The undermentioned chapter will sketch the background for the writer ‘s research undertaking and reflect upon the importance and motive behind the research utilizing a principle. The purpose and aims will be defined within this chapter, every bit good as the methodological context of the research, to specify the range of the survey.
New Zealand, or Aotearoa as it is referred to by the Maori, is located in the South Pacific Ocean, 2162km from Australia ( Immigration NZ, 2010 and CIA, 2010 ) . The state is made up of two islands, the North Island and the South Island, and has a entire land country of about 268,000 kilometers ( see Figure 1 ) .
Cooper and Hall ( 2005 ) province that New Zealand boasts a diverse and dynamic touristry industry, with its importance in the economic system highlighted by figures released by the Ministry of Tourism ( 2002 ) . The figures show that touristry in New Zealand is a NZ $ 13.2 billion industry, accounting for 9.7 % of the states GDP. One key sector of the touristry industry in New Zealand is ‘Adventure Tourism ‘ which has grown quickly in recent old ages as out-of-door diversion has become progressively commercialized ( Cooper & A ; Hall, 2005, Buckley, 2000, Travel Industry Association of America 2005 as cited in Buckley, 2006 ) .
Queenstown, marketed as ‘the escapade capital of the universe ‘ ( Tourism New Zealand, 2010 ) , is located in Otago in the south-west of New Zealand ‘s South Island ( see Figure 2 ) . The entire land country of Queenstown is 4,578km2, back uping a population of 20,000 ( Tourism New Zealand, 2010 ) .
Figure 2 – Queenstown Map
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newzealand.com/travel/Images/australiaSpring08/maps/16.jpg
Beginning: Tourism New Zealand ( 2010 )
The town lies on the western side of Lake Wakatipu, south-west of Mt Cook and south-east of Mt Aspiring. Neighbouring towns and territories include Arrowtown, Wanaka and Alexandra. Queenstown is surrounded by cragged terrain, as seen in Figure 3. Further images of Queenstown can be seen in Appendix A.
Figure 3 – Photograph of Queenstown
A position of Queenstown during the winter months
Queenstown View 2.PNG
Beginning: Destination Queenstown ( 2010 )
A position of Queenstown during the summer months
Beginning: Destination Queenstown ( 2010 )
New Zealand offers a wealth of touristry attractive forces which are centred around its natural gifts including its diverse landscape – the platform for escapade activities ( TGNZ, 2008, Cooper & A ; Hall, 2005 & A ; Buckley, 2006 ) . Tourism New Zealand ( 2009 ) uses this natural environment as a agency of marketing the popular resort of Queenstown as ‘the escapade capital of the universe ‘ .
“ It is this singular natural landscape that makes New Zealand an adventurer ‘s Eden. Mountains rise vertically from vale floors supplying countless hike, mounting and skiing chances. Fishing, golf, mountain biking, kayaking, rafting, parapenting, bungee jumping, diving and swimming are but a few of the escapades you can see in this diverse land of plentifulness ”
( Tourism New Zealand, 2009 )
The motive for the research undertaking lies in the Author ‘s involvement and experience, in both New Zealand and within the adventure leisure industry. The writer travelled to New Zealand as portion of a vacation ( November-December, 2007 ) and she has besides undertaken an industrial arrangement in the cordial reception industry in Auckland as portion of her undergraduate degree class ( July-December 2009 ) . This allowed for extended travel across New Zealand and the opportunity to take part in a assortment of adventure leisure activities. To represent, the Author has participated in 2 bungy leaps, a zorb experience, quad biking, 2 commercial jet boat drives, kayaking, dune embarkation and a luge, all of which were undertaken in New Zealand ( see Appendix B ) . The Writer has besides travelled to a series of other finishs and undertaken other escapade leisure activities such as skiing, snowboarding, offroading, plunging, rappeling, surfing and boosting.
The Author ‘s aspirations for the hereafter have besides driven this survey as she hopes to work in the touristry industry in New Zealand in the hereafter, with the possibility of developing a concern in the escapade leisure industry. This had led to the development of the undermentioned purpose for the research undertaking.
“ To measure the growing and development of the escapade leisure industry in New Zealand, utilizing Queenstown as a instance survey finish. ”
This purpose will be met by turn toing the undermentioned aims:
To place the factors that have contributed to the growing and development of the escapade leisure industry in New Zealand.
To analyze the growing and development of escapade leisure in Queenstown, New Zealand.
To critically measure the factors that have influenced the growing and development of escapade leisure in Queenstown, New Zealand and to do recommendations for the future direction of the sector at this finish.
The study will consist of five chapters, including a literature reappraisal, which will be the following focal point of the survey. The literature reappraisal will analyze and measure the secondary research which has antecedently been undertaken on Adventure Leisure and New Zealand. The subjects that will be discussed will include the theory of escapade leisure, finish development and the factors that can both lend to and endanger the growing of escapade leisure within a tourer finish such as Queenstown, New Zealand.
Following the literature reappraisal, the methodological analysis chapter will analyze the assortment of methods that can be used for research and informations aggregation and will supply a justification for the methods which have been used within the survey. A review of methods which have non been used will besides be provided in this chapter.
The consequences chapter will follow the methodological analysis and show the relevant findings from the research utilizing the subjects discussed in the literature reappraisal. An analysis and treatment of these consequences will so be made.
The penultimate chapter will reason with a critical contemplation of the findings of the survey and do recommendations for the future direction of the escapade leisure sector within New Zealand.
The reappraisal of literature purposes to discourse and analyze the literature available on the topic whilst integrating the writers own cognition to supply a elaborate background to the survey and to develop a theoretical model for the study.
The information provided within the literature reappraisal was obtained from diaries, the cyberspace, books, newspaper articles and touristry administrations.
Adventure Leisure and Adventure Tourism/History and Development
To enable an apprehension of the literature to be reviewed, it is necessary to derive a comprehensive apprehension of the term ‘Adventure Leisure ‘ .
Ewert ( 1988 as cited in Ewert & A ; Hollenhurst, 1989:125 ) defines adventure leisure as
“ A assortment of ego initiated activities using an interaction with the natural environment, that contain elements of existent or evident danger, in which the result, while unsure, can be influenced by the participant and circumstance. ”
To further underscore what is meant by the term ‘Adventure ‘ , Swanbrooke et Al ( 2007 ) summarises the nucleus features of escapade in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Core Features of Adventure
Core Characteristics of Adventure
Danger and hazard
Stimulation and exhilaration
Escape and separation
Exploration and find
Absorption and concentrate
Beginning: Swanbrooke et Al. ( 2003 ) Consumer Behaviour in Tourism
Cloutier ( 1998 ) states that over the last decennary, adventure leisure activities have become much more socially acceptable signifiers of mainstream activity.
Sung et Al. ( 2000 ) suggested a list of 48 escapade travel activities, developed from old literature ( Ewert, 1989 ; Hall, 1992 ; Speciality Travel Index, 1992 – Appendix C ) . Due to emerging tendencies and alterations within the industry a modified list of adventure leisure activities has been created ( Buckley, 2006 ) . This is shown below in Table 1.
Table 1 – Outdoor Adventure Travel Activities
Outdoor Adventure Travel Activities
Activities identified by Sung et Al. ( 2001 )
Survival and Wilderness Training
Four Wheel Drive Trips
The entreaty of the escapade market has widened, ensuing in the recognized growing to the adventure touristry industry ( Mintel, 2001, Buckley, 2006, Cloutier, 1998, Novelli, 2005 ) .
Hall and Weiler ( 1992: 143 ) provide one of the most often cited definitions of escapade touristry, which is used as a footing by faculty members such as Johnston ( 1992 ) and Sung et Al ( 1997 ) ;
“ A wide spectrum of out-of-door touristic activities, frequently commercialised and affecting an interaction with the natural environment off from the participants place scope and incorporating elements of hazard ; in which the result is influenced by the participant, puting and direction of the touristic experience ”
2.3 Adventure Leisure History
The history of leisure and diversion goes back a long manner, exemplified by the historical cognition we portion of ancient civilisations basking some signifier of amusement and diversion. For illustration, Greeks visited amphitheaters to bask comedy and play, Romans would be entertained in the Coliseum and the Bible discusses singing, dancing and music as acceptable signifiers of diversion. Weber ( 2001 ) states that escapade diversion originated from traditional out-of-door diversion, yet differs from the latter as it seeks “ hazard and uncertainness of result ” ( Ewert, 1989:8 ) . Adventures in history, such as the ocean trip of Pytheas ( c. 330 BC ) , Pizarro ‘s journey to Peru ( 1526 ) and Cook ‘s expedition to Tahiti ( 1768-71 ) , were originally associated with the geographic expedition of far-off finishs to seek for land, wealth and scientific progresss but subsequently shifted to integrate the single desires for escapade ( Weber, 2001 ) .
Due to the altering demands and wants of consumers over the past decennary and the development and reformulation that touristry as a phenomenon requires, international niche countries of touristry, such as that of Adventure Tourism, have developed ( Page, 2003 and Novelli, 2005 ) .
To understand the development of an adventure touristry finish the cardinal factors that can lend to and impede the development will now be explored.
2.4 The Environment
The usage of the words ‘natural environment ‘ in both the definition of escapade leisure and the definition of escapade touristry shows the importance of this component within the escapade leisure finish and experience.
Buckley ( 2006 ) states that the geographic scene can be a defining characteristic for most adventure touristry merchandises, as the natural universe provides us with the resources to set about adventuresome activities. The geographic scene of an country can consist of polar ice caps, mountains, oceans and besides comeuppances which offer readymade challenges for escapade tourers ( Swarbrooke et al. 2007 ) . Activities can be created and adapted to the natural environment or can trust on the geographic characteristics to independently supply the activity.
The environment has besides been recognised as the motive behind escapade, in that there is a “ human desire or thrust to see what is concealed and unknown ” ( Quinn, 1990 ) .
“ We are attracted by a deep wood or lake because it gives the feeling that there is some truth to detect, some secret to kidnap from the bosom of the object. It is the ageless seduction of the hidden ”
( Dufrene, 1973:398 as cited in Weber, 2001 )
With the position by many faculty members that the natural environment or geographic scene is cardinal to the escapade leisure experience and finish, Hall and Weiler ( 1992 ) argue that the environmental scene plays merely a low-level function as its intent is to supply a background to the scene, while the activity itself is what attracts the person.
2.5 Accessibility and substructure
2.8 Regulations and Policy
2.9 Risk Management
2.10 Butler ‘s ( 1980 ) Destination Lifecycle
Butler ‘s finish lifecycle ( Figure 2 ) , a conjectural development theoretical account, is recognised by a figure of faculty members ( Page, 2003, Haywood, 1986, Agarwal, 1994, Cooper et Al. 1998 and Evans et Al. 2003 ) . The theoretical account can be used to exemplify the development processes of finishs due to the rise and autumn in popularity ( Beech & A ; Chadwick, 2006 & A ; Cooper, 1993 ) .
Figure 2 – Butler ‘s ( 1980 ) Destination Lifecycle Model
Beginning: Butler ( 1980 )
Butler ( 1980 ) suggests that finishs evolve through a six to seven phase procedure of geographic expedition, engagement, development, consolidation, stagnancy, diminution and possible recovery. The geographic expedition phase is evident when few people visit the resort and their presence has small impact. During the engagement phase the figure of visitant reachings additions and the benefits of touristry are noticeable, taking to an increased attempt in marketing the finish. Tourism benefits are reaped during the development phase and a noticeable addition in the figure of tourer installations is seen. Sharpley ( 1994 ) states that during the consolidation phase the resident population are immensely outnumbered by tourers who are remaining in an identifiable tourer zone during the extremum season.
A typical form in the development of a touristry finish is outline by Laws ( 1995 ) . He states that the finish experiences a gradual addition in reachings until a crisis degree is reached. After this has occurred the finishs character is altered, with the comfortss and substructure refocusing on the demands of the tourers, instead than the occupants.
Criticisms of the finish lifecycle have been made, saying that it is best used as a descriptive tool, instead than as a normative tool ( Cooper, 1993 ) . However, those in support of the theoretical account argue that it can lend to the apprehension of the present place of a finish, leting a footing on which to develop future managerial schemes ( Beech & A ; Chadwick, 2006 ) .
The undermentioned chapter will supply a justification for the research methods used within this thesis based on the nature of the inquiry which is to be answered. The usage of secondary research will be analysed, concentrating on the strategic instance survey method which forms the footing of the research undertaking. Primary research is besides considered, with the grounds for its usage explained within this chapter.
Advantages of Secondary Research
Restrictions of Secondary Research
Unsuitable Methods of Data Collection
Justifying the instance choice
A high-quality instance survey demands to be defended on the footing that it is suited. The instance survey can be justified on the evidences that it is a typical case or a trial site for theory. Denscombe ( 2003 ) states that a typical instance ‘is similar in important respects to others that may hold been chosen ‘ . The findings from the survey undertaken can be applied to other similar instances. Choosing a instance as a trial site for theory reflects the relevancy of the instance based on old theory ( Yin, 1994 ) .