = traffic volume go throughing through the clear carriageway breadth ( X )


Increased Traffic FlowFigure 2.2: Traffic Flow in Absence of Kerbside Parking


Figure 2.2 strengths the premise that absence of kerbside parking from a route with uni-directional traffic flow may ensue in significant addition in traffic volume.

For the intent of analysis, entire count against each manner was so multiplied with the standard values of Passenger Car Unit ( PCU ) in order to determine the several traffic volume. The PCU factors as prescribed in National Reference Manual on planning and substructure criterions ( NRM ) were used.

2.7.5 Interview with passerby drivers

Drivers were besides engaged in the procedure of primary informations aggregation to acquire to cognize about other type of impacts of kerbside parking. For this intent, indiscriminately chosen sample of 20 drivers on each selected parking site was interviewed. Following inquiries were chiefly asked from drivers ( for inside informations, see Annexure ___ ) :

Frequency of go throughing through specific section of route

Problems caused by specific parking site

Speed decrease

Probability of accidents caused by specific parking site

Opinion about continuity of specific parking site, etc

2.7.6 Interview with Parkers

Interviews were besides conducted from Parkers at each selected parking site to acquire to cognize about their perceptual experience on kerbside parking issues. For this intent, indiscriminately chosen sample of 20 Parkers per selected site was interviewed. Following inquiries were asked from Parkers ( for inside informations. see Annexure ____ ) :

Frequency of use

Payment for parking infinite

Purpose of visit to that country

Duration of parking

Main benefits of parking the vehicle

Problems caused by the specific parking site

Length of cruising clip, etc

2.7.7 Interview with traffic wardens

Traffic wardens were besides interviewed for each selected site about jobs caused by kerbside parking and suggestions for the betterment. ( for inside informations, see Annexure ____ ) .

2.7.8 Interview with parking contractors

For each selected parking site, information on the undermentioned facets was collected from parking contractors:

Size of parking site

Being of site limits

Employee turnover ( Entire vehicles parked during operating times / available parking infinites )

Parking angle

Presence of parking information and way-finders.

2.7.9 Interview with authorities functionaries

The input from concerned authorities functionaries was besides taken though structured interviews. An interview checklist ( for inside informations, see Annexure____ ) was developed beforehand and functionaries were asked different inquiries such as,

Limit of boundaries of parking sites

Common type of ailments from public about kerbside parking

Opinion of kerbside parking direction patterns with respect to infinite, payment, timings and enforcement mechanism

Sphere of disbursement earned gross from authorised kerbside parking, etc

2.8 Data Analysis

Finally, in the visible radiation of the aims, informations was analyzed for the intent the illations and decisions were drawn to explicate logical recommendation. The information collected both from primary and secondary beginnings was analyzed in the form of different tabular arraies and graphs. Assorted computing machine package applications such as AutoCAD, Microsoft Excel, SPSS, etc were used for this intent.

2.9 Report Writing

The authorship of research study was carried out after the information analysis and reading stage. However, all the of import observations during primary studies, treatments etc were recorded on personal noting sheet which were inserted consequently wherever necessary. Careful attending was paid to avoid cosmetic and otiose linguistic communication. In general, the composing undertaking was carried out bearing in head the aims of the research.

2.10 Research Objective Vs Method Employed

In order to guarantee maximal dependability of the methods and for the convenience of reader Table 2.1 is prepared to show the method employed against each research aim every bit good as its methodological inside informations.

Table 2.1: Research Objectives – Methods Employed

Objective #

Method Employed

Methodological Details


Observation technique

Literature hunt

Healthy treatments with research adviser


Observation technique + unstructured interview

Acquisition of City District Lahore Map

Acquisition of Gulberg Town Map

List of authorised parking sites in Lahore

List of authorised parking sites in Gulberg Town

Photographic study

Reconnaissance Survey

Designation of authorised parking sites through field reviews

Interview with contractors

Healthy treatments with research adviser


Observation + structured interviews

Choice of parking sites for elaborate probe

Interview with contractors

Traffic count study

Interviews with passerby drivers

Interview with Parkers

Interview with traffic wardens

Interview with authorities functionaries ( Gulberg TMA and CDGL )

Healthy treatments with research adviser


Contextual Review

Internet and books were used for pull outing information about different best patterns for direction of kerbside parking

Discussions with experts

Healthy treatments with research adviser


Datas Analysis

Data analysis utilizing SPSS, and Excel

Recommendations on the footing of analysis of the informations

Figure 2.3: Research Methodology at a Glance

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